Pesticide composition and method for pest controlling

FIELD: organic chemistry, pesticides.

SUBSTANCE: claimed composition represents mixture of carvacrol and thymol compounds with salt of transition metal, namely zinc, wherein carvacrol and thymol compound/zinc ratio is from 60:40 to 65:35. Also described is pesticide composition containing mixture of carvacrol and thymol compounds with salt of transition metal, namely zinc, and at least one carrier, wherein weight ratio of carvacrol to thymol is 10:1. Claimed method for parasite controlling includes step of composition blending with carrier and application thereof onto target area.

EFFECT: composition for pest controlling and prevention of contamination with pests such as insect, mite, fungi or parasites.

 

The scope of the invention

The invention relates to pesticidal compositions comprising organic compounds, more specifically, the pesticide compositions comprising organic compounds of the class of phenols from oil extracts of plants of the families Labiatae and Verbenacea and transition metal ions.

Background of invention

Pesticides or pesticide methods, in particular insecticides, used to increase food production, reduce populations of pathogenic pests and limit human contact with these pests. Currently, the primary method of pest control is the use of pesticides containing synthetic chemicals. However, chemicals are not only becoming less effective against pests, but also have an adverse impact on the environment and people.

Initially, many synthetic chemicals used as pesticides, have been very effective in pest control. However, after their intensive use of the pests develop resistance to these chemicals. When one chemical substance loses its activity, the use of other synthetic products that pests have not yet acquired resistance. This cycle can lead to the release into the surrounding environments is, often uncontrolled, large numbers of synthetic chemicals. The interaction of any chemical compounds, not to mention a large number of such compounds, with the environment always leads to unexpected consequences.

Neselektivno actions of synthetic chemicals for pest deprives their attractiveness. Chemicals often have unexpected and strong destructive effect not only on the parasitic insects or animals, but also affect beneficial insects or animals.

Chemicals can also contaminate the area with which people have close contacts, and therefore have a strong effect on people's health. Because the environment there are many synthetic compounds, their interaction is inevitable. Often combined effect called synergy, can exceed the effect of a particular connection.

Moreover, synthetic chemicals can exist in the environment indefinitely. Along with other reasons that prompted protection Agency U.S. environmental protection (EPA) to regulate and even prohibit the use of many synthetic chemicals as pesticides.

Because of the destructive actions of synthetic chemical pesticides and EPA bans on many chemicals have been proposed and investigated alternatives the place of synthetic chemical pesticides.

One such alternative is the use of biological organisms for pest control. Although this approach has been notable successes, there are always doubts about the involvement of all in the fight against parasites. Another alternative, which attracts more and more attention, is the use of natural pesticides. Natural pesticides are compounds that exist in nature (for example, in plants, animals or other insects) and having such properties that permit their use as pesticides in unchanged form, in combination or after modification.

Example of a natural pesticide described in U.S. Patent No. 6004569, revealing the means and method of destruction of invertebrates, especially insects, spiders and larvae. The proposal includes a chemical compound with a six-membered carbon ring with at least one oxygen-containing functional group. It is shown that the proposed remedy is a component of the essential oils of plants.

U.S. patent No. 6231865 shows another example of a natural pesticide composition, including garlic oil or garlic extract in the essential oil. The authors showed that due to the synergistic effect of the proposed activity funds exceeds the known properties of garlic oil.

Although natural pesticides the IDA used before, there is still a need for an effective natural pesticides, devoid of undesirable qualities peculiar to synthetic chemical pesticides.

The invention

This invention covers a pesticide composition containing a mixture of compounds carvacrol and thymol with the salt of the transition metal constituting the zinc. Carvacrol and thymol can be extracted from plants of the families Labiatae and Verbenacea and contain at least one transition metal ion. In particular, the composition can be from extracts of essential oils and salts of transition metals.

Suitable plants of the families Labiatae and Verbenacea include Ocimum spp., Saturea spp., Monarda spp., Origanum spp., Thymus spp., Mentha spp., Nepeta spp., Teucrium gnaphalodes, Teucrium polium, Teucrim divaricatum, Teucrim kotschyanum, Micromeria myrifolia, Calamintha nepeta, Rosmarinus officinalis, Myrtus communis, Acinos suaveolens, Dictamnus albus, Micromeria fruticosa, Cunila origanoides, Mosia Japonoica Maxymowitz, Pycnanthemum nudum, Micrimeria Juliana, Piper betel, Trachyspermum ammi and Lippa graveolens. It is preferable to use the composition of the plant Nepeta racemosa and Nepeta Cataria.

Examples of salts of transition metals can serve as zinc chloride, copper chloride, iron chloride, zinc hydroxide, copper hydroxide and iron hydroxide. Preferred are zinc chloride and zinc hydroxide. The most preferred transition metal salt is zinc chloride from a natural source, for example of zinc ores.

Brief description the drawings

On Fig shows the structural formula of carvacrol (other names: 2-methyl-5-(1-methylethyl)phenol, isopropyl-o-cresol, 2-hydroxy-n-cimal or isothemal).

Figure 2 presents the structural formula of thymol (other names 5-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl)phenol, 5-methyl-2-isopropyl-1-phenol, 1-methyl-3-hydroxy-4-isopropylbenzene, 3-n-ciminal, 3-hydroxy-n-cimal or m-thymol).

Figure 3 represents the structural formula of carvacrol in the reaction with chloride of zinc.

Figure 4 represents the structural formula of thymol in the reaction with chloride of zinc.

A detailed description of the preferred option

This description covers pesticide compounds and compositions comprising an oil extract from plants of the families Labiatae and/or Verbenacea. In particular, pesticide compounds can be prepared by combining organic compounds phenolic number obtained from oily plant extracts, salt of the transition metal. More specifically, the pesticide compounds can be prepared by the combination of carvacrol and/or thymol obtained from oily plant extracts, salt of the transition metal.

I. Insects and the effects on insects

The compounds and compositions according to this invention have a detrimental effect on pests in a particular area. For this purpose it is necessary to observe the following conditions. Pests, whose defeat is istihaada or inhibition of their growth, either by scaring them with pesticide compounds or compositions include the following species: insects, mites, insect eggs or mites; fungi; microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses and parasites. An insect is an animal of the class Insecta (or Hexapoda) subspecies Uniramia species Arthropoda, covering ants, horseflies, crickets, grasshoppers, butterflies, moths, spiders, mites and weevils. Mite is a spider family Acari or Acarina. The fungus is representative of the Royal mushrooms, so named because they absorb food from the solution directly through cell walls and reproduce through spores. The microorganism is a living organism too small and invisible to the eye, includes bacteria, fungi, protozoa, algae and viruses.

Pesticide compounds can be used as insecticides, special tools, ovicidal, fungicides, biocides or repellents. Insecticide is a chemical substance that kills or inhibits the growth of insects and other arthropods. A special tool is a chemical substance that kills or inhibits the growth of mites that feed on plants. Ovicide is a chemical substance that kills or inhibits the growth of the eggs of insects or mites. A fungicide is a chemical substance that kills or inhibits the growth of fungi, including aphids mold and rust in plants. A biocide is a chemical substance that kills or inhibits the growth of microorganisms. The repellent is a chemical substance that repels pests, including insects.

The growth of the pest inhibited if there is a reduction in the number of individuals in a certain place. The growth of pests is also inhibited if the normal growth of individuals is modified in such a way that it turns negative effect on this individual. The number of pests is reduced after exposure, if in the right place there are fewer individuals compared to those that would be observed without this impact. Pest otuchivaetsya result from the application of the stated substances, if in a certain place is fewer of osba than they would be without effect. Infection (invasion) pests is considered to be the presence of at least one individual in a particular place. Invasion is not valid if in the right place after exposure is fewer pests than they would be without this impact. Protection against invasion is the lack of pests in a certain place, while no impact at this location would be found at least one individual.

Examples of specific areas where tested the claimed compounds include, but are not limited to) single plant, the number of plants, a group of plants, agricultural field, vegetable, animal (including humans, domestic and wild animals), a certain amount of space around the animal and the land, including air space above it.

II. Pesticide compounds

A. Organic compounds of the class of phenols

Pesticide compounds according to this invention receives the reaction of organic compounds phenolic number, for example, carvacrol or thymol, salt of the transition metal. Phenolic compounds used in this invention, it is possible to synthesize izvestnimi methods or obtained from the oil of the plant extracts. Preferred phenolic compounds derived from plant extracts. More preferred in this invention the compounds of phenolic number obtained from plant extracts, which then emit carvacrol and thymol.

Carvacrol, the structure of which is shown in figure 1, is a crystalline substance with a boiling point ˜233°C at atmospheric pressure. Thymol, the structure of which is shown in figure 2, is a liquid with a boiling point 237-238°C at atmospheric pressure. Both compounds volatile with water vapor.

1. Plants for use in oil extraction containing organic compounds of the class of phenols

When implementing the present invention, when the dryer is further compounds derived from oily plant extracts, oil extraction is subjected to the members of the families Labiatae (also known as Lamiaceae) or Verbenacea. Plants of the families Labiatae and Verbenacea include hybrids of plants grown from individual plants of these two collections.

Common name for members of the family Labiatae, a large family, covering a wide range of annual and perennial grasses, "mint family". The mint family contains the type Magnoliphyta, class Magnoliopsida and view Lamiales. The family Labiatae includes more than 200 species, such as Salvia, Rosmarinus, Menths, Ocimum, Thymus, Marrubium, Monarda, Trichostema, Teucrium, Hyptis, Physostegia, Lamium, Stachys, Scutellaria and Lypopus.

Plants that are preferably used for the extraction of phenolic compounds include Ocimum spp., Saturea spp., Monarda spp., Origanum spp., Thymus spp., Mentha spp., Nepeta spp., Teucrium gnaphalodes, Teucrium polium, Teucrim divaricatum, Teucrim kotschyanum, Micromeria myrifolia, Calamintha nepeta, Rosmarinus officinalis, Myrtus communis, Acinos suaveolens, Dictamnus albus, Micromeria fruticosa, Cunila origanoides, Mosia Japonoica Maxymowitz, Pycnanthemum nudum, Micrimeria Juliana, Piper betel, Trachyspermum ammi, Lippia graveolens, Escholcia spledens, Cedrelopsis greve and others.

In a preferred composition for the extraction of oil use plants Esholtia splendens, Cedrelopsis grevei, Lippia graveolens or Nepeta plants, including Nepeta racemosa, Nepeta citridora, Nepeta into, Nepeta hindostoma, Nepeta lanceolata, Nepeta leucophylla, Nepeta longiobracteata, Nepeta mussinii, Nepeta nepetella, Nepeta sibthorpii, Nepeta subsessilis and Nepeta tuberosa.

Most preferably be extracted oil of the hybrid plants obtained by crossing Nepeta racemosa, Esholtia splendens, Cedrelopsis grevei and Lippia graeolens.

2. Extraction of carvacrol and thymol from plants

A. Plant growth

Plants of the families Labiatae and Verbenacea are found worldwide and are relatively easily cultivated. For cultivation of preferred seeds of those plants, which are expected to give a high yield of organic compounds phenolic number (for example, not less than ˜70 wt.%, more preferably at least 80 wt.%) grown in loose soil, preferably in subtropical climates. Hybrid seeds with high yield of phenolic compounds can be obtained by known methods. Crossing Nepeta racemosa, Esholtia splendens, Cedrelopsis grevei and Lippia graveolens results in hybrid, which is the preferred source of phenolic compounds. Then the seeds are treated with known agricultural techniques, such as soaking and fertilizer application. It is most preferable to cultivate and grow plants without the use of synthetic pesticides.

Because the leaves contain a large amount of oil in the flowering period, it is preferable to collect the plants soon after the beginning of flowering. It is preferable to collect plants at 24 h after the start of flowering, more preferably to do it after 12 hours it is Most preferable to collect plants in the early morning or late evening, when the sheets are not illuminated by the sun

Since most of the oil contained in the leaves and flowers of plants in the extraction process, it is preferable to utilize only the leaves and flowers. The use of other parts of the plant can increase the content of impurities and reduce the output.

b. Extraction of oil from plants

Organic phenolic compounds contained in the oil can be extracted from either dried or fresh plants, or from their combination. If the plant should be dried, the drying process is preferably carried out in a special drying oven, in which a constant air circulation. It is preferable not to expose the collected leaves and flowers in direct sunlight, as this may reduce the amount of active ingredients in the leaves.

For drying the leaves and flowers are laid in layers of thickness of 20-25 cm For uniform drying the leaves need to flip manually or mechanically four times a day for the first three days of drying. The leaves are dried for 7 to 8 days. When the leaves dried up, the oil can be extracted by the known methods including distillation, for example, distillation with steam.

Preferably the oil is extracted using a two-stage process of distillation (double distillation). Preferably, first select the oil by distillation with steam (at a temperature of about 100° (C) to remove most impurities. the usual after the first steam distillation of the obtained oil contains about 3-4 wt.% thymol, about 60-70% of carvacrol and about 26-37% wt. admixtures.

Oil after distillation with steam then distilled again at a temperature of 180-200°With removal of the remaining impurities. Preferably distilled oil to overtake again (double redistillate). If it is a dual process of redistillation, the oil typically has a purity of more than 90%. It is more preferable to obtain a purity of more than 95% and most preferably up to 99%. Although double redistillate output tends to decrease, usually per 100 kg of dried leaves and flowers get about 1 to 10 kg, more typically from 3 to 7 kg of oil.

In the process of distillation distillation column typically has two output tubes: one for oil (at the base of the column) and one for water vapor (above columns). The water source is located under the leaves and flowers and heated to ˜100°C, preferably under pressure from ˜20 bar up to ˜25 bar (high pressure helps to reduce the time of distillation). Steam passes through the leaves and flowers and induces the release of oil dropwise. Because water vapor is lighter drops of oil, water droplets stand out from the outlet tube located at the top of the distillation column, and oil droplets stand out from the outlet tube located at the base of the distillation column. The process of distillation is continued for about 1-5 hours, usually about 2-3 hours

3. Obtaining organic compounds phenolic type by synthesis

Organic phenolic compounds used in this invention can also be obtained by synthesis. Methods of synthesis of organic phenolic compounds such as carvacrol and thymol, is well known. See, for example, Organic Chemistry by Morrison &Boyd, 24 ed., 1971, p.815. In addition, these compounds are produced by industry and listed in the catalogue of the firm Merck. Although phenolic compounds can be prepared synthetically, it is preferable to extract these compounds from plants. As for the synthesis of carvacrol and isopropylphenol using phenol, the final product usually contains residual phenol (less than 1%). It is desirable to assign finasteride compositions animals, because phenol is mutagenic and carcinogenic properties.

Century Salt

Pesticide compounds according to this invention receives the reaction of the organic phenolic compounds such as carvacrol or thymol, salt of the transition metal or salt containing a divalent cation. It is preferable to prepare pesticide compounds by the reaction of the organic phenolic compound with a salt of the transition metal.

1. Salt of the transition metal

Transition metals are thirty-eight (38) of elements from the 3rd to 8th groups of the Periodic system. Like all metals, transition the elements are ductile and malleable, and conduct electricity and heat. Properties of transition metals are defined by their valence electrons, i.e. electrons, which are involved in binding with other elements. The valence electrons of transition metals are located in more than one shell. Thanks to this configuration of the valence electrons of the transition elements can have different degrees of oxidation.

Transition elements include the following elements: scandium, titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, Nickel, copper, zinc, yttrium, zirconium, niobium, molybdenum, technetium, ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, silver, cadmium, hafnium, tantalum, tungsten, rhenium, osmium, iridium, platinum, gold, mercury, reservati, dubnium, cyborgy, Bari, gassy, materi and other actinides. Preferred transition metals for the preparation of compounds according to this invention are those elements that generally have oxidation number +2; examples of such transition metals are Nickel, copper, zinc and cadmium. The most preferred transition metals for use in this invention are zinc, Nickel or copper.

Transition metals can, but not necessarily, be used in combination with the anion. The anion is a negatively charged particle. Preferably the transition metal to combine with chloride, fluoride, hydride, hydroxide, nitrate, oxide resolvedname anions. It is more preferable to combine the transition metal chloride, oxide or sulfate anions. Most preferably used as the transition metal zinc chloride ZnCl2, zinc sulfate ZnSO4or other natural salt of the transition metal or synthetic natural compound. Used here, the term "natural" refers to a substance or mixture of substances existing in nature, and not chemically synthesized. "Synthetic natural compound" refers to compounds synthesized artificially, but found also in nature. An example of a natural compound is sodium chloride, extracted from ocean water. An example of a synthetic natural compound is a synthetic sodium chloride.

2. Salts containing divalent cations

Salts containing divalent cations (other than transition metal ions, i.e. cations with charge +2, can also react with organic phenolic compounds, forming a pesticide compounds according to this invention. Examples of such double-cations of the salts used in this invention are the cations calcium, magnesium, strontium, barium or radium. Preferred cations of calcium and magnesium. More preferred, in addition to the transition metal, magnesium cations. Salt may contain an anion, for example, the guy who roxidy, chloride, nitrate, sulfate, phosphate, carbonate, borate and fluoride. The terms "natural" and "synthetic natural connection" have the same meaning as above.

C. Preparation of pesticide compounds

1. The reaction of the organic phenolic compound with a metal salt

Pesticide compounds in this invention are formed by the reaction of the organic phenolic compound with a salt of the transition metal.

In one embodiment of the invention the reaction of the organic phenolic compound with a salt of the transition metal is carried out as follows. Organic phenolic compound is mixed with the salt of the transition metal. The mixture is then stirred with a high speed (for example, 1000 rpm) for a specified time (e.g. 30 min). The ratio of the weight of the organic phenolic compound to the weight of the salt of the transition metal in the reaction is preferably from 50:50 to 75:25. More preferred is a ratio of the organic phenolic compound to a salt of the transition metal from 55:45 to 70:30. Most preferably the organic phenolic compound to the transition metal salt is from 60:40 to 65:35.

Possible reaction product of an organic phenolic compound with a salt of the transition metal are presented in figure 3 and 4, which shows the reaction products of carvacrol and thymol are appropriate to estwenno with chloride of zinc. It is assumed, but not proven, that the salt forms a complex with ionized organic phenolic compound. Pesticide compounds called on the name of the organic phenolic compounds from which they are derived. Therefore, pesticide compounds obtained by the reaction of carvacrol with the salt of the transition metal, called carvacrol pesticide compound. Similarly, the pesticide compound obtained by the reaction of thymol with salt, called timelines pesticide compound. More specifically be called pesticide compounds by cation associated with the organic phenolic compound. Therefore, the pesticide compound obtained by the reaction of carvacrol with chloride of zinc, called carvacrol zinc.

Specific reactions of organic phenolic compounds with salts is illustrated further by examples 3 and 4.

2. The mixture is cooked pesticide compounds

Pesticide compounds in this invention can be used both individually and in combinations. It is preferable to use pesticide compounds in a mixture of at least two pesticide compounds. It is more preferable to use a mixture carvacrol and timolino pesticide compounds. It is most preferable to use a mixture carvacrol zinc and temolate zinc.

When mixed carvacrol and timolino what about the pesticide compounds attitude carvacrol pesticide compounds to timelinea pesticide connection may vary, respectively, from 100:1 to 1:1. Preferably in a mixture ratio carvacrol pesticide compounds to timelinea pesticide connection from 50:1 to 5:1. More preferably the ratio carvacrol pesticide compounds to timelinea pesticide compound is 10:1.

A typical mixture of pesticide compounds is illustrated in example 5.

D. the Effect of pesticide compounds

1. The pesticide action of the compound as an insecticide or protection products

It is assumed, but not proven, that pesticide compounds in this invention are two different methods. Pesticide compounds can act as oil insecticides, and block all stages of the development of insect eggs, young and adult individuals. Insecticides such a way impacts attractive because they are not toxic to the nervous system of animals and have very little negative impact on the person (operator). Another way impact is inhibitory mechanism, through the so-called GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) receptor. This receptor increases the permeability of neurons in the chloride ions. When the implementation process of the chloride ions into neurons is difficult, "soothing" effect GABA increases.

2. The effect of the pesticide compound as a fungicide or biocide

When used and as a fungicide or biocide, pesticide compounds according to this invention operate in the same way. It is assumed, but not proven, that this method of action similar to the action of benzyl alcohol, phenol and polyphenol and is destroying the cell membranes of microorganisms, which leads to cell death. Pesticide compounds capable of dissolving the lipids. Membranes of fungi, bacteria and parasites contain lipids. When pesticide compounds in contact with the membranes of pests, is the dissolution of lipid membranes. This causes the destruction of the membrane until cell death pests due to the destruction of the cell membrane. In the British Pharmacopoeia edition 1996, it was shown that microorganisms can not resist the action of benzyl alcohol, phenols, polyphenols, and similar substances, so they do not have resistance to the pesticide compounds according to this invention, used as a fungicide or biocide.

3. The effect of pesticide compounds as repellent

Pesticide compounds in this invention can be used as a repellent for insects. Predpolagaetsya, but not proven, that the repellent properties of the pesticidal compounds of this invention due to the pungent smell inherent to organic phenolic compounds, which are precursors of pesticide compounds.

That is, the Impact on the environment

Because pesticide the connection based on organic phenolic compounds, they are easily decomposed in the environment. They are therefore particularly suitable for food processing. The group of natural phenols, which are carvacrol and thymol, usually are easily decomposed in the environment. This prevadid little or no accumulation in the environment or in living organisms. Aerobic destruction of bacteria includes the complete degradation to carbon dioxide. Anaerobic destruction leads to the derivatives With Benzyl-A. Natural phenols can also condense with the formation of humic acids and accumulate in the soil: the Preferred pesticidal compounds of this invention also contain zinc. Although zinc is not decomposed in the environment, it is absorbed by some plants.

In addition, pesticide compounds, apparently not possess mutagenic or carcinogenity properties.

III. Pesticide compositions

Pesticide compounds according to this invention obtained as described above, can be included in the composition of the pesticide compositions are discussed below.

A. Forms pesticide compositions

The pesticide compositions are mixtures or solutions containing at least one pesticide compound according to this invention. Pesticidal compounds of this invention can be used as individual compounds or in combination : the AI. It is preferable to use pesticide compounds in combination with at least one carvacrol pesticide compound and at least one Timonium pesticide connection.

Pesticide compositions can also contain carriers or diluents. The carrier or diluent is an inert substance used for the preparation of various forms of pesticide compounds. The nature of the media used in the pesticide composition depends on the type of pests to be exterminated from the method of application of the pesticide composition (for example, by means of spraying of the drug or in powder form) and applications.

Translation of pesticide compounds in the pesticide composition is an important aspect of production in light of the need to establish an effective pesticide composition and at the same time to comply with applicable laws. Manufacturers of pesticide compounds or compose their own songs, or use of other development organizations.

There are many different pesticide classes of forms, including preparations for spraying (spray), powders, granules and sprays.

1. Sprays

Sprays include aqueous solutions, water-soluble powders, emulsifying concentrates, miscible with water, liquids or powders (pesticide compounds dissolve in water), wettable p the Rosca or powders, dispersible in water, fluid and spray suspension or concentrates, suspensions, and oil solutions. Although sprays are very popular in the use of pesticides, including pesticides, are well soluble in water to obtain aqueous solutions, water-soluble powders or miscible with water, liquids or powders is small. So for most sprays are necessary, an organic solvent, or a special composition, which must provide for mixing with water when cooking spray.

An important component of sprays is emulsifying concentrate. To prepare a concentrated solution of pesticide compounds in an organic solvent (or itself pesticide compound, if it is a liquid at room temperature) is added to the emulsifier. The emulsifier is similar surfactant, which helps suspendirovanie microscopic drops of oil in water emulsion. Thus the concentrate is dispersed in an aqueous solution and remains in this state for a long time (several days).

The emulsifiers used in this invention include Tween 200, Tween 600, sorbitol (Polysorbate 80), propylene glycol, polyethylene glycol, ethanol (ethyl alcohol) and methanol (methyl alcohol). Another type of emulsifier that can be used for when is otopleniya pesticide composici, are esters of phosphoric acid. Examples produced by the industry of surfactants based on phosphoric esters are butylphosphate, existspath, 2-ethylhexyloxy, ActiveState, dellhost, artillerist, mixed alkylphosphate, sexylolita and antipolitical. It is preferable to use as the emulsifier Tween 200, sorbitol, 80, propylene glycol, polyethylene glycol, or ethyl alcohol. More preferably used for the preparation of emulsifying concentrate sorbitol 80.

Mulgirigala concentrates are preferred for cooking sprays pesticide compounds for this invention because of the low solubility of pesticide compounds in water, as in sprays, it is possible to maintain a constant concentration of pesticide compounds during spray.

Wettable or dispersible in water powders also play an important role in cooking sprays. Wettable powders are prepared by mixing the pesticide connection with the fine dust (usually clay or talc) and a wetting reagent (dry soap or detergent). Before spraying this mixture is dispersed in water. The wetting agent will act as an emulsifier in aqueous solution and helps dissolve insoluble pesticide compounds in water. Emulsifying concentrates prefer is iny before wettable powders with a wide application of sprays, as wettable powders quickly settle and to maintain constant concentrations of pesticide compounds during the spraying process requires shaking.

Another method of preparing a spray pesticide compounds that are not soluble in water, based on the use of fluid/spray suspensions or their concentrates. Fluid/spray suspension is a suspension of finely powdered diluent and pesticide compounds in a liquid which does not dissolve (usually in water). Such a suspension is thoroughly mixed with water, after which it is ready for spraying. Fluid/spray suspensions have the same drawbacks as wettable powders, i.e. they are deposited, and during the spraying process are different concentrations of pesticide compounds.

Another method of preparing a spray pesticide compounds, insoluble in water, based on the use of oil solution. Pesticide compound is dispersed in the oil and used in the form of an oil spray. This form is convenient in the case of freshly prepared pesticides when it is not desirable to use them for a long time.

The concentration of pesticidal compounds in the spray is in the range from 0.1 to 15 wt.%. It is preferable to create a concentration of pesticidal compounds in the spray from 0.5 to 10 wt.%. More preferably it is ncentratio pesticide compounds in the spray from 0.75 to 7.5 wt.%.

2. Powders

When using powder pesticide compound is mixed with a solid diluent (preferably with a particle size of 50-100 μm). Then the powder is mixed with air by the spraying apparatus. Although historically the powders was easiest to prepare and apply, but in practice there is a need to create high concentrations of pesticide compounds and to apply it very quickly. Despite the fact that spent a large number of pesticide compounds, in reality only a small part of it reaches the goal, and the rest is dissipated in space.

For pesticide compounds in this invention can be used powdered formulations. Preferred diluents are silicon dioxide, zinc oxide, talc, hard-shelled earth, clay, calcium carbonate, wheat flour and powder from the shells of nuts.

The concentration of pesticidal compounds in the powder is in the range from 0.10 to 20 wt.%. It is preferable to create a concentration of pesticidal compounds in powder from 5 to 15 wt.%. More preferably the concentration of pesticidal compounds in powder from 7 to 12 wt.%.

3. Granules

Pesticide compounds according to this invention can also be applied in the form of granules. Granules are in the form of small tablets (usually about 0.3-1.3 mm) inert nose is the body (usually clay), mixed with pesticide compound in the desired proportions. Granules are prepared when you want to get a quick massive selection of pesticide compounds. Granules useful in a relatively small space (garden or potted plants) and for safe use.

The concentration of pesticidal compounds in granules is in the range from 0.1 to 20 wt.%. It is preferable to create a concentration of pesticidal compounds in powder from 5 to 15 wt.%. More preferably the concentration of pesticidal compounds in powder from 7 to 12 wt.%.

4. Aerosols

Pesticide compounds according to this invention can also be applied in the form of aerosols. For this pesticide compound should be dissolved in the condensed under pressure from volatile petroleum solvent. After applying the aerosol solvent evaporates, leaving droplets of pesticide compounds, suspended in the air.

Aerosols useful for use indoors or out (in small scale) in the open air.

The concentration of pesticidal compounds in the aerosol is in the range from 0.1 to 15 wt.%. It is preferable to create a concentration of pesticidal compounds in powder from 0.5 to 10 wt.%. More preferably the concentration of pesticidal compounds in powder from 0.75 to 7.5 wt.%.

5. Other forms of pesticide is omposite

The above pesticidal compositions can be applied directly or diluted before use. The diluent is determined by the specifics of the required processing and the application method. For example, the pesticide compound that is intended for processing trees, it is necessary to dilute with water to make the spray more convenient and efficient. It is preferable to dilute the proposed pesticide composition with water in a ratio of from 1:100 to 1:10. It is more preferable to dilute the pesticide composition with water at a ratio of 1:10.

C. Examples of pesticide compositions containing pesticide compounds

Examples pesticide compositions of this invention in various forms.

Spray for use as a fungicide:

Pesticide compounds or compounds3.5%
Media96.5%

Spray for use as a biocide:

Pesticide connection or connections5%
Media95%

Spray for use as an insecticide:

Pesticide connection or connections7.5%
Media92.5%

Powder for use as a fungicide:

Pesticide connection or connections4%
Media96%

Powder for use as a biocide:

Pesticide connection or connections7.5%
Media92.5%

Powder for use as an insecticide:

Pesticide connection or connections10%
Media90%

In the above compositions, it is preferable to use a pesticide compound in the form of a mixture of 10:1 carvacrol zinc timonator zinc. As the carrier in the spray preferably sorbitol or a mixture of equal amounts of propylene glycol, polyethylene glycol and ethyl alcohol.

C. application of the pesticide compositions

The pesticide composition, diluted or undiluted, can be applied in many different ways. When small-scale use of liquid pesticide compositions can be used knapsack bins, hand sprayers, bottles spray or aerosol containers. the La large-scale applications of liquid pesticide compositions can be used tractor units with external boom, tractor units-sprayers, aircraft or helicopters equipped with devices for sprinkling or spraying. Small-scale use of solid forms can be done in many ways, for example by precipitation of the product directly from the container or managed by the person sprayer fertilizers under the action of gravity. For large-scale application of solid forms, you can use the tractor apparatus, operating by the action of gravity, or similar device.

IV. Examples

Example 1: obtain hybrid plants

A hybrid plant is produced by crossing the following forms of plants belonging to the family Labiatae and Verbenacea: Nepeta racemosa, Esholtia splendens, Cedrelopsis grevei and Lippia graveolens. A hybrid plant get well-known methods with the following proportions between plants: 20% Nepeta racemosa: 30% Esholtia splendens: 20% Cedrelopsis grevei: 30% Lippia graveolens.

Example 2: extraction of carvacrol and thymol from Nepeta cataria

Carvacrol and thymol are extracted from Nepeta cataria by two-stage distillation. In the first stage, the extract dried leaves by steam distillation. After distillation, the oil is cooled to room temperature for at least 72 hours

Oil from the process of steam distillation then again distilled. For this purpose, the oil is heated to a temperature of about 186°C for 1 h for removal of the remaining impurities, such as linalool, borneol, pinene and zymol. In the General case, impurities boil at ˜150°C. Both products are carvacrol and thymol have a boiling point in the range of 230-240°C. Thus, at a temperature of 180°With organic phenolic compounds are usually not removed or destroyed.

Oil is again cooled for at least 72 hours I Believe that this stage stabilizes the oil.

Once the butter has cooled, distilled again at a temperature of 180°C for 30 min to remove almost all of the remaining impurities. Double re-distillation receive oil with a purity of 95 to 98%.

After the second re-distillation of the oil before further processing is cooled for at least 72 hours

Example 3: separation of carvacrol from thymol

Carvacrol and thymol are divided by keeping distilled oil at a temperature of -25°for ˜6 hours Carvacrol remains in liquid form, and thymol falls in the form of crystals. Both substances share filtering.

Example 4: obtaining carvacrol pesticide compounds

Carvacrol pesticide connection get the reaction of carvacrol with chloride of zinc. Carvacrol (65 wt.%-tion), prepared as described above, is mixed with 35 wt.%-NYM chloride of zinc. The mixture is stirred at a speed of 1000 rpm for ˜30 min in a high is a high-speed mixer.

Example 5: receiving timolino pesticide compounds

Timeline pesticide connection get the reaction of thymol with chloride of zinc. Thymol (60 wt.%-tion), prepared as described above, is mixed with 40 wt.%-NYM chloride of zinc. The mixture is stirred at a speed of 1000 rpm for about 30 min in a high speed mixer.

Example 6: a combination of carvacrol and timolino pesticide compounds

Carvacrol pesticide compound, prepared as described above, is mixed with timelines pesticide compound, prepared as shown above.

Compounds are mixed in the ratio of carvacrol: thymol is 10:1. A mixture of pesticide compounds stirred at 500 rpm for approximately 3 minutes in a high speed mixer.

Example 7: application of the pesticide compound as a fungicide

The experiment was carried out on the rose Bush, infected with fungus Clasterosprium carpophilum. The fungus multiply on the leaves of the plant with the formation of holes. The leaves of the rose began to fall. If you leave the plant without treatment, the rose is not going to blossom and maybe die.

Used experience fungicidal composition was prepared in the form of a water-soluble form with a concentration of 3.5 wt.% the mixture (10:1) carvacrol and timolino pesticide compounds. As the carrier used 96.5 wt.%-s ' solution of sorbitol. The solution to what concentrations of 3.5% was diluted with water in ratio 1:10. Received fungicidal composition was applied using a hand sprayer.

After 48 h after the first (and only) processing of the presence of fungus on the leaves of the rose was nowhere in sight.

Example 8: use pesticide composition as a fungicide

The experiment was carried out on soybean, Glycine max. Plants were infected with a fungus Leptosphaerulina trifolli. The fungus was struck by the leaves of the plants and untreated plants were killed.

Used experience fungicidal composition was prepared in the form of a water-soluble form with a concentration of 3.5 wt.% the mixture (10:1) carvacrol and timolino pesticide compounds. As the carrier used 96.5 wt.%-s ' solution of sorbitol. A solution with a concentration of 3.5% was diluted with water in ratio 1:100. Received fungicidal composition was applied using a hand sprayer.

After one treatment with a fungal infection on the leaves of the plant was no longer observed.

Example 9: use pesticide composition as biocide

The experiment was carried out on seven cherry trees that were infected with the bacteria Agrobacterium radiobacter. It is assumed that the bacteria infect the intercellular space of the tree, disrupting the metabolism. Usually the bacteria stop the growth of the tree, and more young trees are particularly sensitive to the action of bacteria. Used in the experiment, the trees were infected with Agrobacterium radioacter and did not show visible growth within two months.

Biocidal composition was prepared in the form of a water-soluble form with a concentration of 5 wt.% the mixture (10:1) carvacrol and timolino pesticide compounds. As the carrier used 95 wt.%-s ' solution of sorbitol. A solution with a concentration of 5% was diluted with water at a ratio of 1:10. Received biocidal composition was applied using a hand sprayer. Plants pollinated early in the morning once a week for six (6) weeks.

After six weeks of treatment the cherry trees began to grow, indicating that the absence of bacterial contamination. Because Agrobacterium radiobacter usually affects younger trees, it is advisable to spend a prophylactic course by spraying with a spray of healthy trees once a week for one to two months.

Example 10: use pesticide composition as a pesticide for processing plants

The experiment was carried out on twelve (12) Apple trees. The purpose of the experience was to prevent infiltration of the parasite Carpocapsa pomonella, which causes premature fall of fruit, and also fruits also contain parasites. Carpocapsa pomonella infects and other fruit and nut trees.

Insecticidal composition was prepared in the form of a water-soluble form with a concentration of 7.5 wt.% the mixture (10:1) carvacrol and timolino pesticide compounds. As the carrier used 92.5 wt.%-s ' solution of sorbitol. actor with a concentration of 7.5% was diluted with water at a ratio of 1:10. Received insecticidal composition was applied using a large spray to leaves, grabbing the fruit and the bark of trees. Treatment was started immediately before the ripening of apples and repeated once a day for 15 days.

Treated apples were not infected Carpocapsa pomonella.

Example 11: use pesticide composition as an insecticide for treatment of plants

The experiment was carried out in the vineyard, infected insects Otiorrhynchus ligustici. Otiorrhynchus ligustici eat grape leaves, especially the young. Violation of the leaves stops the growth of the vine and the formation of grapes. Often Otiorrhynchus ligustici very resistant to insecticides commonly used for vineyards, and put vinogradarstvu a lot of damage.

Insecticidal composition was prepared in the form of a water-soluble form with a concentration of 7.5 wt.% the mixture (10:1) carvacrol and timolino pesticide compounds. As the carrier used 92.5 wt.%-s ' solution of sorbitol. A solution with a concentration of 7.5% was diluted with water at a ratio of 1:10. Received insecticidal composition was applied using a large agricultural sprayers for the leaves, grabbing bunches of grapes. Insecticidal composition was applied once in ten (10) days within two months.

Otiorrhynchus ligustici started to die after one or two hours after the first treatment insecticide comp is the position, and after 24 h after treatment and live insects were not found. Two (2) months of treatments insecticidal composition Otiorrhynchus ligustici ceased to be a problem for the vineyard.

Example 12: use pesticide composition as an insecticide in the home

The experiment was carried out to verify the effectiveness of the pesticide composition in the fight against common household insects.

Used experience insecticidal composition was prepared in the form of a water-soluble form with a concentration of 5 wt.% the mixture (10:1) carvacrol and timolino pesticide compounds. As the carrier used 95 wt.%-s ' solution of sorbitol. A solution with a concentration of 5% was diluted with water at a ratio of 1:10. Received insecticidal composition was placed in a bottle for spraying under pressure and direct the spray directly on insects. The following table shows the used amount and the time required for handling insects.

InsectApplied quantity (ml)Time to death (s)
Tomatnye flies0.360
Mosquitoes0.130
Ants0.1180
Fruit flies0.220
Mol (10)0.15
Ticks0.310
Termites (7)0.515

Example 13: use pesticide composition as an insecticide for man

The experiment was carried out to determine the effectiveness of the pesticide composition to treat head lice in children.

Insecticidal composition was prepared in the form of a water-soluble form with a concentration of 5 wt.% the mixture (10:1) carvacrol and timolino pesticide compounds. As the carrier used 95 wt.%-s ' solution of sorbitol. A solution with a concentration of 5% was mixed with shampoo. The child's hair was greased 5-10 ml of shampoo and left for 30 min, and then washed. The treatment was repeated after 48 h and again after seven days after the first treatment.

Immediately after processing, were found dead lice. Treatment after seven days is required for the destruction of eggs in the hair before the last treatment. After a course of three treatments in the hair of an infected child have not seen any lice or their eggs.

Example 14: use pesticide composition as an insecticide for treatment dogs

The experiment was carried out to determine the effectiveness of the pesticide composition for the control of mites in dogs. Processed two (2) dogs, infected ticks.

Insecticidal composition was prepared as powder with a concentration of 10 wt.% the mixture (10:1) carvacrol and timolino pesticide compounds. The powder was sprayed on the entire body of the dog to protect the eyes. Dogs were treated once per day for three (3) days.

After the first treatment the mites on the body of the dogs were not detected.

Example 15: use pesticide composition as a repellent for insects

The experiment was carried out to determine the effectiveness of the pesticide composition as a repellent for insects to protect people. The experiment was carried out with three (3) people who were outdoors while fishing.

Insecticidal composition was prepared in the form of a water-soluble form with a concentration of 5 wt.% the mixture (10:1) carvacrol and timolino pesticide compounds. As the carrier used 95 wt.%-s ' solution of sorbitol. Prepared ointment insecticidal compositions with a concentration of 5%. The salve contains olive oil, petrolatum, cellulose gel and water. Ointment with a concentration of 5% insecticidal compositions were applied to all exposed areas: face, hands and feet before you begin fishing.

After 8 h of exposure to Komarom, flies, etc. on the body of the subjects could not see mosquito bites. A similar experiment was carried out in the forests and also observed no mosquito bites.

Example 16: use pesticide composition for treatment of parasites

The experiment was carried out to determine the effectiveness of the pesticide composition as a remedy against parasites Deodex canis on dogs. Parasites cause extensive damage to the skin. The parasites infect the hair follicles and are therefore very difficult to handle. Worked five (5) dogs, 3 males and 2 females infected with parasites that have not responded to other anti-parasitic means.

Insecticidal composition was prepared in the form of a water-soluble form with a concentration of 12 wt.% the mixture (10:1) carvacrol and timolino pesticide compounds. As the carrier used a mixture of vaseline, olive oil and polyethylene glycol. Affected skin dogs were treated twice daily for seven days. The flow rate was approximately 1 ml ointment 2 cm2skin. The ointment was applied on the surface of infected and rubbed for best absorption.

After 72 h on the affected skin observed a small improvement. Significant improvement occurred in seven (7) days of treatment.

1. The pesticide composition which is a mixture of compounds carvacrol and thymol with the salt of the transition metal constituting the zinc, and compounds carvacrol and thymol with transition metal ratio is from 60:40 to 65:35.

2. The pesticide composition according to claim 1, in which carvacrol and/or thymol extracted from the representative of the families Labiatae or Verbenacea, preferably from plants obtained by genetic crossing Nepeta racemosa, Esholtia splendens, Cdrelopsis grevei and Lippia graveolens by two-stage distillation, includes allocation of oil by steam distillation at a temperature of about 100°and its distillation at a temperature of 180-200°C.

3. The pesticide composition according to claim 1, in which the transition metal salt is a chloride of zinc.

4. The pesticide composition according to claim 1, intended for use as an insecticide protection products, fungicide, bactericide and insect repellent.

5. The pesticide composition, comprising a mixture of compounds carvacrol and thymol with the salt of the transition metal according to claim 1 and at least one carrier, and the weight ratio of carvacrol to thymol is 10:1.

6. The pesticide composition according to claim 5, in which carvacrol and/or thymol extracted from the representative of the families Labiatae or Verbenacea, preferably from plants obtained by genetic crossing Nepeta racemosa, Esholtia splendens, Cedrelopsis grevei and Lippia graveolens by two-stage distillation, which includes allocation of oil by steam distillation at a temperature of about 100°and its distillation at a temperature of 180-200°C.

7. The pesticide composition according to claim 5, in which the transition metal salt is a chloride of zinc.

8. The pesticide composition according to claim 5, in which the media represents sorbitol, propylene glycol or polyethylene glycol.

9. The pesticide composition according to claim 5, containing from 0.1 to 15 wt.% carvacrol and the Imola.

10. The pesticide composition according to claim 5, intended for use as an insecticide protection products, fungicide, bactericide and insect repellent.

11. The way to combat parasites, comprising a stage of mixing the composition according to claim 1 with one or more suitable carriers, with the formation of the pesticide composition, and applying the pesticide composition to the area of application for pest control.

12. The method according to claim 11, representing a growth inhibition, repelling parasites, prevent infection, or a combination of these effects.

13. The method according to claim 11, in which the scope represents at least one plant or animal.

14. The method according to claim 11, in which the pests are insects, mites, fungi, bacteria, and parasites or their combination.



 

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