Decorative map production method
FIELD: production of primarily leather-made decorative articles in the form of physical, political, astronomic, and other maps.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes wetting natural-leather blank that functions as map base and its drying in stretched condition. Then underside of paper sheet whose surface is pre-tinted by compacted loose material is applied to this blank. Pattern of expected map incorporating data media is made on paper sheet face, outlines of data media parts are step-by-step transferred to base, and appropriate lines are burned out and/or stamped in step-by-step manner. First elements applied to map base are basic ones used as references for entire pattern of map; they are burned out and/or stamped on base. After that smaller items are applied to base whereupon they are burned out and/or stamped. After all items of map pattern are burned out and/or stamped, separate portions of pattern are dyed, major ones being dyed first and minor ones, after them. Then dried dye is wiped, and external surface of map is covered with at least one layer of fixing material.
EFFECT: enhanced life of map pattern, improved decorative effect of proposed map simulating antique maps.
8 cl, 2 dwg
The invention relates to a method of manufacturing a decorative leather products, mainly natural, in the form of maps: physical, political, astronomical, and other.
Widely known various types of maps drawn on paper. To improve the performance characteristics of the outer and often both surfaces laminated card, but still these products are not very durable (Popular geographical dictionary, a series of "Encyclopedic dictionary", Izdat. home "reepol classic, M., 2002, str-297), also known run of cards, such as geographical, leather (encyclopedia for children, volume 3, "Geography", M, "AVANTA+", 1994, p.15).
The maps of the skin can improve the durability of the obtained maps compared with maps drawn on paper.
The technical result of the invention consists in providing greater durability of the printed image while gaining special artistic effect, which consists in imitating the old map.
This technical result is achieved in the proposal that the method of making maps is that the preparation of leather, which serves as the basis for maps, moisturize and dried in the stretched condition. Then not it imposes a back side of a sheet of paper, the surface of which is pre-C is toosevalt compacted granular material, and on the front side of a sheet of paper perform drawing future map, consisting of media, the contours of which parts gradually transferred to the base and gradually burn out and/or TISNET her respective lines. First, on the basis of the map put the basic elements on which is focused the whole picture card, and burns and/or TISNET them on the basis of, after which it put smaller items with their subsequent burning and/or embossing. After burning and/or embossing the whole picture card exercise phased coverage of the relevant areas of the picture with paint, first painting the basic details, and then secondary. After that make wiping the dried paint and is applied to the outer surface of the cards, at least one layer of retaining material.
In the process of drying the wetted preform can be placed under the press.
As the bulk material for the back side of a sheet of paper using charcoal, sanguine or graphite.
After each transfer the outline of the figure on the basis of its draw on it in pencil.
To paint plots obtained on the basis of the drawing using paint, acrylic-based mineral natural supplements.
As a fixing material used wax, which after application to the substrate is polished. Also, the wax makes the color saturation and depth, making the image more distinct.
At the last stage, according to one embodiment of received map paste on a substrate made, for example, from plywood to improve its shape, and edging.
The invention is illustrated by drawings, where figure 1, figure 2 shows art cards with different mounting options on the frame.
Edge art card 1, size 86×46 cm, shown in figure 1, directly attached in a rectangular frame (baguette) 2. The map contains a base 3 made of cut along the perimeter of the piece appropriately processed (cut) genuine leather (saddle-cloth). On the front side caused colorful graphic image corresponding to theme of the map, in this case simulating ancient geographical map. The image includes a picture of sushi (mainland) 4, sailing ships 5, the information symbols in the form of check boxes 6, lines 7, including the meridians, labels, 8, etc. based on the method of printing and burning.
Figure 2 shows the artistic map 9, size 105×84 cm, the perimeter of the rough edges of which are formed openings 10, through which skipped the fastening cord 11 is connected with a frame (baguette) 2. On the basis of 3 made colorful image of a sailing ship is her frigates 5, wind roses 12, 6 flags and emblems 13, and line, including the meridians 7 and labels 8.
The above graphic images and symbols can be performed comprehensive methods of burning, stamping and painting with acrylic paints or preference in registration will be given to any of their combinations.
Both are depicted in figure 1 and 2 cards have two fixed layer of wax.
In more detail, the method of manufacture described design art cards below.
Leather, selected for burning, weeping to the point where it can be stretched. Then a piece of skin stretched on a dry smooth surface and the edges secured with nails. After the skin dries, the nails are removed. The material is ready for use.
Work on leather card begins with a translation of the desired pattern on the surface of a piece of finished leather. For this figure on paper, brought to the desired size, rear-shaded with charcoal, sanguine or a simple pencil. To the layer of coal was the most smooth, coal strokes are shaded with a piece of paper or cloth.
After that the picture side, which is applied to the coal, is applied to the skin and secured with masking tape "Scotch". This process is carried out in stages.
First translated those elements of isoka, which are most pronounced on the map or those which focused all further drawing card. This meridians, the silhouette of the globe, decorative surroundings of the card, etc. After the above items have been translated into the skin, a sheet of paper with the picture cards removed. So the next time the sheet is evenly formed on the surface of the skin, you need a pencil to outline the places where the map ends.
After the paper is removed, the skin remain thick coal line items that were transferred. To make the image on the map somewhat thinner and neater it a little RUB with a brush (stiff hairs) or a wide flat brush (bristles). Now coal dust a bit at odds, and lines to trace. As translated line very quickly wear out, they need to re-digitize a simple pencil (preferably soft that it did not scratch the surface of the leather). After all the lines on the skin re-circled, the card can be wiped again to carefully erase the coal. On the surface should be only a thin line made by the pencil.
Now made part of the map can be burned. The line must be burned out thicker than they look in the final version. All images on the card are burnt by lines of different thickness. So, from the expression of large size and main line cards (frame, large patterns, straight lines and so on) should be thicker than the lines of insignificant detail or delicate images of the continent, shapes, small objects). Most are thin lines that accentuate and complement the image (shadows, faces, details of the pattern, details of buildings, small river, parts of ships and so on). To achieve these goals weightline devices should be used under different slope and needles should be of different sizes. Used weightline apparatus with a rounded and blunt needles. For the thin lines the needle is sharpened as sharper.
Once burned, the first main line cards (usually they are very thick and deep and are black in color)on the surface of the skin again superimposed sheet of paper with the map image. Now translated to smaller details, such as continents, landscapes, wind rose, figure, big names, etc. and Then the sheet is again removed, the secondary circuits are outlined with a pencil, traces of coal removed. Then burn unit or less thick needle or less strong pressure. Line as well as basic are black in color, but look a little thinner and less deep.
After that, the skin is again superimposed sheet with the image, and translated the most insignificant details, such as: the name of the small towns, the fine details of the pattern, small ATP is buta ships, buildings and landscapes, shadows, etc. All names must be measured and made in a single specified style of font. The details are very fine needles, and details such as shadows, face, fine details of images of animals, etc. should take a few brownish tint from a gentle pressure on the skin.
After the image is made, it must be given the color scheme. For painting leather card uses water-based paints, such as acrylic. It can be applied to the skin as thick and liquid layer, adding more water. The more liquid paint is applied to the skin, the darker color is it and it will look afterwards smoother. First of all paint, as well as burn, main image: the oceans, the main pattern and the like, the Paint must be applied so that between the colored portion and a scorched line remained the site of the original skin (about 1 mm). The paint should flow on the scorched line. They all remain in its original form. Then painted the minor details, and then the smallest and most insignificant. When images are painted, some small parts are underlined thin weightily apparatus, but it can be done only if the paint layer is not very thick.
After that, some parts of the map (i.e., where ispolzovalas the paint) easily wiped with a piece of sandpaper, in order to level the paint layer and to achieve transparency. In some parts of the map paint erased to the point when it is in the original color of the skin. Also the paint is wiped around the letters and names. Between the layer of paint and scorched a line should not be seen clear boundaries.
When the image is completed, the map add Shine and more vivid color. For this purpose it waxed. This process consists of three stages. First map RUB the first layer of wax with a brush. Then, on the surface, removed very thick layers of wax and the surface is leveled. This is Mastikhin. The first layer of deposited wax must be very thin. Then the wax is added in those places maps, where it is not enough, again aligned with mastichina and rubbed the wax into the map until such time as the layer of wax is not very smooth. This is done lightly, because the skin that darkens somewhat.
Then the finished card is cut out or left with uneven edges, depending on the design (fixation on a baguette).
1. A method of manufacturing a card, namely, that the procurement of leather, which serves as the basis for maps, moisturize and dried in the stretched condition, then it imposes a back side of a sheet of paper, the surface of which is previously obscure compressed SIP the Chim material, and on the front side of a sheet of paper perform drawing future map, consisting of media, the contours of which parts gradually transferred to the base and gradually burn out and/or TISNET her respective lines first on the basis of the map put the basic elements on which is focused the whole picture card, and burns and/or TISNET them on the basis of, after which it put smaller items with their subsequent burning and/or embossed, and after burning and/or embossing the whole picture card exercise phased coverage of the relevant areas of the picture with paint, first painting basic details, and then secondary, then wipe the dried paint and is applied to the outer surface of the cards in at least one layer of retaining material.
2. The method according to claim 1, wherein in the process of drying the wetted preform is put under pressure.
3. The method according to claim 1, in which the granular material to the back side of a sheet of paper using charcoal, or sanguine, or graphite.
4. The method according to claim 1, in which after each transfer circuit of the figure on the basis of its draw on it in pencil.
5. The method according to claim 1, in which to paint plots obtained on the basis of the drawing using paint, acrylic-based mineral natural supplements.
6. JV the property according to claim 1, in which the fixing material is used wax.
7. The method according to claim 6, in which the wax after applying on the basis of Polish.
8. The method according to claim 1, in which the map attached to the substrate and over.
FIELD: traveling or camp equipment.
SUBSTANCE: plotting board comprises transparent lid and nontransparent rectangular housing with rigid vertical walls and bottom parallel to the lid. The lid is secured to the housing for permitting detachment. The top and bottom pointers made of rectangular plates with central longitudinal passage of triangle cross-section filled with black paint are movably mounted from below and from above of the lid. Each of the pointers is provided with ball bearings. The flexible threads are tightened under the transparent lid transverse to the plotting board. The V-shaped supports are mounted on the bottom of the plotting board. The glass or organic glass for nomograms is pressed to the supports by means of flat springs pivotally connected with the sides of the plotting board. The lamps for illuminating the nomograms are mounted under the glass. The bottom pointer has handles at its both ends. The rollers for reducing friction are mounted on the axles of the handles.
EFFECT: expanded functional capabilities.
FIELD: monitoring technology; investigating on-route and adjacent objects.
SUBSTANCE: on-route objects are shot on photo camera or video recorder once every three years. Defects and destructive changes are detected. Repair process charts or photomaps are compiled. Kind of repairs and repair intervals for objects are assigned. Post-repair photography is made. Repair work is checked for comprehensiveness and quality.
EFFECT: reduced cost and time, enhanced quality of repaired objects and their safety in operation.
FIELD: land-surveying, particularly photogrammetry or photographic surveying.
SUBSTANCE: method involves determining coordinates of boundary points of territory under investigation on the base of prior in-situ geodetic measurements; mathematically formulating boundary line in the form or value table including latitudes and longitudes of above boundary points or in the form of analytic relation between latitudes and longitudes of above points; calculating area of above territory in complementary coordinate system; determining coordinates of geometrical territory center as a single point lying on any line connecting two opposite boundary points and dividing territory into two equal parts; recalculating geometrical center coordinates determined in complementary coordinate system into coordinates of the main coordinate system; marking the determined point in territory by any known geodesic method and forming sign in above point.
EFFECT: increased accuracy.
8 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: ebb maps composing technologies.
SUBSTANCE: method includes determining ebb height with consideration of angular speed of harmonic component of tide. Real plan coordinates of area of water, directed to east and north, are determined respectively. Value of ebb height of harmonic component of tide in fixed time moment is determined through projection of point on phase circle, appropriate for current height of sea level, parameters of which are determined with consideration of position of inner points of area of water and its contour. Oscillations amplitude of harmonic component of wave is determined on basis of values of ebb height in points with real plan coordinates for serial set of discontinuous time values, on basis of values of which maximum ebb level time is determined.
EFFECT: lower laboriousness, higher trustworthiness.
FIELD: producing decorative effects.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises setting amber pieces in a box placed on the horizontal surface, filling the box with an adhesive composition, cutting the outer layer of the panel after complete solidification, turning the panel over, repeating the operations, and finishing the panel to provide a specified thickness.
EFFECT: improved decorative effect.
4 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: construction industry; domestic appliances; electrical engineering; motor-car industry; methods of production and application of the laminated composite materials with the different layers of a resin.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method of production and application of the laminated composite material with the different layers of a resin and may used in construction industry, domestic appliances, electrical engineering, motor-car industry. The laminated composite material contains the carrier made out of the thermoplastic polymeric compound, the located on it intermediate layer also made out of the thermoplastic polymeric compound and the applied on the intermediate layer of the thermoreactive layer. Between the carrier and the intermediate layer there is a layer of the resin (a) with the rate of consolidation of at least 20 %. Between the intermediate layer and the thermoreactive layer there is the layer of the resin (c) with the rate of consolidation of at least 60 %. The materials of the layers are laid as the flat sheets and at the temperature of 150-300° C link to the carrier. The material possess the high degree of stiffness and impact toughness, the high quality of the surface, the fast and easy solidification.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the high degree of stiffness and impact toughness, the high quality of the surface, the fast and easy solidification.
13 cl, 1 ex
FIELD: wood industry.
SUBSTANCE: the method consists in the fact that the heat treatment of the surface layer is performed with saturation of the surface layer by components by means of dry superheated steam.
EFFECT: improved quality.
13 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: pre-impregnate is manufactured by impregnation of crude paper with thermosetting formaldehyde-free resin until content thereof 10 to 70%. Residual moisture content in pre-impregnate is 2-3%. Resin contains: at least one radical-polymerization polymer with less than 5% of α,β-ethylenically unsaturated mono- or dicarboxylic acid; at least one radical-polymerization polymer containing more than 5% of α,β-ethylenically unsaturated mono- or dicarboxylic acid; and at least one alkanolamine with at least two hydroxyl groups; or resin contains at least one radical-polymerization polymer with 5-100%, particularly 5-50%, or more particularly 10-40% of α,β-ethylenically unsaturated mono- or dicarboxylic acid and at least one above alkanolamine.
EFFECT: improved quality of surface, printing properties, delamination resistance, and varnishing capacity.
16 cl, 3 dwg, 2 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: construction industry; methods of manufacture of the architectural-decorative products.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method of manufacture of the architectural-decorative products. To increase the quality the products the method provides for laying of the color mixtures in the mold for casting of the product is conducted with usage of a vibration process on the vibration exciter.
EFFECT: the invention allows to improve quality of manufacture of the architectural-decorative products.
6 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: ceramic decorations.
SUBSTANCE: method of making ceramic decorative art wall panel comes to the following: tiles are placed on backing secured vertically with tilting of 10-15° successively, starting from lower horizontal row, tiles of which are placed on corresponding limiting step of backing.
EFFECT: improved quality of wall panels.
5 cl, 1 tbl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: according to proposed method, wallpapers cut into rectangular strips are used as carrier.
EFFECT: improved quality of pictures.
4 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: decorative-lining sheet material for producing of material simulating natural or artificial stone or various kinds of wood.
SUBSTANCE: method involves providing thermal vacuum forming of thermoplastic sheets having thickness of 0.5-8 mm and comprising on its face side decorative-protective polymeric film.
EFFECT: wider range of decorative and lining materials and increased efficiency in simulating structure of natural or artificial materials.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: construction industry; methods of production of decorative tiles with a grainy coating.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of construction industry, in particular, to the method of production of decorative tiles with a grainy coating to increase their water-resistance. The method provides, that the base before application of an adhesive underlayer is subjected to a water-repelling process and in the capacity of an adhesive underlayer use a 8-I2 % water solution of sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose.
EFFECT: the invention ensures production of decorative tiles with a grainy coating.
FIELD: production of volumetric images.
SUBSTANCE: method involves determining distribution of relative luminance value over surface of object to be depicted; applying polyethylene coating onto substrate.
EFFECT: improved quality and increased volumetric effect.
4 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: shaping patterns inside transparent or semitransparent materials.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method and device make use of optical system that provides for such distribution of laser beam energy throughout cross-sectional area of material that laser breakdown trace is obtained, its shape being other than that of single ellipsoid.
EFFECT: enhanced quality of pattern.