Heat power generator operation method

FIELD: heat power generator operation methods comprising direct action of combustion products upon heated medium, possibly generation of heat power and supplying it through heat transfer agent to user.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises plasma-electrolytic action upon liquid for producing steam, hydrogen and oxygen. Said plasma-electrolytic action upon liquid (water) is realized in capillary-porous hydrophilic material. Then hydrogen is oxidized by means of oxygen in atmosphere of generated steam to which are added liquid and (or) gas phases whose quantity provides regulation of mixture temperature. Water-adsorbing matter is used in said capillary-porous hydrophilic material. Added phase is ejected by means of generated hydrogen, oxygen and steam; water is used as added liquid phase and inert gas is used as added gas phase.

EFFECT: lowered power consumption, weakened aggressive action of heat transfer agent upon materials of heat power generator.

5 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex

 

The invention relates to a method of operation of generators with direct exposure to the combustion products to heat the environment. The present invention can be used for heat generation and supply it with the produced fluid to the consumer.

The known method of operation of thermogenerator described in the patent of Russian Federation №2157862 C2, IPC 7 25 1/02, 9/00. This method includes plazmoelektroliticheskogo effect on the aqueous solution of alkali or acid to obtain from it the gas mixture.

The disadvantage is the use of solutions of alkali or acid, which leads to their presence in the resulting gas mixture and aggressive to the materials of thermogenerator system and heat consumption. In addition, when implementing this method produces explosive vapour-gas mixture containing hydrogen and oxygen.

The last disadvantage is eliminated in the method of operation of thermogenerator described in the patent of Russian Federation №2157427 C1 IPC 7 25 In 1/06, 02 F 1/46. This method includes plazmoelektroliticheskogo effect on the aqueous solution of alkali or acid with production of oxygen and water vapour with hydrogen. However, the elimination of one of the defect (explosive oxygen-hydrogen atmosphere) does not preclude the use of alkali or acid, aggressive acting on materialetervinning and system of heat consumption. In addition, when used as a coolant mixture of water vapor and hydrogen heat-consuming system, you must perform special materials resistant to hydrogen absorption. These shortcomings reduce the scope of this method. In addition, spent a lot of energy to perform plazmoelektroliticheskogo impact on the liquid and, consequently, to receive fluid with predetermined temperature characteristics.

The aim of the invention is to reduce the amount of energy consumed in the production of fluid, reducing the corrosive action of the fluid on the material of thermogenerator and heat consuming systems, as well as the expansion of the scope.

This goal is achieved by the fact that in the known method of operation of thermogenerator, which includes plazmoelektroliticheskogo effect on the fluid by getting water vapor, hydrogen and oxygen, plazmoelektroliticheskogo effect on the liquid water produced in capillary-porous hydrophilic material, then the hydrogen is oxidized by oxygen in the environment obtained water vapor with the addition of liquid and / or gas phases, which amount(s) regulate the temperature of the mixture.

In capillary-porous hydrophilic material applied substance adsorbing water.

Add AAMWU phase ejection received by hydrogen, oxygen and water vapor.

As you add the liquid phase of water used.

As an added gas phase used inert gas.

Production plazmoelektroliticheskogo impact on water in capillary-porous hydrophilic material can reduce voltage for the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen due to the formation on the border of the solid surface of the liquid, the so-called electrical double layer. This reduces the amount of energy consumed, eliminates the use of alkalis, acids and salts, i.e. reduces the chemical aggressiveness of the fluid on the material of thermogenerator and heat consuming systems.

The oxidation of hydrogen with oxygen in the environment of water vapor with the addition of liquid or gas allows to carry out the reaction without an explosion, and thermal energy released during a chemical reaction, in addition to raise the temperature of the coolant and thereby reduce the amount of consumed electric energy to heat.

Application in capillary-porous hydrophilic material substances, adsorbing the water intensifies the formation of the electrical double layer and thereby reduces the voltage of the decomposition of water and the quantity of consumed electric energy.

The ejection of the added liquid or gas phase produces the feasible hydrogen, oxygen and water vapor intensifies the process of mixing, thereby reducing the possibility of explosion in the oxidation of hydrogen by oxygen and, consequently, extends the application of this method.

The use of water as you add the liquid phase simplifies the process of obtaining heat and, consequently, extends the application of the proposed method.

The use of an inert gas as the gas phase reduces the chemical aggressiveness of the environment.

The applicant and not known to the authors from the existing prior art methods of reducing the energy consumed in the production of fluid, reducing the corrosive action of the fluid on the material of thermogenerator and heat consuming systems, and expand the scope of in this way.

The method is carried out in thermogenerator, represented in the drawing.

Thermogenerator consists of a casing 1 within which is coaxially arranged two electrodes 2 and 3, terminals 4 and 5. Between the electrodes 2 and 3 is located in the capillary-porous hydrophilic material 6. Between the housing 1 and the electrode 2 is the dielectric 7. In case 1 there are pipes 8 and 9 respectively for water supply and additional liquid or gas phase, the jet mixer 10, the nozzle 11, a nozzle 12 for exit of fluid.

Work thermogen the operator is made by the proposed method as follows.

In thermogenerator to terminals 4 and 5 serves voltage between electrodes 2 and 3 produce plazmoelektroliticheskogo impact on the water with the release of water vapor and hydrogen on the Central electrode 3, and oxygen on peripheral electrode 2. Plazmoelektroliticheskogo effect on liquid - water - is in capillary-porous hydrophilic material 6, in which the applied substance adsorbing water, such as molecular sieves. The obtained hydrogen, dripping from the Central electrode zone is oxidized by oxygen flowing from the peripheral electrode zone. The oxidation is performed in the environment of the obtained water vapor, which expires together with hydrogen and added through pipe 9 liquid or gas phase. As you add the liquid phase used water. Water ejectives obtained by hydrogen, oxygen and water vapor, flowing from the nozzle 11. In ejection mixer 10 is intensive mixing and oxidation of hydrogen by oxygen in the water vapor environment. As a result of the oxidation reaction turns the heated fluid, consisting of water vapor or hot water. The temperature and phase state is governed by the amount of water supplied. Received high-temperature coolant is supplied through the pipe 12 to the heat consumer.

p> As the fluid used as the inert gas, for example nitrogen, which is mixed with water vapor, obtained after the oxidation reaction, is cooled in heat consumption, where not allowed to use liquid.

Compared to its closest analogues in the heat of the proposed method the amount of energy consumed in the production of the coolant is decreased by 1.24 times, completely eliminated the aggressive action of the fluid on the material of thermogenerator and heat consuming systems, as well as expanding the scope by eliminating the use of alkalis and acids.

EXAMPLE.

The consumption of water supplied by the pipe 80.3 l/h
The voltage on electrodes2-200
The number of required electric power1 kWh
The coolantwater, water vapor, steam and water mixture
The maximum temperature1800°
Minimum coolant temperature50°
The minimum flow rate of coolant0.5 l/h
The maximum flow rate of coolant28 l/h

1. Way to work those whom mogenerator, including plazmoelektroliticheskogo effect on the fluid by getting water vapor, hydrogen and oxygen, characterized in that plazmoelektroliticheskogo effect on the liquid water produced in capillary-porous hydrophilic material, then the hydrogen is oxidized by oxygen in the environment obtained water vapor with the addition of liquid and / or gas phases, which amount(s) regulate the temperature of the mixture.

2. The way of thermogenerator according to claim 1, characterized in that the capillary-porous hydrophilic material applied substance adsorbing water.

3. The way of thermogenerator according to claim 1, characterized in that the added phase ejection received by hydrogen, oxygen and water vapor.

4. The way of thermogenerator according to claim 1, characterized in that as you add the liquid phase of water used.

5. The way of thermogenerator according to claim 1, characterized in that as you add gas phase used inert gas.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: chemical industry; devices for production of oxygen and hydrogen.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the physicochemical methods of production of oxygen and hydrogen from water. The device has the cylindrical housing made out of the current-conducting material and used in the capacity of the anode. The upper cover has the axial hole, the conical deepening from the bottom side and the annular groove for arrangement of the upper part of the cylindrical housing. The lower cover has the axial hole and the concentric annular grooves for arrangement of the cylindrical housing and the cylindrical electrodes. The rod-type cathode is inserted into the arrangement by means of the threading through the axial hole of the lower cover. The housing, the upper cover and the lower cover are bolted. The anode and the cathode are connected to the power supply, which generates pulses. The technical result of the invention is reduction of the power input used for production of oxygen and hydrogen from the water.

EFFECT: the invention ensures reduction of the power input used for production of oxygen and hydrogen from the water.

1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: electrolytic cells with changeable electrode structures.

SUBSTANCE: cell includes at least one back wall provided with supporting member in the form of protrusions restricted at side opposite to back wall by extremity surfaces. Said extremity surfaces of protrusions are arranged in the same plane. At least one electrode touching end surfaces of protrusions forms contact surface. Said electrode is secured to extremity surfaces of protrusions at least only in one peripheral portion of extremity surfaces. Remaining part of extremity surfaces of protrusions is in contact with said electrode but it is not bound with it.

EFFECT: simplified procedure of changing electrodes.

28 cl, 6 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: electrolytic cells with changeable electrode structures.

SUBSTANCE: cell includes at least one back wall provided with supporting member in the form of protrusions restricted at side opposite to back wall by extremity surfaces. Said extremity surfaces of protrusions are arranged in the same plane. At least one electrode touching end surfaces of protrusions forms contact surface. Said electrode is secured to extremity surfaces of protrusions at least only in one peripheral portion of extremity surfaces. Remaining part of extremity surfaces of protrusions is in contact with said electrode but it is not bound with it.

EFFECT: simplified procedure of changing electrodes.

28 cl, 6 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed complex sea power station is designed for producing energy using renewable sources. Station consists of deep water intake unit, energy complex, hydrogen sulfide removal bath, electrolysis bath, photolyzer, hydrogen receiver and fuel chemical element station. Moreover, it includes thermocoupled battery placed in bath for hydrogen sulfide removal to obtain primary electric energy owing to difference in temperatures of deep water and water heated in bath; power unit including diesel generators operating on hydrogen formed in photolyzer and electrolysis bath, galvanoelectric station using sea water as electrolyte and gas holder for accumulating received hydrogen and keeping it in reservoir arranged in underwater part; output electric energy and monitoring unit and unit to control operation of all systems of complex sea power station, signaling and communication for self-contained operation, and unit to stabilized complex sea power station in right sea.

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2 dwg

FIELD: electrometallurgy; production of electrodes with the strongly deposited outer catalytic layer.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of electrometallurgy, in particular, to the electrode indicated for the gas liberation in the electrolytic or electrometallurgical processes. The electrode contains metallic substrate with the profile of the surfaces being the result of combination of the microroughness profile and the macroroughness profile and the electrocatalytic coating deposited on the indicated metallic substrate. The technical result: the invention ensures the strong adhesion of the outer catalytic layer, prevention of its breakaway and passivation.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the strong adhesion of the outer catalytic layer, prevention of its breakaway and passivation.

23 cl, 6 ex

FIELD: inorganic compounds technology.

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2 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl, 7 ex

FIELD: inorganic compounds technology.

SUBSTANCE: process comprises electrolysis of ammonium fluoride melts in electrolyzer with carbon or nickel anodes and steel cathodes provided with anode bell, said process being characterized by that electrolyzer contains louver cathodes and anode bell is arranged above electrodes. In this case, electrolyte mirror area under the bell constitutes not more than 0.2 total area electrolyte mirror, bell dipping depth in electrolyte is at least 0.25 electrode height, cathode-bell distance is at least 0.025 electrode height, anode-bell distance is at least 0.025 electrode height in case of carbon anode and 0.05 electrode height in case of nickel anode, predetermined electrolyte level in electrolyzer is maintained by feeding hydrofluoric acid gas while ammonia gas is supplied continuously, ammonia supply velocity being varied depending on content NF3 in anode gas and weight portion of ammonia in electrolyte is maintained equal to 24-28 wt %.

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2 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl, 7 ex

FIELD: industrial organic synthesis.

SUBSTANCE: in order to prepare titanium tetrachloride solution, titanium trichloride solution is used as starting intermediate, the latter solution being, in turn, prepared from titanium waste in the form of metal and/or etching solution originated from ruthenium-titanium oxide anodes. Titanium trichloride solution is exposed to anode action in diaphragm electrolyzer or it is treated with wasteless oxidants, e.g. with hydrogen peroxide solution, to form desired titanium tetrachloride.

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2 ex

FIELD: semiconductor engineering and silicon compounds technology.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of electrolytic-grade silicon appropriate for use in sun power engineering and in semiconductor engineering. Group of inventions comprises a method for preparing high-purity silicon powder and elementary fluorine as well as a method for preparing silicon tetrafluoride used to saturate melt of salts to perform electrolysis. Silicon is isolated during electrolytic decomposition of melt of eutectic of alkali metal fluoride salt systems saturated with silicon tetrafluoride. Silicon is then discharged from electrolyzer in the form of silicon powder slurry and eutectic melt. Thereafter, silicon is separated from molten eutectic by dissolving this melt in anhydrous hydrogen fluoride. Resulting composition HF+(LiF-KF-NaF) in the form of liquid phase and silicon particles is filtered. Liquid phase is subjected to distillation of hydrogen fluoride, which is reused in dissolution stage. Silicon tetrafluoride is prepared via two-stage fluorination of silicon dioxide with elementary fluorine, which process is conducted in two flame reactors wherein excess elementary fluorine is conveyed from first stage to second stage.

EFFECT: enabled continuous process mode, increased yield and improved quality of product.

21 cl, 4 dwg, 2 tbl

FIELD: semiconductor engineering and silicon compounds technology.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of electrolytic-grade silicon appropriate for use in sun power engineering and in semiconductor engineering. Group of inventions comprises a method for preparing high-purity silicon powder and elementary fluorine as well as a method for preparing silicon tetrafluoride used to saturate melt of salts to perform electrolysis. Silicon is isolated during electrolytic decomposition of melt of eutectic of alkali metal fluoride salt systems saturated with silicon tetrafluoride. Silicon is then discharged from electrolyzer in the form of silicon powder slurry and eutectic melt. Thereafter, silicon is separated from molten eutectic by dissolving this melt in anhydrous hydrogen fluoride. Resulting composition HF+(LiF-KF-NaF) in the form of liquid phase and silicon particles is filtered. Liquid phase is subjected to distillation of hydrogen fluoride, which is reused in dissolution stage. Silicon tetrafluoride is prepared via two-stage fluorination of silicon dioxide with elementary fluorine, which process is conducted in two flame reactors wherein excess elementary fluorine is conveyed from first stage to second stage.

EFFECT: enabled continuous process mode, increased yield and improved quality of product.

21 cl, 4 dwg, 2 tbl

FIELD: chemical industry; reactor.

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EFFECT: the invention ensures the improved stability of the reactor operation.

5 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: chemical industry; methods and devices for production of molecular hydrogen.

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EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased amount and purity of the produced hydrogen.

24 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: catalyst preparation methods.

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EFFECT: prevented deactivation of copper-containing catalyst operated with process gas containing chlorine compounds.

11 cl, 3 tbl, 7 ex

FIELD: synthetic fuels.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for production of synthesis mainly containing H2 and CO for producing hydrogen, alcohols, ammonia, dimethyl ether, and ethylene, for Fischer-Tropsch processes, and also for use in chemical industry for processing hydrocarbon gases and in chemothermal systems for accumulation and transport of energy as well as in methane-methanol thermochemical water decomposition cycles. In the multistage process of invention, at least two consecutive stages are accomplished, in each of which stream containing lower alkanes having about 1 to 34 carbon atoms are passed through heating heat-exchanger and the through adiabatic reactor filled with catalyst packing. Before first stage and between the stages, stream is mixed with water steam and/or carbon dioxide and cooled in the end of each stage. Steam leaving last stage is treated to remove water steam.

EFFECT: increased conversion of lower alkanes and reduced H2/CO ratio in produced synthesis gas.

12 cl

FIELD: power industry; methods of devices for generation of electric power using carbon-containing fuels.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to methods of devices for generation of electric power using carbon-containing fuels, more particular, to production of hydrogen and connected with it generation of electric power by a coal gasification. Hydrogen is produced out of solid or liquid carbon-containing fuels. The fuel is gasified by hydrogen producing an enriched with methane gaseous product, which then is introduced in the reaction with water and calcium oxide gaining hydrogen and calcium carbonate. The calcium carbonate may be continuously removed from the zone of the reaction producing hydrogen and the carbonization and to anneal it for regeneration of the calcium oxide, which may be repeatedly introduced into the zone of the reaction producing hydrogen and the carbonization. The method is realized in the device containing a reactor of gasification and a reactor of the carbonization for production of hydrogen. The given invention allows to use the produced hydrogen at the stage of the fuel gasification to ensure it with electric power.

EFFECT: the invention ensures production of hydrogen, which may be used at the stage of the fuel gasification for generation of electric power.

36 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: alternate fuels.

SUBSTANCE: in order to obtain hydrogen-containing gas, reaction mixture consisting of water steam and hydrocarbons is passed through first reaction zone to form products, which are then passed through second reaction zone containing mixture of steam CO conversion catalyst and CO2 absorbent. Reaction products formed in second reaction zone are passed through third reaction zone wherein reaction products are cooled to separate condensate from gas phase. The latter is passed through fourth reaction zone containing CO and CO2 methanization catalyst. Hydrogen-containing gas from fourth reaction zone is recovered for further use and first to fourth stages are continuously run until level of carbon-containing compounds exceeds allowable maximum. In order to regenerate absorbent, passage of reaction products from first reaction zone to second reaction zone is cut off and the same is fulfilled with reaction products from second reaction zone passed to theirs reaction zone. Thereafter, pressure in second reaction zone is leveled with regeneration agent pressure and regeneration agent is passed through second reaction zone in direction opposite to direction in which reaction products are passed in the second stage. Once regeneration of absorbent is ended passage of regeneration agent through the second reaction zone is cut off, pressure in the second reaction space is leveled with pressure of reaction products in the second reaction zone and all stages are repeated. Hydrogen thus obtained can be used in small-size autonomous fuel processor.

EFFECT: increased economical efficiency of process.

21 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl, 9 ex

FIELD: alternate fuels.

SUBSTANCE: in order to obtain hydrogen-containing gas, reaction mixture consisting of water steam and hydrocarbons is passed through first reaction zone to form products, which are then passed through second reaction zone containing mixture of steam CO conversion catalyst and CO2 absorbent. Reaction products formed in second reaction zone are passed through third reaction zone wherein reaction products are cooled to separate condensate from gas phase. The latter is passed through fourth reaction zone containing CO and CO2 methanization catalyst. Hydrogen-containing gas from fourth reaction zone is recovered for further use and first to fourth stages are continuously run until level of carbon-containing compounds exceeds allowable maximum. In order to regenerate absorbent, passage of reaction products from first reaction zone to second reaction zone is cut off and the same is fulfilled with reaction products from second reaction zone passed to theirs reaction zone. Thereafter, pressure in second reaction zone is leveled with regeneration agent pressure and regeneration agent is passed through second reaction zone in direction opposite to direction in which reaction products are passed in the second stage. Once regeneration of absorbent is ended passage of regeneration agent through the second reaction zone is cut off, pressure in the second reaction space is leveled with pressure of reaction products in the second reaction zone and all stages are repeated. Hydrogen thus obtained can be used in small-size autonomous fuel processor.

EFFECT: increased economical efficiency of process.

21 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl, 9 ex

FIELD: chemical industry; methods of production of hydrogen.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of chemical industry, in particular, to production of hydrogen. The method of start up of the evaporation installation for formation of the hydrocarbon-air mixture decomposed in the reformer for production of hydrogen contains the combustion/mixing chamber, in which through a device with inlet openings the air is fed; the porous evaporating medium and the first heating device added to it; the tool of a surface ignition for inflaming of hydrocarbon-air mixture present in the combustion/mixing chamber. The method includes the following stages: a) heating and evaporation of the liquid hydrocarbon or the hydrocarbon-containing liquids; b) mixing of the vapor produced at the b) stage with the air; c)inflaming of the mixture produced at the b)stage for starting up of a combustion procedure of the mixture; d)keeping up of the combustion procedure up to the end of the given duration of time and-or until the given temperature will be reached in one or several given zones of the installation; e) the termination of the combustion process after the given duration of time and-or after reaching the given temperature. The invention ensures an increase of efficiency of the process due to the temperature drop in the zone of the catalytic reaction.

EFFECT: the invention ensures an increase of efficiency of the process due to the temperature drop in the zone of the catalytic reaction.

7 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: power engineering; methods of production of hydrogenous gas in the turbine-generator installations.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of power engineering, in particular, to the method of production of hydrogenous gas in a turbine-generator installation. The method of production of hydrogenous gas is realized in a turbine-generator installation containing: the I-st, the II-d and the III-d stages; a framework, on which there is an installed fuel tank for two-component mixture H2О +CnH2n+2 with a stirrer and a drive unit; a turbine burner system; an induction heater of the I-st stage; a pulse source of ignition for a start-up and a system of gas pipelines. At that the two-component mixtureH2О +CnH2n+2 is fed to the fuel tank, start the drive and exercise its stirring action and pumping under pressure in the I stage of the turbine-generator installation, where with the help of an induction heater conduct heating up to 500°C. Then the two-component mixture transformed into a gaseous state is feed in the turbine burner system and from the pulse source of ignition realize the I-st stage start-up. After that a part of the gas is fed into the II-d stage, keeping the heating up to 1000°C; and the other part of the gas is fed into the turbine burner system for provision of the gas heating at the I-st, the II-d and the III-d stages. At that after the II-d stage the gas for its final heating up to the temperature of 1300°C is fed into the III-d stage with production of a hydrogenous gas, which is fed into turbine burner system. The invention ensures a decrease of the power input of the process in a combination with utilization of a low-cost hydrocarbon mixture.

EFFECT: the invention ensures a decrease of the power input of the process in a combination with utilization of a low-cost hydrocarbon mixture.

3 dwg

FIELD: synthesis gas generation catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: invention provides catalyst for steam generation of synthesis gas containing 2.2-8.2% nickel oxide and 3.0-6.5% magnesium oxide deposited on heat-resistant porous metallic carrier having specific surface area 0.10-0.15 m2/g, summary pore volume 0.09-0.12 cm3/g, predominant pore radius 2-20 μm, and porosity 40-60%. Synthesis gas is obtained by steam-mediated conversion of hydrocarbons at 450-850°C.

EFFECT: increased heat conductivity of catalyst and catalytic activity.

11 cl, 1 tbl, 8 ex

FIELD: medical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method involves obtaining hyperoxic gas mixture by compressing air and supplying the compressed air to two adsorbers having receiver filled with sorbent. Then, oxygen is concentrated and used in artificial lung ventilation apparatuses for making oxygen inhalation and inhalation narcosis. Oxygen is additionally produced in thermochemical oxygen generator reactors. Continuous optical gas pressure indication in commutated mains containing hyperoxic gas mixture, oxygen, compressed air and nitrous oxide is provided, electric power available in net is visually controlled and signals of minimum threshold pressure value in mentioned gases are produced.

EFFECT: enhanced effectiveness in supplying oxygen to victims.

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