Diesel cetane reference fuel

FIELD: petroleum processing.

SUBSTANCE: composition of reference fuel for determining cetane number of diesel fuel comprises 0 to 100% by volume of high-cetane and/or 0 to 100% by volume of low-cetane component, the former containing α-olefin fraction C14 with cetane number not below 75 and the latter propylene tetramers with cetane number not higher than 25.

EFFECT: increased accessibility and reduced toxicity as compared to known reference fuel, and also stabilized composition on storage, which ensures constancy of cetane number values and excludes necessity of additional checking.

3 tbl

 

The invention relates to the refining, in particular to the reference fuels to determine the cetane number of diesel fuel.

Cetane number is a conventional indicator of samovosplameneniem diesel fuel in the engine. It is defined by comparing the Flammability of the test diesel fuel Flammability reference fuel, a mixture of nizkozatratnogo and vysokochetkogo components.

It is known that as the reference fuels used individual hydrocarbons - hexamethylditin (Cetan) and alpha-methylnaphthalene. Their cetane number, respectively, are equal to 100 and 0. Mixing them in different proportions, to get the reference fuel, the cetane number of which are equal to the percentage of cetane in a mixture. Catan and alpha-methylnaphthalene are called primary reference fuels.

(GOST 3122-67 "diesel Fuel. The method of determining the cetane number").

The lack of primary reference fuels is that they are scarce and expensive, which limits their application.

Also known secondary reference fuel which represents the refined products.

GOST 3122-67 provides for the use as vysokochetkogo secondary reference fuel - gas direct distillation of paraffin sweet crude oil with a cetane Chi the scrap is not below 55 and as a secondary nizkozatratnogo reference fuel green oil (a mixture of high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) with a cetane number higher than 20.

A disadvantage of the known secondary reference fuels is the variability of their cetane numbers associated with changes in the composition of these fuels during storage, which complicates their use. The difficulty lies in the need for numerous additional checks cetane numbers of secondary reference fuels and the drafting of the so-called transition scale from the primary reference fuels to secondary by conducting costly additional experiments. Also used as a secondary reference fuel green oil is scarce and toxic, as is a mixture of high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

The task of the invention is to develop a secondary reference fuels to determine the cetane number of diesel fuel available and suitable as vysokochetkogo and nizkozatratnogo components, characterized by a stable composition during storage, which ensures the constancy of the values of cetane numbers and eliminates the need for additional checks.

The problem is solved proposed composition of the reference fuel to determine the cetane number of dislin the fuel containing vysokotsenovyh and/or nizkoreninova component. The reference fuel as vysokochetkogo component contains a fraction of alpha-olefins With14with a cetane number of at least 75 and as nizkozatratnogo component - tetramer propylene with a cetane number higher than 25 in the following ratio of components,%:

vysokotsenovyh component0-100
nizkoreninova component0-100

The proposed solution involves the application of narrow fractions of petrochemicals, which are characterized by low toxicity and stable composition that provides a constant value cetane numbers. The consumer transition table of mixing should not, this table is made by the manufacturer and delivered simultaneously with the reference fuel.

As vysokochetkogo component use the fraction of alpha-olefins of C14produced by THE 2411-058-05766801-96, with a cetane number of at least 75, and as nizkozatratnogo component - tetramer propylene produced by THE 2411-044-05766801-95 with a cetane number higher than 25. The characteristics of these components are presented in table 1.

Table 1
Description the proposed secondary reference fuels
IndicatorsVysokotsenovyh component - fraction alpha-olefins With14Nizkoreninova component - tetramer propylene
AppearanceTransparent colorless or light yellow liquid
Fractional composition, °:
The onset temperature distillationNot lower than 230Below 180
Final boiling point of 97.5%Not below 250Not higher than 220
The residue and loss, %-Not more than 2.5
Mass fraction, %:
Mechanical impuritiesUTS.UTS.
WaterNot more than 0.01UTS.
Cetane numberAt least 75Not exceeding 25
Density at 20°C, kg/m3770-775-
Flashpoint °At least 75At least 50
The auto-ignition temperature, °245385
Concentration the limits of Flammability of vapors mixed with air, % vol.0,6-5,51,4-7,5
MPC in the area of the working area, mg/m3300300

Determination of the cetane number of the proposed secondary reference fuels is carried out in accordance with methods described in GOST 3122-67.

For this motor units produce the calibration of the proposed secondary reference fuels for primary reference fuels and make the transition scale from primary reference fuels to secondary, which prepare mixtures of primary reference fuels containing 20, 30, 40, 50% of cetane in alpha-methylnaphthalene (i.e. having a cetane number 20, 30, 40, 50). Made up of a mixture taken for the test fuel and pair them with two mixtures of the proposed secondary reference fuels, one of which is large, and the second lower Flammability compared with the test of the primary reference fuel. Secondary reference mixture should differ by no more than four cetane units.

After comparing mixtures of primary reference fuels with blends of secondary reference fuels are a mixture of secondary reference fuels, equivalent to a subject of primary reference fuels.

When removing the end points of the scale for the test fuel take secondary reference fuel and high - and nizkoreninovoi and take the go "plug in" two mixtures of primary reference fuels. End nizkotsenovoj point scale is a mixture consisting of 20% of cetane and 80% of alphabetisation.

Based on these points build transitional scale of primary reference fuels to secondary, which can be presented graphically (straight line)and in the form of a table of mixing.

An example table of mixing are presented in table 2. From table 2 it follows that the secondary reference fuel is a mixture of vysokochetkogo (fraction of alpha-olefins) and nizkozatratnogo (tetramer propylene) components in different ratios, and mixing these components is observed additivity, that is, the cetane number of the mixture is directly proportional to increases with increase in the content vysokochetkogo component in the mixture.

Determination of the cetane number of diesel fuel using the proposed secondary reference fuels is carried out similarly to the above.

As an example, the determined cetane number three samples of commercial diesel fuels stamps "L", "a" and "C" as using primary reference fuels, and using the proposed secondary reference fuels. The determination was carried out on two motor units according to GOST 3122-67. Table 3 presents the results of estimating the cetane number.

As can be seen from table 3, the application of the proposed secondary reference tauplitzalm to determine the cetane number of commercial diesel fuels and practically does not distort the result of the evaluation.

Table 2
An example table of mixing
The content in the reference fuel%Cetane number
Vysokochetkogo component (fraction of alpha-olefins With14)Nizkozatratnogo component (tetramers of propylene)
010020
109026
208032
307038
406044
505050
604056
703062
802068
901074
100080

Table 3
The results of the evaluation cetane number of diesel fuels in the primary reference and the proposed secondary reference mixtures
The name diesel fuelMethod to determine the value cetane number according to GOST 3122-67
Install No. 1Install the No. 2
primary reference fuelsecondary reference fuelprimary reference fuelsecondary reference fuel
Mark "L"53,752,553,053,0
Mark "A"41,742,041,841,5
Mark "C"46,045,846,446,5

The reference fuel to determine the cetane number of diesel fuel containing vysokotsenovyh component and/or nizkoreninova component, characterized in that it contains as vysokochetkogo component fraction of alpha-olefins With14with a cetane number of at least 75 and as nizkozatratnogo component tetramer propylene with a cetane number higher than 25 in the following ratio of components,%:

Vysokotsenovyh component0-100
Nizkoreninova component0-100



 

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