Laminated structure

FIELD: protection devices, particularly structures to protect vehicles and stationary devices against tamper, including terroristic acts.

SUBSTANCE: laminated structure comprises solid body and protective means formed of heat-resistant material and phase-changeable material, which may absorb heat. The protective means is located in the body. Two layers of highly rigid non-metallic material and layer of porous material having compressive strength of not less than 1.5 MPa and percent elongation in compression of not less than 20% are included in the laminated structure. Heat-resistant layer is applied to one surface, namely outer surface with respect to object to be protected, of highly rigid non-metallic layer. The protective means are united in single layer and arranged on inner side of the first layer of highly rigid non-metallic material. Substrate comprising at least two layers abuts the protective means. The substrate includes the first layer made of material with percent elongation of not less than 20% and tensile strength of 100÷360 MPa and the second layer made of material with percent elongation of not less than 25% and tensile strength of not less than 370 MPa. Layer of porous material is arranged between the substrate and the second layer of highly rigid non-metallic material. All layers are covered with layer of resilient non-metallic material.

EFFECT: improved protective properties, increased bullet-proofness and resistance to arc-jet cutters.

2 cl, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to the protection of transport and stationary devices from unauthorized impacts, including terrorist acts, and can be used in various fields of technology and industry: nuclear, mechanical engineering, banking and other

Known fireproof container (U.S. patent No. 3709169, IPC E 05 G 1/2, NCI 109-29, publ. 09.01.1973), designed to protect valuable items, such as securities, from exposure to fire or intense heat. Inside the container provides insulation protection, consisting of an outer layer of heat resistant material, such as ceramic fibers and an inner layer of absorbent material, such as glass paper, saturated with water. The inner layer is placed in a waterproof housing, for example, from polyethylene, which is destroyed by exposure to elevated temperatures. Typically, the vent device allows a couple, which is formed under the action of intense heat in the inner layer of insulating protection, goes into the vessel and causes a further slowdown in temperature by heat absorption. Ventilation devices provide a slow release of steam from the reservoir through the channel formed between the cover and the actual capacity, thanks to slowing the spread of heat inside the via this channel. In a preferred embodiment, water-rich elongated fibrous absorbent material is located between the outer frame and the inner receptacle in a location subject to heat transfer at high speed, for example, along the rack between the outer frame and the inner receptacle. The disadvantages of such protection are:

- the possibility of evaporation of water through openings in the casing formed by mechanical damage, which on subsequent heating will not be slow to raise the temperature by absorbing heat from the process of vaporization, thereby deteriorating the heat-shielding properties and excludes the possibility of multiple use protection;

- the container is not resistant to the integrated effects of various hacking tools (mechanical, bullet, heat).

Known heat-proof case to protect one of several temperature-sensitive products from exposure to high temperature environment (application Germany No. 3432789, IPC G 12 B 17/06, publ. 04.11.1985). Heat-sensitive product or several products placed into the internal cavity of the outer frame. On the surface of the first internal cavity distributed the first insulator in the form of thermoablative that generates the second internal cavity. Temperature-sensitive product is held at a distance from the walls in the second internal cavity. The first insulator is made of a solid substance that retains its state when exposed to the body with increased ambient temperature. At least part of the second internal cavity occupies the second insulator, which protect temperature-sensitive products placed in the casing. At a certain temperature of the second insulator transitions from solid to liquid. The temperature of the phase transition is chosen so that the second insulator remained in the solid state until the body are not exposed to high temperature. When the temperature of the environment of the insulator becomes a liquid.

The disadvantage of such a heat-shielding case is the following:

- in complex effects on the body of damaging factors (cross drilled, followed by heating and so on) can be rapidly flowing liquid projection from the housing and the heat-shielding properties of the body deteriorate abruptly.

Known protected from fire safe (UK application No. 2168402, IPC E 05 G 1/00, publ. 18.06.1986). The safe includes a container and a lid. Each element has an outer casing, an inner casing and an intermediate insulating layer of persistent and refractory material. Inner lining is filled with phase change SOS is the right material, for example paraffin, has the property to absorb heat.

The disadvantages of the known devices are:

- inability to resist impacts in the form of a cross, various mechanical means of tampering;

- lower heat-shielding properties mechanical damage of structural members due to possible Almaty heat resistant material and leakage, changing the phase state when heated;

the phase change material associated with the change in its volume, which can lead to damage or destruction of the safe because it does not provide structural elements, eliminating or reducing this effect.

Protection of the safe from fire on the application of UK No. 2168402 selected as a prototype.

The problem faced by the authors of the present invention is to develop a reliable protection of the object from the integrated effect hacking tools such as mechanical type (drills, milling cutters, cutting wheels, etc.), blowtorch, electric-arc torch, lumbago, including fire.

The technical result of the proposed solution is to increase the protective properties of the layered structure by creating a floating effect layer, leading to reduction of damaging the internal layers of the structure that can withstand the mechanical impact and osdate small arms bullets, high temperature fire with temperatures up to 1000°C for one hour or more local exposure to high temperatures, and due to the introduction in the design and specific location in her new two layers (one layer of highly rigid non-metallic material, the second resilient non-metallic material), which allows to achieve high protective properties of the sequential impact of small arms bullets and mechanical means of hacking (in the first place drills and milling cutters.

The technical result is achieved in that in a layered structure containing a solid enclosure that the protection of heat-resistant material and material that changes phase state and has the property to absorb heat, put two layers of highly rigid non-metallic material and a layer of porous material with the compressive strength not less than 1.5 MPa and elongation at compression of not less than 20%, on the outer side of one of the layers of the highly rigid non-metallic material, in relation to the protected object, a layer of heat-resistant material, protection combined in a single layer and mounted on the inner side of the first layer of the highly rigid non-metallic material, close to the protection of the installed substrate from at least two layers, the first is of a material with a relative untinen the m is not less than 20%, a tensile strength of from 100 to 360 MPa, and the second from a material with a relative elongation of not more than 25%, a tensile strength of not less than 370 MPa, a layer of porous material is located between the substrate and the second layer of the highly rigid non-metallic material, all layers are surrounded by a layer of resilient non-metallic material, such as filler, elastomer or rubber, with falsity layers selected in the following proportions:

h1=(of 0.025 to 0.3)h2h3=(1-20)h1h4=(0,15-0,5)h2h5=(0,25-2)h4,

h6=(0,4-1)h2h7=(0,5-2)h6,

where

h1- the thickness of the layer of heat-resistant material;

h2the thickness of the first layer of the highly rigid non-metallic material;

h3- the thickness of a layer of protection from heat resistant material and material; changing the phase state and has the property to absorb heat;

h4- the thickness of the substrate;

h5- the thickness of the layer of resilient non-metallic material;

h6- the thickness of the layer of porous material;

h7the thickness of the second layer of the highly rigid non-metallic material.

Resistance to small arms bullets and mechanical hacking tools (drills, milling cutters, cutting circles and so on) is achieved by the layered structure introduced two layers of the highly rigid ametallic is one material, the substrate is mounted thereto on the inner side through the protection layer and the layer of porous material. The layer of solid non-metallic material granulate bullet and absorbs its energy, and the substrate adjacent thereto, stops the flow of debris caused by the fragmentation of the bullet and the solid layer. The layer of porous material due to its high damping properties protects against damage to the second layer of solid non-metallic material by mechanical shock to the substrate when exposed to bullets. The safety of the second layer of the highly rigid non-metallic material is important to ensure the durability of the layered structure during subsequent exposure (after exposure bullets) various means of mechanical type (drills, milling cutters, cutting circles and so on). Moreover, this resistance is maintained at the high temperature of the fire and local heating with acetylene or electric arc cutting due to the protection that is installed on the inner side of the highly rigid non-metallic layer. Protection when heated changes its phase state, intensively absorbs heat and thereby protects the substrate from melting or thermal decomposition. Geometrical dimensions (volume) protection virtually unchanged. This is due to the fact that the defense has microheterogeneity associated with the presence of the TLD is phase - fibers and matrix. This prevents damage to the structure of the layered structure, the phase transition material. Heat removal is via the channels through valves located in the housing of the layered structure. Protection from heat resistant material and material that changes phase state and has the property to absorb heat, combined into a single layer that, in addition to the above-described functions in combination with a layer of heat-resistant material mounted on the outer side of the layer of the highly rigid non-metallic material, eliminates thermal shock to the specified highly rigid layer when exposed to fire, blowtorch or an electric arc torch having a high local rate of heating. Thus, the layer of the highly rigid non-metallic material is protected from cracking when a sharp temperature drops. The substrate is made of at least two layers, the layer adjacent to the highly rigid layer through protection, has the following physico-mechanical properties (elongation and tensile strength), which compensate for their disadvantage in the highly rigid layer. Subsequent layer of the substrate has characteristics that limit the deformation of the entire substrate as a whole and allow to finally slow down the flow of fragments traslucent bullets and fragments, formed in the local area of impact of the bullet. Selection of the proposed layers with specified characteristics, their relative positioning and the choice of thickness of the layers creates the combined effect of the floating body mobility in the application of effort. Due to this layered structure is resistant to various hacking tools mechanical type (drills, milling cutters, cutting wheels, disks). Due to the alternating shock layer side of the highly rigid non-metallic material on the tool is damage or complete destruction. The mobility of the elements of the layered structure is due to the fact that all of its layers are surrounded by a layer of resilient non-metallic material. Moreover, the thickness h5the elastic layer is connected with the thickness of h4substrate in such a manner that a required stroke (amplitude) of the layered structure and the power of elasticity (cob), comparable or greater strength tool hacking tools. When reducing the thickness of the elastic layer from the claimed value of the impact force may increase, but the amplitude will decrease. Tool breakage can occur. Conversely, a significant increase of this thickness increases the amplitude and decreases force of the blow, which also can lead to tool breakage. The thickness of the substrate h4

The thickness of the layer h3protection from heat resistant material and material that changes phase state and has the property to absorb heat, chosen from a condition of adequacy for heat dissipation from the substrate and exceptions thermal shock on the highly rigid layer of non-metallic material. If you increase its thickness in comparison with declare, it will deteriorate the contact of the substrate with the first highly rigid layer. This layer will be easily destroyed by mechanical shock or fire bullets due to the lack of withdrawal tensile stresses from the substrate layers. Reducing this thickness protection leads to melting or destruction of the layers of podlog and, and to cracking of the first highly rigid layer, which is unacceptable.

The thickness of the h2the first layer of the highly rigid non-metallic material is selected to provide the necessary resistance to small arms bullets. This value acts as the source parameter when constructing the layered structure.

The thickness of the h1a layer of heat-resistant material is selected from the conditions ensure smooth lingering heat of the first layer of the highly rigid non-metallic material to prevent the formation of cracks during thermal shock.

Also, the additional resistance of the blowtorch is achieved due to the clogging of the products of thermal destruction of elastic non-metallic material surrounding a layered structure, influence of electric arc torch is due to the strong adhesion (sticking) of the products of thermal decomposition of elastic non-metallic material to the electrode and opening the electric circuit.

The increased resistance of the layered structure to the effects of mechanical means of tampering, especially after the impact of the bullets, is provided with a second layer of highly rigid non-metallic material that maintains its integrity after any previous mechanical effects. This is achieved by mounting between the substrate and W is the second layer of highly rigid material layer of porous material, which protects the highly rigid layer from mechanical shocks due to its high damping properties. The thickness of the h6the porous layer is selected from the exception conditions contact deformable upon impact the substrate with a second layer of highly rigid material, i.e. it must be at least equal to the maximum value of the deformation of the substrate. The thickness of the h7the second layer of the highly rigid non-metallic material is selected from the conditions ensuring preserving when crushing the porous substrate layer.

It is important that the layered structure due to the optimization of the design (choice of materials and their location - sequence) does not lose its protective properties even after exposure to high temperature fire (+1000°for one or more hours), while maintaining the effect of the floating layer and does not damage the inner layers.

Thus, the claimed technical solution provides reliable protection of the object from the high temperature of a fire with temperatures up to 1000°C for one hour or more local exposure to high temperatures when acetylene or electric arc the cutting, mechanical effects of various hacking tools (drills, milling cutters, cutting circles and the like), the impact of small arms bullets, followed by mechanical means breaking C is the expense of securing the second layer of the highly rigid non-metallic material, i.e. protects the object from the integrated effect.

In Fig. 1 shows a specific example of the layered structure, as in figure 2 - picture of the interaction of hacking tools and affecting factors with a layered structure, where:

1 layer of heat-resistant material;

2 - the layer of the highly rigid non-metallic material;

3 - protection from heat resistant material and material that changes phase state and has properties to absorb heat;

4 - substrate;

5 - the second layer of the highly rigid non-metallic material;

6 - layer of porous material;

7 - layer of resilient non-metallic material;

8 - rugged;

9 - channel for removal of thermal energy and gas component released from the layers of the structure;

10 - valve;

11 - bullet;

12 - jet acetylene torch;

13 - electrode electric arc torch;

14 - the drill (cutter);

15 - off wheel;

h1- the thickness of the layer of heat-resistant material;

h2the thickness of the first layer of the highly rigid non-metallic material;

h3- the thickness of a layer of protection from heat resistant material and material that changes phase state and has the property to absorb heat;

h4- the thickness of the substrate;

h5- the thickness of the layer of resilient non-metallic material;

h6- the thickness of the layer of porous the first material;

h7the thickness of the second layer of the highly rigid non-metallic material.

The layered structure includes a robust housing 8 in which is placed the protection 3 of heat-resistant material and material that changes phase state and has the property to absorb heat, the layer 2 of the highly rigid non-metallic material. On the outer side of the layer 2 is a layer 1 of the heat-resistant material. Protection 3 is a single layer and mounted on the inner side of the first layer 2 of the highly rigid non-metallic material. Close to the protection of the 3 installed substrate 4 from at least two layers, the first from a material with a relative elongation of at least 20%, a tensile strength of from 100 to 360 MPa, and the second from a material with a relative elongation of not more than 25%, a tensile strength of not less than 370 MPa. Layer 6 made of porous material is located between the substrate 4 and the second layer 5 of the highly rigid non-metallic material. All layers are surrounded by a layer 7 of an elastic non-metallic material, such as filler, elastomer or rubber.

The layered structure is as follows.

Under the impact of the bullet 11, as a rule, breaking rugged housing 8 of the layered structure and the layer 7 of an elastic non-metallic material. Before contact bullet 11S first layer 2 of the highly rigid non-metallic material of all is instrukcii layered structure receives a mechanical disturbance in the form of vibrations. Therefore, in the first moment of contact with the layer 2 of the highly rigid non-metallic material bullet 11 experiencing alternating shock loads of different intensity, which are in the process of implementation in the layer 2. This results in the growing process of the destruction of the bullet 11 upon its interaction with the first layer 2 of the highly rigid non-metallic material. Since layer 2 is also experiencing the same load as the bullet 11, accompanied by its compression, its tension, to relieve tension with his effort is intended, on the one hand, the substrate layer 4 made of a material with a relative elongation of at least 20%, a tensile strength of from 100 to 360 MPa. On the other hand, this layer significantly reduces energy destroyed bullet 11 and fragments of the layer 2. Finally, the absorption energy of the bullet 11 and splinters performs the substrate layer 4 of a material with a relative elongation of not more than 25% and a tensile strength of not less than 370 MPa. This layer also limits the deformation of the layered structure with a bullet impact.

When exposed to a layered structure mechanical hacking tools 14, 15 (tools: drill, milling cutter, a cutting disk and the like) occur the following processes. The tools 14, 15 are relatively easy to reach the first layer 2 of the highly rigid non-metallic material. The moment of contact of the tools 14, 15 with the layer 2 because of the ease and short time penetration through rugged housing 8 and the layer 9 of an elastic non-metallic material is shock character followed by sudden braking. This allows the following selections:

- breakdown of the tools 14, 13 due to the occurrence of these zones of plastic deformation;

- elastic deformation of the tools 12, 15, and the return of the tools 14, 15 to the initial position results in movement of the layer 2 in the direction of introduction of the tools 14, 15 in a layered structure, a compression layer 7 of an elastic non-metallic material and mechanical shock to the layer 2 tools 14,15. The process is repeated until the complete destruction of the instruments.

The impact of the jet 12 acetylene torch causes destruction of the housing 8 and the decomposition of the layer 7 of an elastic non-metallic material. The products of thermal decomposition are washed away by the stream 12 to the outside. They settle on the working body (injector) acetylene torch and clog up its flow cross-section. Acetylene torch fails. The protection of the first layer 2 of the highly rigid non-metallic material from cracking during high-intensity thermal heating in the local area is layer 1 of the heat-resistant material, allowing to delay the process of heating the layer 2 and disperse heat flow in a large area.

Electrode arc torch 13 problemset housing 8 and comes into contact with a layer 7 of an elastic non-metallic material. The products of melting and thermal decomposition layer 7 stick to p is the working part of the electrode 13, it is breaking the electric circuit, and arc cutter terminates. The restoration of the electrode 13 is not subject due to the high adhesive strength of the products of melting and thermal decomposition layer 7.

If you have a layered structure affects first bullet 11, and then other means of hacking, the following occurs. Destroyed the first layer 2 of the highly rigid non-metallic material, strongly deformed substrate 4, Promenada layer of porous material 6. The second layer 5 of the highly rigid non-metallic material retains its integrity. A subsequent exposure to other hacking tools did not result in a layered structure of the through-hole.

The high temperature of the fire with a high rate of heat practically does not damage the layered structure. Layer 2 of the highly rigid non-metallic material is protected against inadmissible heating of the layer 1 of the heat-resistant material and protection 3, which is in turn due to the phase transition, which is included in her layer, absorbs heat and thereby eliminates the melting or decomposition layers of the substrate 4. The removal of thermal energy and gas component released from the layer structures in the environment occurs through the channels 9 through the valve 10.

As an example of a specific industrial is the first run of the layered structure proposed the following performance:

Durable casing 8 is made of steel 30HGSA. In the housing 8 with a wall thickness of 3 mm is placed protection 3 thickness h3=3 mm of heat-resistant teklemariam and material based on epoxy resin, changing the phase state and has the property to absorb heat. Layer 2 thickness h2=14 mm made of highly rigid non-metallic material on the basis of corundum ceramics. On the outer side of the layer 2 is a layer 1 thickness h1=1.5 mm of heat-resistant teklemariam. Protection 3 are mounted on the inner side of the first layer 2 of the highly rigid non-metallic material. Close to the protection of the 3 installed substrate 4 in the thickness h4=7 mm of two layers: the first is made of aluminum alloy with a relative elongation of 24%, a tensile strength of 250 MPa, the second - from steel with a relative elongation of 20%, a tensile strength of 380 MPa. Layer 6 made of porous material of thickness h6=7 mm is located between the substrate 4 and the second layer 5 of the highly rigid non-metallic material of thickness h7=7 mm All layers are surrounded by a layer 9 of a thickness of h5=4 mm of elastic non-metallic material based on rubber. The thickness of the layers selected in the following proportions:

h1=0,1h2, (h3=2h1h4=0,5h2h5=0,57h4h6=0,5h2h7=h6.

The claimed design is ukcia can solve the task of developing asset protection from the effects of hacking tools such as a mechanical type (drills, milling cutters, cutting wheels, etc.), blowtorch, electric-arc torch, lumbago, backache, followed by mechanical means of tampering, and to obtain the technical result in the increase of protective properties of the layered structure by creating a floating effect layer and the introduction in the design of two new protective layers and their arrangement, it is leading to the reduction of damaging the internal layers of the structure and to provide resistance to the complex impacts of small arms bullets, mechanical hacking tools, high-temperature fire with temperatures up to 1000°C for one hour or more and local impacts of high temperatures acetylene and electric arc cutting torches.

Tested on models confirmed the claimed technical result.

1. The layered structure containing a solid enclosure that the protection of heat-resistant material and material that changes phase state and has the property to absorb heat, characterized in that the layered structure introduced two layers of highly rigid non-metallic material and a layer of porous material with the compressive strength not less than 1.5 MPa and elongation at compression of not less than 20%, on the outer side of one of the layers of the highly rigid demetallized the second material in relation to the protected object has a layer of heat-resistant material, protection combined in a single layer and mounted on the inner side of the first layer of the highly rigid non-metallic material, close to the protection of the installed substrate from at least two layers, the first from a material with a relative elongation of at least 20%, a tensile strength of from 100 to 360 MPa, and the second from a material with a relative elongation of not more than 25%, a tensile strength of not less than 370 MPa, a layer of porous material is located between the substrate and the second layer of the highly rigid non-metallic material, all layers are surrounded by a layer of resilient non-metallic material, while the thickness of the layers selected in the following proportions:

h1=(of 0.025 to 0.3)h2; h3=(1-20)h1; h4=(0,15-0,5)h2; h5=(0,25-2)h4;

h6=(0,4-1,0)h2; h7=(0,5-2)h6,

where h1- the thickness of the layer of heat-resistant material;

h2the thickness of the first layer of the highly rigid non-metallic material;

h3- the thickness of a layer of protection from heat resistant material and material that changes phase state and has the property to absorb heat;

h4- the thickness of the substrate;

h5- the thickness of the layer of resilient non-metallic material;

h6- the thickness of the layer of porous material;

h7the thickness of the second layer of high quality is tverdogo non-metallic material.

2. The layered structure according to claim 1, characterized in that the elastic non-metallic material is a filler, elastomer or rubber.



 

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