Plant grain fibers and method for utilizing the same

FIELD: pulp-and-paper and food-processing industry.

SUBSTANCE: fibrous product contains grain-based fibrous material treated with acid and having full coefficient of cellulose of at least 50% and coefficient of hemi-cellulose of at least 5%. Described are fibrous product used for obtaining preferably paper products, food products, food mixture with additive based on fibrous product, method for treating of grain-based fiber, and methods for manufacturing paper and food product.

EFFECT: increased strength of paper without increasing of main weight, increased functional properties, improved structure, coagulation and taste of food product obtained with the use of grain-based fibrous material.

36 cl, 31 dwg, 10 tbl, 20 ex

 

This application relates to a method of processing fiber from grains (seeds) of plants (SBF), for enhanced fiber additive (EFA); to the resulting preferred EFA; and how it is used.

There are various technologies of processing of grain, such as corn and soybeans, to highlight useful components, such as protein, oil, starch and fiber grains. Starch typically modify for making products that are used in food and industrial applications. Oil usually rafinuyut and used for food preparation (cooking) and/or in bakery production. Protein soybeans are usually processed and used as a food additive. The protein gluten grains are usually used as part of feed for poultry. Fiber grain is usually used as a food ingredient for various types of feed for small animals and cows. However, it would be desirable to obtain the processed fiber grain that is suitable for other uses, for example, in the manufacture of paper and/or as a food additive for human nutrition.

In the description of the present invention is disclosed, inter alia, processing methodology fiber on the basis of grain (seed) for enhanced fiber additive. In accordance with obychnyj applications of the method provides for processing fiber-based grain using a dilute acid solution. Typical dilute acid solution includes a strong or a weak acid and an aqueous solution of liquid or water. Mostly use a strong acid, such as hydrochloric acid or sulfuric acid. Fiber-based grain mainly treated with diluted acid solution for a period of time sufficient to reduce the content of lignin in the fiber on the basis of grain. The resulting fiber here in some cases referred to as "the acid-treated fiber". The acid-treated fiber may be washed to remove residual acid and impurities, and dried to education improved fibrous additives. Here, the term "enhanced fiber additive" refers to the fiber on the basis of grain, which was improved by treatment with any acid described here in General, regardless of the other made improvements.

In accordance with the preferred process, the method involves the treatment of the acid-treated fiber by using a modifier. Modifier mainly is a solution of the acid chlorite (mixture of the acid and chlorite) or a peroxide solution. Typical preferred solution acidic chlorite comprises an aqueous solution of a liquid, a strong acid selected from the group comprising sulfuric acid is hydrochloric acid, and salt chlorite selected from the group comprising sodium chlorite, potassium chlorite, magnesium chlorite and chlorite calcium. Typical preferred peroxide solution mainly includes hydrogen peroxide and an aqueous solution of liquid or water. The acid-treated fiber may be treated with a solution of acid and chlorite peroxide solution, or both. The acid-treated fiber is usually processed by a modifier for a period of time sufficient to improve the degree of whiteness of the fibers. The resulting fiber with an improved degree of whiteness is also known as enhanced fiber additive or as modified fiber. The modified fiber is typically washed to remove residual chemicals and impurities, and dried to obtain the preferred clarified improved fibrous additives. In some cases, various kinds of processing will reduce the percentage of lignin.

In accordance with the present invention a method of manufacture of paper and paper products. The paper is obtained using the following operations: processing of wood, which receive wood pulp; combining wood pulp with enhanced fiber additive for the formation of modified wood pulp and placement modi is Anna wood pulp on a sieve; drainage modified wood pulp; pressing modified wood pulp; and drying the modified wood pulp. Wood pulp can be prepared by chemical or mechanical processing. In accordance with the present invention it is also proposed paper product that contains wood pulp and superior fiber supplements. Alternative types of paper, which include striped wood fibers, can also be prepared using EFA. In accordance with the present invention there is a method of cooking a food product and is obtained at the expense of the food product and the food product is formed by combining its ingredient (or ingredients) with improved fiber Supplement.

The claimed group of inventions is characterized by the combination of features set forth in the formula according to items 1-36.

1 shows a diagram of the sequence of operations of the methods of processing the fibers on the basis of grain in accordance with the present invention.

Figure 2 shows a digital printing micrograph obtained by scanning electron microscope (SEM) with a magnification 100X, crushed corn fiber (SBF) of the process of wet milling of corn.

Figure 3 shows a digital printing micrograph obtained by raster elect the district microscope with magnification 100X, crushed improved fibrous additives from corn fiber (EFA), prepared in accordance with the present invention.

Figure 4 shows the Raman spectrum after Fourier transform, which allows comparison of SBF-C and EFA-C.

Figure 5 shows a graph of the resistance to punching sheets of writing paper with EFA-With (enhanced fiber additive from the husk of the grains) and without it.

Figure 6 shows a graph of the tensile strength of the sheets of writing paper with EFA-With and without it.

7 shows a graph of the resistance to punching sheets of writing paper with EFA-S (enhanced fiber additive from the husk soybeans) and without it, and with EFA-W (enhanced fiber additive of the kernels of wheat) and without it.

On figa shows a diagram of the experimental machine for paper production WMU.

On FIGU shows a typical machine for the production of paper.

Figure 9 shows a graph of the resistance to punching paper at two different primary masses of paper produced with EFA-With and without it.

Figure 10 shows a graph of the tensile strength of paper in two different primary masses, made with EFA-With and without it.

Figure 11 shows the tensile strength of paper in two different primary masses, made with EFA-With and without it.

On Fig shows a graph of the adhesion forces by Scott (Scott) paper at two different basically the masses, made with EFA-With and without it.

On Fig shows the porosity of paper in two different primary masses, made with EFA-With and without it.

On Fig shows the bulk density of paper in two different primary masses, made with EFA-With and without it.

On Fig shows the fatigue strength in bending (kinking) of the paper at two different primary masses, made with EFA-With and without it.

On Fig shows the increase of the internal friction of paper by Scott adding 2.0% EFA-C.

On Fig shows the porosity of the sheets of paper made from EFA-With and without it.

On Fig shows the seal paper adding 2.0% EFA-C.

On Fig shows a SEM image at a magnification only 800 meters of a sheet of paper 40 pounds, made without the EFA.

On Fig shows a SEM image at a magnification only 800 meters of a sheet of paper 40 pounds, made with 1% EFA-With added before surgery treatment (refining).

On Fig shows the spectra infrared reflectance Fourier transform of the paper manufactured with EFA and without it.

On Fig shows the correlation spectrum of paper in the near infrared region of the spectrum.

On Fig shows digital printing micrographs obtained by scanning electron microscope (SEM), for paper with EFA and paper without the EFA.

On Fig shows digital printing black-and-white image in infrakrasnoi area of the paper without the EFA.

On Fig shows digital printing black and white images in the infrared region of the paper with the EFA.

On Fig shows a graph of the response in the near infrared spectrum (NIR) for evaluation of paper if you change the quantity added EFA.

On Fig shown digitally printed images obtained using a transmission electron microscope (TEM), for sample SBF after forming an image using samples of cellulose - gold.

On Fig shown digitally printed images obtained using TEM, the sample EFA after forming an image using samples of cellulose - gold.

On Fig shows the results of evaluating the impact of EFA on the fat content and moisture roasted mushrooms.

On Fig shows the results of evaluating the impact of EFA on the fat content and moisture in fried zucchini.

I. General comments

In the present invention proposes a method of processing fibers, obtained from grains, such as corn, oats, wheat, soybeans, and rice, to obtain improved fibrous additives. Enhanced fiber additive can be used in a variety of applications, including (but without limitation) as an additive to paper or food additives.

Used herein, the term "Fiber-based grain" or "SBF" refers to non-woody fiber obtained the C plants, Fiber-based grain contains a variety of polymers, including cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. "Pulp" is a linear polymer of glucose, which forms the "main chain" structure of the fiber. The hydrogen bond between the polymers cellulose gives cellulosic fibers of high strength. "Hemicellulose" belongs to the class of polymers of Sugars, such as Castiglione sugar Manitoba, galactose, glucose, 4-O-methyl-D-glucuronic acid and five-carbon sugar xylose and arabinose. Hemicellulose polymers are mainly linear, except otnoshenij side chains of acetyl substituents. Hemicellulose the polymer is more soluble and volatile than cellulose, and can be solubilisation from plant cell walls using alkali such as sodium hydroxide. "Lignin is a complex polymer of blocks phenoxypropanol, which has an amorphous three-dimensional structure. Lignin is an adhesive or binder that holds the fibers together.

As an example, you can tell that a typical kernel (core) of corn contains (in wt.%) about 39-40% hemicelluloses (high content of hemicelluloses can get a good additive for industrial fibrous mass); 11-30% cellulose (containing low is their undesirable for pulp paper production); 3-6% lignin (less lignin, the better); <1% ash (less than ash, the better); 22-23% starch; 3-4% fat; and 10-12% protein.

II. Preparation of enhanced fiber additive (EFA)

II. A. Technology operations

In accordance with this invention proposes a method of processing fibrous material on the basis of grain (SBF), for enhanced fiber additive (EFA). This method provides for processing SBF using acid (operation acid treatment") to obtain the acid-treated fiber or the modified fibrous material on the basis of grain. (Under the "modified" material in this context I understand that SBF is not more in its raw form). The acid-treated fiber can be washed and used as an improved fibrous additive. In a preferred embodiment, the treatment, the acid-treated fiber is treated with a modifier ("operation surface modification") to obtain the modified fiber. The modified fiber can then be washed and used as the preferred enhanced fiber additive (EFA). The precedence diagram for a preferred method and selected variations of the process shown in figure 1. (Optional and mostly fiber SBF can be washed is or processed in any other way earlier surgery acid treatment). In this case, the term SBF mainly refers to the fibrous material to acid treatment, regardless of whether it has been pre-washed or processed otherwise.

II. A. 1. Acid treatment

In operation, the acid treatment produces processing SBF acid for modification. Modification softens and loosens the fibers. In operation, the acid treatment SBF is mixed with a diluted acid solution for the formation of acid slurry. Acid slurry for a time sufficient for softening and loosening the fibers. Mostly the reaction is carried out at elevated temperature in excess of 80°and typically in the range from 100 to 140°C.

The term "dilute acid solution" refers to a solution in which a small amount of acid combined with large amounts of water. The amount of acid, which combines with water, can depend on the strength of the acid, from to be processed fiber and desirable properties of improved fibrous additives. The amount of acid can be calculated (in weight percent) based on dry weight SBF. A dilute acid solution may be prepared by combining water with a strong acid or weak acid. Usually a dilute acid solution, prepared using a weak acid, sod is RIT greater molar quantity of a weak acid, than a dilute acid solution, prepared using a strong acid. Typical applied diluted acid solutions are solutions of hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, acetic acid, perchloric acid and phosphoric acid. Usually in dilute acid solution contains approximately from 0.001 to 5% acid, calculated on the dry weight SBF (for example, use approximately from 0.001 to 5 grams of acid per 100 grams of dry fiber weight), mostly from approximately 1 to 4%, calculated on the dry weight of the SBF, and even better, from approximately 2% to 3%, calculated on the dry weight of the SBF. Mainly a dilute acid solution combined with SBF in the ratio 10:1, mainly approximately in the ratio 6:1, and even better, approximately in the ratio of 3:1.

A dilute acid solution mainly has a pH less than 5, typically in the range of approximately from 0.5 to 3, preferably approximately from 1 to 3, and even better, on average from 1 to 2.

Operation acid treatment is mainly carried out at elevated temperature (over 21°and usually over 80° (C) and in the pressure range from atmospheric to 500 psi (pounds per square inch), and usually from 10 to 30 psi, in order to facilitate penetration of the acid into the fibers and reduce the time required to complete the reaction. If the tempo is the atur reaction is too high, this can lead to undesirable performance degradation. Therefore, the reaction is usually carried out at a temperature in the range of approximately 100 to 140°S, mostly from approximately 110 to 130°and even better, from approximately 115 to 120°C. the Operation of acid processing is mainly carried out in a sealed pressure vessel, which can operate at temperatures above 100°C. as examples of suitable pressure vessels can result in a circulation reactor (e.g., Digester firm M/K Systems, Danvers, MA) or mixing reactor shirt the autoclave Pandia company Beloit Corporation, Nashua, NH). Typical pressure in the reactor comprise 10-50 psi. He required the purging of the reactor with air.

After obtaining the desired temperature, the reaction continued for the desired period of time, usually a period of time sufficient to achieve substantial softening and loosening the fibers. As a rule, the reaction of the acid treatment is carried out in a period of time less than 2.5 hours, for example, typically within approximately from 0.5 to 2 hours. A typical treatment usually takes about 1 to 2 hours, for example, approximately 1 to 1.25 hours. After the reaction within the desired period of time the reactor is cooled to room temperature and the pressure decrease is up to atmospheric. Alternatively, the spent acid solution may be under pressure released in the condenser, and the solid content of the cooled cold water. Then from the reactor unload the acid-treated fiber.

The acid-treated fiber may be washed to remove the spent acid solution. Used herein, the term "waste acid solution" refers to diluted acid solution after processing acid. The spent acid solution typically contains extracted lignin, starch, residual chemicals and other impurities that are not in the original dilute acid solution. The acid-treated fiber mainly washed with water. Mainly, if the acid-treated fiber is used as an improved fibrous additives, the washing operation continues to produce filtrate with a neutral pH (e.g. pH from approximately 6.0 to 8.0, and mostly about 7.0). Usually the filtrate with a neutral pH can be obtained by exchanging the spent acid solution with 3-4 volumes of water. The washed, treated with acid fiber can then be used as an improved fibrous additive. If necessary, washed the acid-treated fiber may be dried.

In the preferred processing the acid-treated fiber item is washed and optionally modify the operation surface modification. If the acid-treated fiber additionally modify the operation of the surface modification, the residual acid from processing mostly remains in the acid-treated fiber to help maintain an acidic pH during the operation surface modification. Thus, when the acid-treated fiber additionally modify the operation of the modification of the surface by rinsing mainly remove most extracted lignin, starch and other solid particles, but leave a part of the spent acid solution. This is usually carried out by exchange of the acid solution with approximately 1-2 volumes of water. Particularly preferably, the residual acid from the acid treatment remained in the acid-treated fiber, when the process of surface modification includes soft processing using acidic chlorite.

II. A. 2. Surface modification

The acid-treated fiber is mainly treated using one or more operations of the surface modification. The objective of the operations of surface modification is to improve the degree of whiteness obtained enhanced fiber additive (EFA) and the improvement of hydrophilicity EFA. An example of an operation surface modification is surgery whitening. Although NATO the fibers SBF can be processed in an operation surface modification without prior acid treatment operation, the operation surface modification mainly carried out after SBF passed the acid treatment operation.

In the operation of surface modification, the acid-treated fiber comes in contact with the modifier for the formation of the preferred improved fibrous additives. Used here, the term "modifier" refers to a composition or solution that can change the hydrophobicity, hydrophilicity and/or the degree of whiteness of the fibers. Modifier mainly increases the hydrophilicity (or reduces the hydrophobicity) of the fiber, for example, by adding hydrophilic groups or the removal of hydrophobic groups of the fibers, or by changing the surface area of the fiber, so as to open more hydrophilic groups (or less hydrophobic groups). The surface modifier may also increase the degree of whiteness of the fiber, for example, due to the removal of lignin. Examples of the surface modifier is bleach. Bleach is used in the manufacture of wood pulp (technical cellulose). Mild acidic solution of chlorite is the preferred bleach. Peroxide (usually hydrogen peroxide) is another useful bleach. The treated acid is the fiber can be processed using a mild solution of acid chlorite, peroxide solution or combinations thereof. The use of a mixture of acidic chlorite in combination with a peroxide solution (in separate transactions) as bleach is preferred. The degree of whiteness and the hydrophilic fibers are usually improved when using both (both) processing.

During typical processing of acidic chlorite, the acid-treated fiber is combined with the acidic solution of chlorite and heat up. Used here, the term "acidic solution of chlorite" refers to a solution that contains a salt of chloride acid, strong or weak acid and, possibly, water media. Mostly, the solution is acidic chlorite has a pH less than 5, typically in the range of approximately from 2 to 5, mainly approximately from 2 to 4, and even better from approximately 2.5 to 3.

The solution acidic chlorite combined with the acid-treated fiber to create a fibrous mass. Usually the solution is acidic chlorite add water so that the resulting fibrous mass contains approximately from 1 to 20 wt.% solids, but mainly it is estimated that between 5 to 10 wt.% solid substances. Usually fibrous mass contains approximately 1 to 5% by weight of chlorite, mostly from approximately 1 to 3% by weight and better still from approximately 1% to 2% by weight of chlorite. These weight percentages are given in Perez the geta on the weight of dry fiber. For example, the fibrous mass may be approximately 1 to 2 grams of chlorite per 100 grams of dry fiber weight.

Despite the fact that the operation of the modification can be carried out at room temperature, it is mainly carried out at elevated temperature (>21° (C) to increase the reaction rate. If the temperature is too high, then there is an undesirable decrease in performance. Usually the operation whitening carried out at a temperature in the range of approximately 50 to 80°S, mostly from approximately 55 to 75°and even better, it is estimated that between 65 to 75°C. the Reaction is usually carried out in a sealed vessel in an atmosphere of air, with periodic stirring of the contents. The reaction proceeds at approximately the period of time from 0.5 to 2 hours, mostly from approximately 1 hour to 2 hours, or better yet approximately 1 to 1.5 hours.

After the treatment with the acidic chlorite modified fiber can be washed with water to remove the extracted materials and excess chemicals and can then be used without further processing as enhanced fiber additive (EFA).

The operation of the modification may include the processing operation peroxide. In this case, the peroxide is primarily the pen is led hydrogen, that combined with the fiber in the amount of approximately from 1 to 10% by weight of dry fiber, mostly from approximately 2 to 7% by weight, and even better, approximately from 3 to 6% by weight. Peroxide is mainly contained in the aqueous solution (in water). Typical peroxide solution has a pH of at least 9, for example, between 9 and 11.5, mostly from approximately 9.5 to 11, and even better from approximately 10 to 10.5. Mainly peroxide are cooked in a mild alkaline solution by adding alkali in the bleaching solution to obtain the desired pH.

As in the processing of acidic chlorite, processing peroxide can be carried out at room temperature. However, in this case it is better to conduct the reaction at elevated temperature (>21° (C) to increase the reaction rate and reduce the response time. However, the temperature should not be too high, and the time of reaction should not be too long, and should not be a significant performance hit. The processing operation peroxide is usually carried out at a temperature of approximately from 50 to 80°often from 55 to 75°and mostly from approximately 55 to 65°C; and in the course of time, approximately from 0.5 to 2 hours, usually from 1 to 2 hours, and mostly from approximately 1 to 1.5 hours. After treatment the peroxide fiber is usually washed with water to pH of about 7.0 to remove excess chemicals and residual impurities, then the fiber can be used as enhanced fiber additive (EFA).

If the surface modification is used as the processing of acidic chlorite and processing peroxide, then processing acidic chlorite mainly carried out before the treatment with peroxide. This minimizes the adjustment of pH values.

II. A.3. Additional technological operations

Enhanced fiber additive (EFA), prepared in accordance with the previously described may be dried and milled to form a powder. Mainly drying EFA is conducted at an elevated temperature to reduce drying time. However, if the temperature is too high, the degree of whiteness can be reduced. Usually drying processed supplements EFA is performed at a temperature that constitutes at least 35°usually from 40 to 70°mainly from 45 to 65°and even better, from approximately 55 to 60°With, in the course of time up to 8 hours or to reduce the moisture content of the fiber to a value of less than 6 wt.%. Dried EFA Supplement can be ground to any desired size, depending on the intended use. For example, the fiber may be milled to a size of 100 mesh (mesh - standard US size) to get similar to starch powder supplements. (Grinding to 100 mesh means is that particles of ground material must pass through a standard U.S. sieve with a mesh size of 100 mesh). For grinding, you can use the mill Retsu (Retsch) or crusher of any other type. Should take Merya to avoid charring or burning of the fibers in the course of grinding.

II. Century Used in the processing of materials

II. C. 1. Operation acid treatment

In operation, the acid treatment can be used both strong and weak acid. As examples of suitable strong acids can lead hydrochloric acid, nitric acid and sulfuric acid. As examples of suitable weak acids can result in acetic acid (CH3COOH), citric acid, sulfurous acid, and carbonic acid (H2CO3). Primarily as acid using a strong acid, and this acid is sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid.

II. C. 2. The processing operation of the surface

Know the use of bleach. In the book "Handbook for Pulp &Paper Technologists," by G.A.Smook, published by TAPPI (1989) ("Handbook of pulp and paper") discussed different protocols whitening that are useful and therefore are included in this description by reference. As examples of suitable whitening treatments, you can specify the test fiber with elemental chlorine in an acidic environment; the alkaline extraction of the reaction products with sodium hydroxide; conducting Rea is tion of fibers with hypochlorite in an alkaline solution; carrying out the reaction of the fibers with chlorine dioxide in an acidic environment; carrying out the reaction of the fibers with a peroxide in an alkaline environment; carrying out the reaction of the fibers with elementary oxygen under high pressure in an alkaline environment; and conducting the reaction of the fibers with ozone.

Mild acidic solution of chlorite is the preferred modifier. As examples of suitable chlorite can result in sodium chlorite, potassium chlorite, magnesium chlorite and chlorite calcium. The preferred chlorite is sodium chlorite. Chlorite mainly combined with a strong acid, such as hydrochloric acid or sulfuric acid, and aqueous carrier such as water. For example, the acidic solution of chlorite may have a molar ratio of 1:1 of sodium chlorite and hydrochloric acid. Alternatively, an acidic solution of chlorite may have a ratio of 2:1 potassium chlorite and sulfuric acid.

Other preferred modifier is peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide can be given as an example of a suitable peroxide. Mainly peroxide is used in a mild alkaline solution obtained by combining peroxide with an aqueous medium (water) and an alkaline material. As examples of suitable alkaline materials can lead to sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide.

Optionally, the peroxide solution can be introduced chelate is th additive. Chelated supplements are known in themselves. As an example of a suitable chelating additives can cause metasilicate sodium. Chelate additive that binds the different metal ions in the system.

III. Selected properties enhanced fiber additive (EFA)

The method in accordance with the present invention allows to obtain a modified processed fiber, known as enhanced fiber additive (EFA). If EFA was not modified due to whitening, it usually has a degree of whiteness of the same color as the original material. Preferential EFA is usually white or light yellow-brown in color and has a whiteness of at least about 50 (units) ISO, mostly at least about 70 ISO, and even better, as a result of clarification, at least about 80 ISO. The degree of whiteness or white fiber can be determined by its ability to reflect blue light, in comparison with a known standard magnesium oxide, at a given wavelength detection at a given angle of reflection (TAPPI Test Methods T 452 om-87).

EFA has a significant ability to hold water and oil, which can be measured using the modified method AACS (American Association of Cereal Chemists) Method 56-20. This procedure is described in Example 7. Usually EFA has a holding capacity, which is at least 200 wt.%, p is imushestvenno at least about 300 wt.%, and, after preparation as described here is the preferred method of treatment, about 500 wt.%. EFA has the ability to hold oil, which is usually at least 150 wt.%, mostly at least 200 wt.%, and, after preparation as described here is the preferred method of treatment, about 300 wt.%.

EFA also has characteristics of viscosity in aqueous solutions under conditions of high shear or homogenization. Homogenized aqueous solution which contains 1.5 wt.% EFA, typically has a viscosity comprising at least 10 centipoise (CP), measured using a viscometer of the company Brookfield Corporation, primarily at least about 100 centipoise, and, after preparing the EFA in accordance with the described herein the preferred method of treatment, at least about 400 centipoise.

Made from corn EFA Supplement typically contains at least approximately 70 to 100% by weight of carbohydrates (including cellulose and hemicellulose), mostly from approximately 80 to 95% by weight of carbohydrates, and in some cases approximately 85 to 95% by weight of carbohydrates. Most of the fractions of carbohydrates, approximately 75 by weight to 95% by weight, represents insoluble dietary fiber. Made from corn Supplement EFA mainly contains guide the adjustment from 85 to 90% by weight of insoluble dietary fiber.

Made from oats EFA Supplement typically contains at least 80 to 100% by weight of carbohydrates (including cellulose and hemicellulose), mostly from 80 to 90% by weight of carbohydrates, and in some cases approximately 85 to 90% by weight of carbohydrates. Made from soy EFA Supplement typically contains from 70 to 100% by weight of carbohydrates (including cellulose and hemicellulose), mostly from approximately 80 to 95% by weight of carbohydrates, and in some cases approximately 80% to 85% by weight of carbohydrates.

It can be assumed that the desirable characteristics of the improved fibrous additives obtained by chemical modification, resulting in changes in the nature of the material in holocellulose, hemicellulose and cellulose, which are described in the next section VIII. As a rule, observed that the treatment leads to a large distinctive characteristics of cellulose compared to hemicellulose in the fibrous material (if you compare the fibrous material before and after processing). In addition, it can be assumed that many of the observations regarding the structure, color and intensity characteristics of cellulose associated with a modification of lignin, at least on the surface, as a result of physical and chemical modification.

When conducting research using scanning electron microscope you can see, Thu the structure chopped enhanced fiber additive (EFA) has an increased surface area compared to non-treated fiber, such as chopped fiber from corn (SBF). While SBF-usually has a structured, gear and similar to the breed's appearance, EFA has a slightly plumose whitish appearance. It can be assumed that the increased surface area provides, at least partially, many desirable properties EFA.

IV. The use of EFA

IV. A. General comments

Supplement EFA can be used to change the adhesive (adhesive and rheological properties of various commercial products. For example, EFA can be used for coating and painting paper. EFA can also be used as a food additive. In addition, EFA can be used to improve the strength characteristics of paper.

IV. Century paper Production

In the paper industry often use additives to modify the properties of the paper. For example, the wet end starches add for internal sizing, and inorganic fillers (e.g. calcium carbonate, titanium dioxide and clay) is added to enhance the optical properties and the quality of materials replacement fiber. It is also known the use of other synthetic additives to increase the strength.

EFA can also be used in the paper industry, mainly as a material to replace the fiber. EFA represents the Yu additive, with light weight and low ash content. Unlike inorganic fillers, EFA can be used so that the weight of a paper sheet is not significantly increased. Manufactured in accordance with the described here EFA allows you to maintain or improve the strength characteristics of the paper in those applications in which the bulk of the paper is reduced by more than 10%, for example, up to 33%. The ability EFA increase the strength of paper in such applications without an accompanying increase in the basic mass is attractive both for manufacturers and for consumers of paper. Through the use of EFA manufacturers can reduce the cost of material and operating costs, while consumers of paper can reduce the cost of transportation and distribution. In particular, through the use of EFA can be reduced the bulk of newsprint and LWC paper.

In some areas of the paper less concern is the reduction of the volume of the fibrous mass than increasing the strength of the paper. It was found that EFA increases the strength characteristics of the paper even at the level of catalyst added. Used here, the term "level of catalytic added" means that EFA add in the paper in small quantities, typically less than 10 wt.%, typically the REE concentrations from 0.1 to 10 wt.%, in terms of the fiber used in the manufacture of paper, mostly from approximately 0.5 to 3.0 wt.%, and even better, from approximately 0.5 to 2.0 wt.%. The field of use in which it is necessary to increase the strength of the paper, include the packaging of liquids, bleached paperboard, thin paper, linerboard and corrugated cardboard.

In addition, EFA is a Supplement to the paper, which has no harmful impact on the environment. When using only catalytic amounts of EFA content of wood fibers can be reduced, for example, the value from 5 to 33% (by weight). Reduced consumption of wood fiber not only keeps the forest, but also reduces the amount of chemicals for the preparation of the fibrous mass and/or for whitening reduces the number sent to the sewer B.O.D. (biological consumers oxygen), reduces energy consumption (e.g. electricity and/or fossil fuel energy), and also reduces the costs for the shipment and transportation of products.

IV. C. 1. The paper production process

The paper mainly derived from tape (cloth) of the fibrous mass. The fibrous mass is a fibrous raw material for paper production, which typically is of vegetable origin, but it can b the th included mineral or synthetic fibers, and fiber of animal origin. Typically, the fiber used in the manufacture of paper from wood. However, there may be used other sources of pulp, such as straw, or materials such as linen yarn and flax, hemp and synthetic fibers such as polyethylene fibers), as well as mixtures thereof. In a paper product, all these materials are referred to as "paper fiber". Usually fibrous mass from such sources are used in substantially smaller quantities than the fiber of the wood. The fibrous mass can also be obtained from secondary or recycled fibers.

The paper is typically formed from an aqueous suspension of a fibrous mass, which is filtered through a wire sieve or a mesh and dried. Manufacturer of paper usually gets the fibrous mass from the source materials, such as wood chips, boards, straw, jute, cloth or recycled paper by wetting and scutching (grinding) of the source materials for the separation of the paper fibers and for forming a suspension of the fibrous mass. Then the suspension of the fibrous mass rafinuyut refiner, in order to make the surface of the fiber is more rough.

After the fibrous mass, you can proceed to the formation of the paper manually or by machine. Both in manual and when m is tire production paper use the same basic operations: (1) the formation and application of a suspension of the fibrous mass on the grid; (2) drainage (drainage), in which water flows by gravity or pressure drop that occurs in the water column; (3) pressing, in which there is an additional dehydration due to extraction of water from the paper sheet; and (4) drying, including drying in the open air or drying the sheet over a hot surface. It is important to note that the fibrous mass is to be placed on a sieve with a low consistency (for example, approximately with a content of from 0.1 to 1.0% solids)to obtain a uniform distribution of fibers and ensure uniformity of paper (G.A.Smook; 2ndEdition Handbook for Pulp and Paper Technologists; Angus Wilde Publications Inc. 1994) ("the Guide for technologists pulp and paper").

The process of making fibrous mass may be chemical, mechanical or polymechanics, depending on the desired quantity of the removed lignin. Fibrous masses obtained with the use of chemicals (chemical fibrous mass"), can usually be stronger and lighter bleached to improve the degree of whiteness. On the other hand, fibrous mass produced using mechanical means, save more lignin, so they are less durable and more difficult to whiten. Chemical-mechanical means of making fibrous masses usually allow you to obtain a fibrous mass from among them strength characteristics between chemical and mechanical means of fibrous masses. Various grades of paper produced from various types of fibrous mass. For example, to obtain newsprint typically use mechanical means of making fibrous masses, and for writing and printing paper of good quality used bleached fibrous pulp obtained by chemical means.

As has been mentioned here before, during the preparation of the fibrous mass usually add chemicals to remove lignin. However, the chemicals are removed from the fibers and hemicellulose. Usually it is desirable to leave a certain amount of hemicelluloses, because hemicellulose is a natural binder that provides additional tensile strength and tensile bursting fibrous mass. It is therefore desirable to replace the lost hemicellulose using containing hemicellulose additives such as EFA (enhanced fiber additive)obtained by the method in accordance with the present invention.

IV. C. 2. The use of EFA in paper production - General comments

Mainly fibrous additive which is used in the manufacture of paper, has a low content of fats, proteins, lignin and ash, but the high content of holocellulose and some hemicelluloses. Hemicellulose is hydrophilic and p is this activates the hydrogen bond between the individual fibers of the paper. Thus, hemicellulose acts as a binder and increases the strength of paper. Because lignin is hydrophobic and gives a yellowish color of the finished paper, it is often desirable to minimize the amount of lignin in paper additive. Lignin also acts as the glue that holds the individual fibers together; however, it is desirable that the individual fibers are easily separated.

Despite the fact that can be used fibers with higher lignin content) as a hardening additive, of particular interest as an additive to paper is fiber from corn, as corn fiber has a corresponding content of hemicellulose and a relatively low content of lignin and ash. For example, while the fiber from corn has about 3-6% of lignin, fiber soft wood contains about 25-31% lignin and fiber solid wood contains about 16-24% lignin.

Processing in accordance with the present invention, the discussion of which is carried out below in section VIII, allows to obtain a modified or improved fiber supplements, which is particularly desired characteristics compared to the characteristics of holocellulose, hemicellulose and cellulose, as well as with characteristics of the source material SBF from which it was obtained. Features : the tick, relatively close to the characteristics of pulp, means that the fibrous material will behave in the paper is similar to the wood fiber, in regards to the dispersive ability of the pigment and orientation. Characteristic, relatively close to the characteristics of hemicellulose, partially means that there can be obtained the desired gain strength. Full preservation of content holocellulose means that can be reduced to an acceptable level, other undesirable effects. In addition, it can be assumed that the modification of the surface characteristics and the characteristics of the lignin also facilitates the work material as an additive to paper.

IV. Century 3. Processing

EFA can be added to the slurry of pulp for paper production prior to or during operations of refining or scutching (grinding) of the paper production process (pigv). Mostly spend refining EFA together with the suspension of pulp for paper production, to improve the mixing and contact between EFA and fibrous pulp for paper production. EFA mainly added in such a quantity that is sufficient to improve the properties of the finished paper, but not in such large, which is undesirable inhibits the drainage of pulp for paper production or adversely affects the operation of the equipment. EFA mainly on billaut in fibrous pulp for paper production at a concentration of approximately from 0.1 to 10 wt.%, in terms of fiber, mostly from approximately 0.5 to 3.0 wt.%, and even better, from approximately 0.5 to 2.0 wt.%.

Together with EFA in the system of suspension of pulp may be added cationic starch for flocculation of fibers that facilitate water drainage and retention of fibers and filler material. Cationic starches are due to the chemical reaction of starch with reagents containing amino - and aminogroup, as well as ammonium, sulfonate or postname groups, all of which carry a positive charge. Currently, the most important industrial derivatives are tertiary amino and Quaternary ammonium ethers of starch. A key factor in their usefulness is an affinity to negatively charged substrates. (..Wurzburg; Modifited Starches: Properties and Uses; CRC Press Inc., 1986) ("Modified starches: properties and application").

EFA reduces the amount of pulp for paper production, for example, by up to 33%, however, while maintaining the properties of strength, bursting strength and tensile strength of paper. In addition, EFA increases the strength of the material in the wet state and reduce resistance during the paper production process, so that the speed of the machine can be increased and the paper web breaks for paper grades with low weight could the t to be reduced.

Let us consider figa showing the operation of the work machine for the production of paper types Lou Calder. This machine can be used to provide speed from 6 fpm to 150 fpm (feet per minute), allowing you to get from 75 to 200 pounds per hour of paper that has the majority from 18 to 400 pounds.

Shown in figv machine has a "Dutch" feeder 1, a tank for pulp 2, an oscillator tank 3 and the rear tank 4. Tray water chamber 5 has a means of controlling pH 6. The table has rollers 7 and dendral (dry mix) 8. The machine has a first pressing 9, the second press 10 and the size press 11 and the first drying cylinder 12, the second drying cylinder 13, relieving the shaft 14 and the couch - press suction 15.

Such equipment is a standard equipment for the production of paper, which is used in the production of paper according to his descriptions.

IV. Century 4. The product

In accordance with the present invention it is also proposed paper product that contains EFA. Supplement EFA can be used to improve various properties of paper, for example, the internal adhesive force (strength paper on plucking), as well as strength burst strength of adhesion of paper by Scott (Scott bond strength) and tensile strength; and properties increase and packaging, such as bulk density. All e and characteristics of paper can be measured using published TAPPI test methods.

Supplement EFA is appropriate for use in various paper materials. Paper materials can be subdivided on paper (newsprint, paper products, copy paper, bags, towels, napkins, etc), cardboard (linerboard, corrugated cardboard, tubes, cylindrical containers, cartons for milk, recycled cardboard, used in shoes and boxes for grain, rolled roofing material, wood-fiber Board, etc). In industry usually divide the paper into broad categories depending on the type of fibre used in the paper, and the weight of the paper. Note that EFA is suitable for use with all types of paper. Typically, however, EFA is used to enhance the characteristics of higher quality paper such as bond paper, thin paper, and cardboard, such as linerboard or corrugated cardboard.

Bond paper is a broad category of higher quality paper for printing or writing paper. It is derived from bleached chemical fibrous masses and of cotton fibers, and it may have watermarks. Thin paper is used for writing, printing and printing process. It can be white or colored and it is derived from bleached Kraft pulp or from sulfotyrosine wood is masses of soft wood, moreover, it may contain fibers from hardwood to improve the smoothness and opacity. Linerboard is an unbleached Kraft pulp from softwood lumber southern pine or lieshi fiscaliste, which may have a different weight. Often linerboard has the form of a two-layer sheet. Linerboard has high values of compressive strength and tensile strength. Corrugated cardboard is produced from unbleached polychemicals fibrous mass. It is used in the form of wavy structures or spacers between the layers of plasterboard, which allows to obtain the actual structure of the corrugated cardboard. Corrugated cardboard is usually used for making boxes.

IV. Century 5. Additional considerations

Typically, in order to material, such as EFA Supplement, could be used as a good additive for paper production, it must have the following properties:

(A) Good hydrophilicity hemicelluloses;

(B) the characteristics of the fiber-like properties of cellulose; and

(C) Fibrous structure capable of forming forming jumpers microfibers (thin fibrils) in the paper.

The hydrophilicity of hemicellulose increases the dispersion characteristics of the materials, and also promotes the formation of hydrogen bonds of the cellulose material in Akniste mass. Such properties of cellulose fiber characteristics ensure good mixing with other cellulosic fibers in the fibrous mass. The corresponding microstructure of the fibers allows the formation of microfibrils that increase the overall strength of paper by forming a network of bridges between the fibers of the fibrous pulp (cellulose).

As has been mentioned here previously and as described in further experiments, enhanced fiber additive (EFA), made in accordance with the present invention, and is a material with these characteristics. Generally speaking, the result of the modification: (a) the ratio of cellulose (%) in full the fibrous material is usually higher than before treatment; (b) ratio of ratio of cellulose to the coefficient of hemicelluloses usually increases as compared with the initial fiber; and (C) the ratio holocellulose usually increases. The material has a noticeable characteristic microstructure, which contains the formed structure microfibril in the paper product, as shown in the following examples and the comparison Fig and 20. Noticeable similar to cellulose structure allows to combine materials (EFA) with materials of cellulose, as described hereinafter with reference to Examples.

IV. C. the Use of EFA as a food additive

Dietary fiber is important in the process of feeding and plays a significant role in preventing diseases such as cancer of the colon. I believe that dietary fiber reduces the levels of serum cholesterol, which is important for preventing heart disease. "Dietary fiber" includes soluble and insoluble components of plant cell walls, which are not digested endogenous (not bacterial) enzymes of the gastrointestinal tract of man. Dietary fiber is not absorbed in the small intestine and, therefore, enters into the large (colon) intestines. "Insoluble fiber" contains oligo - and polysaccharides, such as cellulose and hemicellulose. "Soluble fiber" is a fiber that is at least 50% soluble in accordance with the determination method described in the publication L.Prosky et al., J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem., 71, 1017-1023 (1988). As examples of soluble fibers can result in pectin, beta-glucan (small branched polymers of glucose type cellulose and gums, such as xanthan gum. The use of fibrous additives in food can be considered as the consumption of dietary fiber in accordance with the provisions of the U.S. Nutrition Labeling and Education Act (NLEA) of 1990.

the usual manufacturers of food products use a combination of insoluble and soluble fiber in the composition of the food. Insoluble fiber is widely used in products for their enrichment (increase strength), and soluble fibers are used to improve functional properties. Under the functional properties understand the appearance, viscosity, water retention ability, and the ability to hold oil.

Since the addition of EFA has as a significant retention capacity of water (that is hydrophilic in nature), and a significant retention capacity of oil (i.e. it has a lipophilic nature, it can be used not only as an emulsifier component, increasing the viscosity or for other similar purposes, but also as a means to enhance or enrich other materials, as part of the vehicle, for example, for delivery of nutrients. Thus, it can be enriched with various nutrients, supplements to the diet, and so on, until the introduction of food or direct ingestion.

EFA is suitable for use as an additive to dietary fiber. Unlike many commercially available fiber supplements, EFA provides both the enrichment and enhancement of functional properties due to its use improves the structure, coagulation and taste when chewing food.

Usually EFA is used in amount of at least about 0.5%, for example, about 1% of olnova weight of the food mixture (from which it is prepared write) before it is processed, regardless of whether this mixture is liquid or solid. When baking use at least 0.5%, for example, 1% or more, usually at least 3.% EFA by weight of the components of the flour.

IV. C. 1. Processing

Supplement EFA can be entered into the composition of the food, or used as a food additive. It can be used in any known composition of food product that contains insoluble fiber, as well as, due to its ability to increase the viscosity, may be substituted, in whole or in part, products of soluble fiber known in food compositions.

IV. C. 2. Food

In accordance with this invention features a food product that contains EFA. Thanks to its characteristics increasing the viscosity of EFA suitable for use in beverages to make them juicy taste and density, to improve suspensions of fine powders such as cocoa powder and powder of minerals, as well as to help stabilise emulsions. It can also be used as a tool for simulation of fruit pulp in the juice. Due to its characteristics increasing the viscosity of EFA is also suitable to obtain the desired structure and stickiness in salad dressings, in the preparation of sauces and toppings.

The ability to hold water EFA makes it suitable for use as an additive for preventing staling of bakery products, such as bread and bagels. EFA mainly suitable for use in the preparation of bakery products, which typically consume (eat) for the enrichment of fiber. Moreover, the ability of water retention EFA makes it suitable for use as a component for increasing the stability to freezing and thawing frozen foods, as well as to increase the output in thermal processing of meat, such as minced meat.

Generally speaking, when used in containing flour foods, EFA usually can be applied in any reasonable quantities, for example, at least 0.5% or more, calculated on the weight of flour. In the compositions of other food products, including beverages and solid food mixtures, EFA usually can be applied in any reasonable quantities, for example, at least 0.5% or more, calculated on the total weight of the ingredient before processing, such as any type of thermal processing.

IV. D. Other uses of EFA

EFA can also be used in adhesive formulations to increase binding capacity and water retention characteristics. EFA can be used to improve the rheological properties of the paint composition without increasing the content of volatile organic compounds (VOCS). Compositions for coating (coating) paper often contain the soedineniya (for example, KMK (carboxymethylcellulose) to change the capacity of water retention covering paint. Due to its high capacity of water retention EFA can be used in applications related to the coating of paper.

V. Examples

Example 1: acid treatment

EFA can be made using fibers from corn, for example, SBF after surgery wet corn milling. Fiber from corn (SBF) was obtained from mills Cargill Corn Milling, Cedar Rapids, Iowa. Fiber from corn (SBF) was washed on a sieve of 70 mesh using a thin jet of water to remove fibrous trivia, free of starch and protein. Found that the moisture content in the resulting washed fiber is 50%. Approximately 1200 g (600 g in terms of dry weight) of the fibers are then downloaded to the trash (which is the bottom of the mesh 100 mesh) autoclave M/K and put the basket in the autoclave.

A dilute acid solution, which contains 2% of sulfuric acid (calculated on dry weight of fiber), combined with SBF with regard to diluted acid solution to SBF 10:1 (the rake). A dilute acid solution contains 12 g of 100% sulfuric acid (or 12.5 g purchased acid at a concentration of 96%) and 5387.5 g of water. The quantity of sulfuric acid and water in dilute acid solution was determined as follows:

The total weight of the dilute acid solution600 g×10=6000 g
The amount of water required6000-600 g (wet fiber)-12.5 g H2SO4=5387.5 g of water

The dilute acid solution was slowly poured into the fiber from corn in the autoclave, after which included the circulation pump. After checking the circulation of dilute acid solution in the reactor is hermetically closed the lid of the reactor. Set the reaction temperature to 120°and the time to reach the reaction temperature for 45 minutes, after which the temperature was maintained for 1 hour and then disconnected the heater reactor. Recorded temperature and pressure inside the reactor in function of time. After reaching the set temperature 120°With the reaction continued for 1 hour. After this included the supply of cold water into the reactor for cooling the contents of the reactor. Exhaust diluted acid solution was poured from the reactor through a drain valve of the reactor. The fibrous content of the basket reactor was carefully removed and washed with two lots of water and 6 liters. The leaching was continued up until the wash water will have a neutral pH (e.g., between 6.0 and 8.0, typically about 7.0).

Example 2. The first surface modification of: processing acidic chlorite

Processed the second acid fiber of Example 1 was then subjected to processing in an operation surface modification. The acid-treated fiber was combined with a solution of acid chlorite to form a slurry of fibrous pulp, which contains 10% fiber and 90% solution acidic chlorite. The solution acidic chlorite contains 1.5% by weight (calculated on the dry fiber) of sodium chlorite and 0.6% by weight (calculated on the dry fiber) of hydrochloric acid. The reaction was carried out in a sealed plastic bag at a temperature of 65-75°C for 1 hour at a pH of approximately from 2 to 3. After treatment with acidic solution of a chlorite, a suspension of fibrous pulp was diluted to 2 liters of water and filtered in a Buchner funnel. This operation is repeated up until the resulting filtrate is clear and will not have a neutral pH (e.g. pH from 6.0 to 8.0, and mostly about 7.0).

Example 3. The second surface modification of: processing peroxide

Processed using acid chlorite fiber of Example 2 was then treated with an alkaline peroxide solution. The fiber was combined with 3-8% by weight (calculated on the dry fiber) of hydrogen peroxide and 2% by weight (calculated on the dry fiber) of sodium hydroxide with a pH of approximately from 10 to 10.5, at a concentration of solids of 10-20%. Added metasilicate sodium (3% by weight of dry fiber) as a chelating additive. The processing operation peroxide were carried out in sealed cellophane package is ri a temperature of 60-65° C for 1 hour. After the reaction, the suspension of the fibrous mass was diluted with 2 liters of water and filtered in a Buchner funnel. This operation is repeated up until the resulting filtrate is clear and will not have a neutral pH. Bleached treated fiber was dried in a drying oven with air circulation at a temperature of 35-60°and then crushed to a size of 100 mesh (e.g., 150-250 µm) using a mill, Retsa.

Example 4. Structure: scanning electron microscopy Structure of chopped fiber from corn (SBF-C) of the process of wet milling corn and structure chopped enhanced fiber additive (EFA-C) from Example 3 were examined under magnification 100X using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The samples were dried and prepared using standard techniques of preparation of samples for SEM. Figure 2 and 3 shows a micrograph obtained by scanning electron microscope, for chopped fiber from corn (SBF-C) and enhanced fiber additive (EFA-C), respectively. Chopped fiber from corn (SBF) has teeth, and is similar to the breed's appearance. Raw fiber is very structured (in harness) (figure 2). Structure chopped improved fibrous additives significantly different from SBF-C. At the time it is to SBF-has teeth, and is similar to the breed's appearance, EFA-has a lighter, similar to haze, slightly plumose or whitish appearance. In the EFA-has an increased surface area compared with the untreated fiber.

Structure type EFA under magnification 100X using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) is shown in figure 3 (compare with figure 2) and can be defined as having pinnate or whitish appearance. This is characteristic of a typical improved fibrous additives in accordance with the present invention, obtained in accordance with the above-described experiments, and this appearance can be marked at least for a portion of the particles. Usually this appearance is more pronounced for larger particles in the sample, especially for particles with a size of 100 μm or more.

Example 5. Composition: Raman spectra

A comparison was made between the Raman spectra of SBF-C and EFA-C. figure 4 shows the Raman spectrum with the Fourier transform, which allows comparison of SBF-C and EFA-C. the major difference between the two spectra is the disappearance of the bands associated with lignin, at 1600 cm-1and 1630 cm-1(U.P.Agarwal and Sally A.Ralph, Appl. Spectrosc, 51, 1648, 1997).

Example 6. Composition: the effect of lignin content

The Kappa number and % of Klason for SBF-and EFA were determined using the Attiki, described in Tappi Test method T236 cm-85, published Tappi, which is incorporated in this description by reference. The results are shown in Table 1. As can be understood from Table 1, almost 90% of the lignin from SBF-were removed by means of the inoculation process. This is confirmed by data analysis of Raman scattering of example 5.

Table 1.

Comparison of Kappa number (KN) for SBF-C and EFA-C
SampleKNEstimated % of KlasonNormalized % of Klason% remote lignin
SBF-C72,710,9100
EFA-C15,32,3189

EFA-With this Example was prepared in accordance with Examples 1, 2 and 3; that is, by treatment with an acid, the acid chlorite and peroxide.

Example 7. Chemical analyses of dietary fiber

Samples EFA-were sent to the laboratory Medallion Labs (Minneapolis, MN) to conduct sophisticated chemical analysis and analysis of dietary fiber in accordance with the methodology NLEA (Nutritional Labeling and Education Act). The results of sophisticated chemical analysis and food analysis bleached processed fibers are summarized in Table 2. The table also includes links to the other official procedures published by AOAC International.

Table 2.

Comparison and properties of EFA-C
ComponentDry solids (%)The reference to the method
The full contents of carbohydrates88,3The calculation of the difference
The full content of fiber (insoluble)87,2AOAC 991.43
Full fat6,39AOAC 996.06
The moisture content2,5AOAC 926.08
Protein2,38AOAC 968.06
Ash0,44AOAC 923.03
The ability to hold oil,300%Cm. below
The ability of water retention, %540%Cm. below

The analysis shows that the improved fibrous additive is substantially insoluble fiber or dietary fiber in accordance with the norms of the NLEA. It is a desirable component for use in fiber supplements. Interest, the ability to hold water (WHC) fibers was determined using a modified method AACS (American Association of Cereal Chemists Method 56-20. When testing the ability of retaining water, 1.25 g of fiber were mixed with excess water (12.5 ml) in pre-weighed centrifuge tube 50 ml pH of the mixture was brought to 7.0 and allowed the sample to hydrate at room temperature for 60 min with periodic mixing. Then made centrifugation of the sample at 6000×g for 25 minutes, the Excess water was removed by rotating the tube at a 45 degree angle for 30 seconds. Interest WHC was determined by dividing the final weight of the contents of the tube on the original weight of the fiber sample, and multiplying by 100. Interest WHC can be interpreted as the maximum amount of water that can hold 1 g fiber at low speed centrifugation.

The ability to hold oil (TTR) was determined using an approach similar to the one used to measure the ability of water retention, with the exception that the pH was not rigged and deionized water was replaced by corn oil.

Example 8. Paper production: a laboratory study of EFA-C

The preparation of the composition for paper production: commercially Available bleached Kraft pulp of hardwood and soft wood received at the company Georgia Pacific. Was formed slurry mixture of 50% hardwood and 50% softwood with distilled water by weight design is stantsii 1.2% in the tank 5 gallon. Was added 0.5% by weight EFA-C (Enhanced fiber additive made from corn fiber) in a suspension of pulp for paper production with consistency of 1.2%.

Refining: document Tappi Method T-200 methods of laboratory grinding fibrous mass with the use of the grinding machine with the grooves. Composition of pulp for paper production of hard and soft wood, which contains EFA-C, ropinirole using such a grinding machine with grooves, and the composition was ropinirole to the degree of grinding of 450 ml in canadian standard CSF (Canadian Standard Freeness). The beating degree of the pulp was determined using the method TAPPI test Method T-227. After receiving the degree of grinding of 450 ml CSF composition was diluted to the consistency of 0.3% with distilled water and gently stirred using a stirrer lightning (Lightning), to save a suspension of fibers in the composition for paper production.

Manufacture of sheets of paper handmade character (SOA): the Paper was prepared using the following methodology the manufacture of sheets of paper manually, i.e. in accordance with TAPPI Test Method T-205. Were used for comparison main mass of 1.2 g paper manual low tide (sheet 40 pounds or 40 pounds/3300 ft2or 60 g/m2) and 1.8 g hand-made paper reflux (60 lbs sheet or 60 F. Nov/3300 ft 2or 90 g/m2). In some cases, in the mold of paper was added 20 pounds per ton of cationic starch corn dent (Download + 110 Cargill company) to facilitate the drainage and retention.

Test sheet BROUGH: Leaves BRO for testing were sent to the organization Integrated Paper Services (IPS, Appleton, WI), where they had patience and were tested according to the method TAPPI test Method T-220, used for physical testing of pulp sheets BRO. Testing used the following instruments: measurement of thickness - Emveco Electronic Microguage 200A; measurement of resistance to bursting - Mullen Burst Test Model "C"; the measurement of characteristics of gap - Elmendorf Tear Tester; measuring characteristics of tension - SinTech.

Results: table 3 shows the characteristics of the sheet BROUGH with the addition of EFA-C and without it.

Table 3.

The test results sheet, BRO
Sheet BROUGH (g)Thickness (mil)Basic weight (g/m2)The punching shear resistance (kPa m2/g)Index strength (mn m2/g)Index tension (N m/g)
No starch 20 f/t SN+110No starch20 f/t SN+110No starch20 f/t SN+110No starch20 f/t SN+110No starch20 f/t SN+110
Control4020,2521,0063,2264,723,383,7012,8113,0046,9652,33
Control6029,3929,4697,7595,213,764,2014,6413,2551,4955,34
EFA-C4020,0021,4166,0169,423,804,3311,6011,2151,5458,59
EFA-C6028,9129,59101,65102,354,054,67of 13.58KZT 12.3957,7859,14
In the Table: f/t £ / tonne; SN - load

Resistance to punching paper sheets BROUGH with the addition of EFA-C and without it, shown in figure 5, which also shows the improvement in the resistance to bursting by adding 20 pounds to connectionlistener starch. Note that the sheet 60 pounds without EFA-C (control) has a resistance to bursting, the equivalent of the sheet 40 pounds with 0.5% EFA-C.

The tensile strength of paper sheets BROUGH with the addition of EFA-With and without it is shown in graph 6, which also shows the improvement in tensile strength by adding 20 pounds per ton of cationic starch. Note that the sheet 60 pounds without EFA-control (UAC) has a tensile strength at least equivalent to the sheet 40 pounds with 0.5% EFA-C.

Conclusion: the Sheet 40 pounds with 0.5% EFA-C laboratory of manufacturing has resistance to bursting and tensile strength equivalent to that of the sheet 60 pounds without EFA-C. a Catalytic amount of EFA-C (0.5%) replace 33% of Kraft pulp in a standard sheet 60 pounds, without reducing the resistance to bursting and tensile strength. Adding 20 pounds per ton of cationic starch also increases the resistance to bursting and tensile strength.

Example 9. Paper production: a laboratory study of EFA-S (from soy) and EFA-W (wheat)

The preparation of the composition for paper production: commercially Available bleached Kraft pulp of hardwood and soft wood received at the company Georgia Pacific. Was formed slurry mixture of 50% hardwood and 50% softwood with distilled water when is novoi the consistency of 1.2% in the tank 5 gallon. Was added 0.5% by weight EFA-S (Superior fiber supplements made from the husk soybeans) in a suspension of a mixture of hard and soft wood. Another mixture of hard and soft wood was prepared similarly, with the addition of 0.5% by weight EFA-W (Enhanced fiber additive prepared from kernels of wheat).

Refining: document Tappi Method T-200 methods of laboratory grinding fibrous mass with the use of the grinding machine (roll) with grooves. Composition of pulp for paper production of hard and soft wood, which contains EFA's and EFA-W, ropinirole using such a roll with grooves. The composition was ropinirole to the degree of grinding of 450 ml in canadian standard CSF (Canadian Standard Freeness). The beating degree of the pulp was determined using the method TAPPI test Method T-227. After receiving the degree of grinding of 450 ml CSF composition was diluted to the consistency of 0.3% with distilled water and gently stirred using a stirrer lightning to save a suspension of fibers in the composition for paper production.

Manufacture of sheets of paper handmade character (SOA): the Paper was prepared using the following methodology the manufacture of sheets of paper manually, i.e. in accordance with TAPPI Test Method T-205. Were used for comparison main mass of 1.2 g hand-made paper tide is 40 lbs (sheet or 40 lbs/3300 ft 2or 60 g/m2) and 1.8 g hand-made paper reflux (60 lbs sheet or 60 lbs/3300 ft2or 90 g/m2). In some cases, in the mold of paper was added 20 pounds per ton of a cationic wet end starch (AltraCharge + 130 Cargill company) to facilitate the drainage and retention.

Test sheets BRO: Leaves BRO for testing were sent to the organization Integrated Paper Services (IPS, Appleton, WI), where they had patience and were tested according to the method TAPPI test Method T-220, used for physical testing of pulp sheets BRO. Testing used the following instruments: measurement of thickness - Emveco Electronic Microguage 200A; measurement of resistance to bursting - Mullen Burst Test Model "C"; the measurement of characteristics of gap - Elmendorf Tear Tester; measuring characteristics of tension - SinTech.

Results: table 4 shows the results of the evaluation sheet BROUGH with the addition of EFA's and EFA-W without them.

Table 4.

The test results sheet, BRO
SampleSet the main mass (lb/3300 ft2)The main mass (lb/3300 ft2)The punching shear resistance (RPA)Index gap (mn·m2/g)The index of the stretching is s (N· m/g)
Control4044,703,619,8656,30
Control6068,063,8511,7759,12
EFA-S4043,72a 3.87of 11.1555,32
EFA-S6068,084,2010,8957,72
EFA-W4041,893,988,6055,95
EFA-W6063,274,54of 10.2559,61

Resistance to punching paper sheets BROUGH with the addition of EFA's and EFA-W without them is shown in Fig.7. Note that the sheet 60 pounds without EFA-S or EFA-W (control) has a resistance to bursting, the equivalent of the sheet 40 pounds with 0.5% EFA-S or EFA-W.

Conclusion: the Sheet 40 pounds with 0.5% EFA-S or EFA-W laboratory manufacturing has resistance to bursting, the equivalent of the sheet 60 pounds without EFA-S or EFA-W. Note that was not conducted laboratory analysis of the improvement in tensile strength by adding EFA-S or EFA-W similar to the previously held for EFA-C.

Example 10. Paper production: a study of EFA-C using an experimental bumagodelatel the th machine

Tests on an experimental paper machine were conducted at the University of Western Michigan University in the Department of Paper Science & Engineering Department. This machine has the following production capacities: flow rate: from £ 75 per hour up to 200 pounds per hour, setting up the main mass of 18 pounds per 3300 ft2(lb/3300 ft2) up to 400 pounds per 3300 ft2the speed of 6 feet per minute (fpm) up to 150 feet per minute. The experimental machine for the production of paper shown in figa.

On figa shows the raw material source 30, the control valve main mass 31, the mixing tank and the tank additives 32 and 33, the system head 35mm camera, dendral (dry mix) 36, couch-shaft 37 with a drainage chamber 38 and the drain into the sewer pipe 39. The machine can be used with a capacity of about 160 pounds of paper per hour.

The preparation of the composition for paper production: commercially Available bleached Kraft pulp of hardwood and soft wood received from University Western Michigan University. For the study were prepared with two different party compositions with 60% hardwood and 40% soft wood. One party that does not contain EFA, is a control and the other party, which contains 0.5% EFA-called "EFA". Each batch was prepared as follows. Mixed 60% hardwood and 40%soft wood with a consistency of 5% by weight and produced a stirring mixture in Dutch" grinding machine. To achieve a 5% consistency used tap water. After receiving the mixture of the fibrous mass and its degidrirovaniya water suspension of pulp served in the rear tank for pulp (Back and Chest) and diluted with tap water to the consistency of 1.5% by weight. Bring the pH of the slurry to 7.5 due to the introduction of H2SO4. From the rear tank to the pulp slurry of pulp is passed through a refiner of Gordon (Jordon) with one disk until will be received the degree of grinding of 450 ml CSF. The degree of grinding was determined using the method TAPPI test Method T-227. The refiner of Gordon had the following operating parameters: load weight 40 pounds, the flow rate of 60 g/min, and the time of refinement for each batch was maintained constant (12 minutes). Material EFA-C was added to the dose level of 0.5% by weight in the rear tank to the pulp prior to refining. After refining the suspension of the fibrous mass was transferred into the chamber of the machine and diluted to the consistency of 0.5% by weight.

Paper making: the aim was to obtain two types of paper with different primary mass, namely, 36 lbs/3300 ft2(lb/3300 ft2and 73 lbs/3300 ft2. Different core masses were obtained by controlling the speed of the machine. If necessary, in the course of the experiment in camera raw materials was added 10 pounds per ton of cationic starch (Chare+110). 0.5% (by weight) of pulp were transferred from the camera to the machine head in the camera. From the head camera fibrous mass was moved to the grid of the machine, which hosted the first stage of dehydration. The wet paper web was passed through the mixture and suction camera, where there was a further remove water from the paper web. After processing of the paper web through the couch-press, the painting was moved to the kit felt the first part of the pressing. After the first phase of pressing, the painting was moved to another set of felt on the second pressing section, where the canvas was sent the first drying section, skirting past the size press and second sections drying. At the final stage the fabric is passed through a set of calenders and wound on a drum.

Test paper: All test paper were conducted at the University of Western Michigan University, Department of Paper Science & Engineering. Table 5 lists references to methods TAPPI Test Procedures and specify the number of repetitions (reps) of each test.

Table 5.

Test methods, TAPPI
The name of the testMethod TAPPIThe number of doubles
The bulkT-410 om-935
The ash contentT-413 om-93 3
Bulk densityT-220 sp-96 14.3.210
Porosity GurleyT 460 om-9610
ThicknessT 411 om-8910
Tensile strengthT-494 om-8810 MD/10 CD
OpacityT 425 om-915
Power interruptionT 414 om-885
Adhesive forceT-541 om-895
Resistance to punching shearT 403 om-911o reverse sides/10 parties outra
The Gurley stiffnessT 543 om-945 MD/5 CD
Fatigue strength in bendingT 511 om-9610 MD/10 CD
A Sheffield roughness roughnessT 538 om-9610 back/10 parties felt

Results: the test Results of the paper are shown in Table 6.

Table 6.

Tests on an experimental paper machine in universitate Western Michigan University
SampleGrade (lb/3300 ft2)School. est. mass (lb/3300 ft2)Bulk density ity (see 3/g)The Gurley porosity (sec/100 ml)Thickness (mil)Tensile strength (kN/m)Power clutch Scott (ft lb/1000 in2)
MDCD
Control3624,92,793.04 from3,361,991,17157
EFA-C3626,92,583,903,373,061,24162
Control7349,72,846,336,835,622,70143
EFA-C7351,62,617,746,54to 6.193,02159

36
SampleGrade (lb/3300 ft2)The index extension (Nm/g)Fatigue strength in bending (log 10 MIT)Opacity (%)The strength of the gap (g)
MDCDMDCDMDCD
Controlto 6.19of 3.641,620,9076,186581
EFA-C368,783,551,801,0679,127488
Control738,754,202,171,4888,26157167
EFA-C739,274,512,331,4988,52173185
In the table: lb - lb, ft - feet, in inches.

Figure 9 shows a graph of the resistance to punching paper at two different primary masses of paper produced with EFA-With and without it. Statistically significant improvement was found on the sheet 36 pounds, but not on the sheet 73 lbs.

Figure 10 shows a graph of the tensile strength of paper in two different primary masses of paper produced with EFA-With and without it. A statistically significant improvement in tensile strength was found for sheet 36 pounds and sheet 73 pounds in the direction of the machine, but only for a sheet 73 pounds in transverse relation to the movement of the machine direction.

Figure 11 shows the tensile strength of paper when two R slichnih main mass, made with EFA-With and without it. A statistically significant improvement in tensile strength was found for sheet 36 pounds and sheet 73 lbs.

On Fig shows a graph of the adhesion forces at Scott paper in two different primary masses, made with EFA-With and without it. A statistically significant improvement in the adhesion forces Scott was detected as the sheet 36 pounds and sheet 73 lbs.

On Fig shows the porosity of paper in two different primary masses, made with EFA-With and without it. A statistically significant improvement in porosity was detected as the sheet 36 pounds and sheet 73 lbs.

On Fig shows the bulk density of paper in two different primary masses, made with EFA-C and without it. A statistically significant improvement in density was detected as the sheet 36 pounds and sheet 73 lbs.

On Fig shows the fatigue strength on the bending of the paper at two different primary masses, made with EFA-C and without it. A statistically significant improvement in fatigue strength was found for sheet 36 pounds and sheet 73 pounds, except sheet 73 pounds in transverse relation to the movement of the machine direction.

Conclusion: Tests at the University of Western Michigan University (WMU) paper received on a pilot paper machine, statistiches is reliably confirmed by laboratory observations increase due to the introduction of 0.5% EFA-C resistance to bursting and tensile strength. In addition, experimental tests also statistically confirmed the increase, due to the introduction of 0.5% EFA-With the standard composition of the bleached pulp from hard and soft wood for paper production, power clutch Scott, tensile strength, fatigue strength in bending, porosity and bulk density.

Example 11. Paper production: a study of EFA and cationic starch using an experimental paper machine

Tests on an experimental paper machine were conducted at the University of Western Michigan University in the Department of Paper Science & Engineering Department. The objective of the tests is to determine the possible changes of increased strength properties of the paper obtained by EFA, by adding cationic starch.

The preparation of the composition for paper production: commercially Available bleached Kraft pulp of hardwood and soft wood received from University Western Michigan University. For the study were prepared with two different party compositions with 60% hardwood and 40% soft wood. One party that does not contain EFA, is a control and the other party, which contains 2.0% EFA-called "EFA". Each batch was prepared as follows. Mixed 60% solid wood I% soft wood with a consistency of 5% by weight and produced a stirring mixture in Dutch" grinding machine. To achieve a 5% consistency used tap water. After receiving the mixture of the fibrous mass and its degidrirovaniya water suspension of pulp served in the rear tank for pulp and diluted with tap water to the consistency of 1.5% by weight. Bring the pH of the slurry to 7.5 due to the introduction of H2SO4. From the rear tank to the pulp slurry of pulp is passed through a single disc refiner of Jordana until the degree of grinding of 450 ml CSF. The degree of grinding was determined using the method TAPPI Test Method T-227. The refiner of Gordon had the following operating parameters: load weight 40 pounds, the flow rate of 60 g/min, and the time of refinement for each batch was maintained constant (12 minutes). Material EFA-C was added to the dose level of 0.5% by weight in the rear tank to the pulp prior to refining. After refining the suspension of the fibrous mass was transferred into the chamber of the machine and diluted to the consistency of 0.5% by weight.

Paper manufacturing: the aim was to obtain two types of paper with different primary mass, namely 36 lbs/3300 ft2(lb/3300 ft2and 73 lbs/3300 ft2. Different core masses were obtained by controlling the speed of the machine. If necessary, in the course of the experiment in camera raw materials was added 10 pounds per ton of cationic starch (Charge+110). 0.5% (weight of the) fibrous mass moved from the camera to the machine head in the camera. From the head camera fibrous mass was moved to the grid of the machine, and further, similar to the previously described, skirting past the size press and second sections drying. At the final stage the fabric is passed through a set of calenders and wound on a drum.

Test paper: All test paper were conducted at the University of Western Michigan University, Department of Paper Science & Engineering. Table 7 provides references to methods TAPPI Test Procedures and specify the number of repetitions (reps) of each test.

Table 7.

Test methods, TAPPI
The name of the testMethod TAPPIThe number of doubles
The bulkT-410 om-935
The ash contentT-413om-933
Bulk densityT-220 sp-96 14.3.210
Porosity GurleyT 460 om-9610
ThicknessT 411 om-8910
Tensile strengthT-494 om-8810 MD/10 CD
OpacityT 425 om-915
Power interruptionT 414 om-885
Adhesive forceT-541 om-89
Resistance to punching shearT 403 om-9110 back/10 parties felt
The Gurley stiffnessT 543 om-945 MD/5 CD
Fatigue strength in bendingT 511 om-9610 MD/10 CD
RoughnessT 538 om-9610 back/10 parties

Results: the test Results of the paper are shown in Table 8.

32
Table 8.

Tests on a pilot paper machine at the University Western Michigan University
Grade (lb/3300 ft2)EFA-C (%)Catinat starch (lb/ton)In fact, inorg. mass (lb/3300 ft2)Bulk density (cm3/g)The Gurley porosity (sec/100 ml)Thickness (mil)The index extension (Nm/g)
MDCD
360037,612,823,283,472913
3601036,822,793.04 from3,3654
362037,462,633,543,232912
3621037,272,694,103,293715
730069,632,786,026,345831
7301073,522,846,336,837637
732073,462,627,72of 6.316029
7321072,412,71charged 8.526,187837

Felt
Grade (lb/3300 ft2)EFA-C (%)Catinat starch (f/t)Opacity (%)The strength of the gap (g)Power clutch Scott (ft lb/1000 in2)The punching shear resistance (kPa
MDCDArr.
36007767671061,170,97
360107665811432,872,99
36207454681261,031,00
362107461691731,371,35
7300891431321092,372,39
73010881571671573,013,29
7320861261281262,452,30
73210851361431603,243,10

Grade (lb/3300 ft2)EFA-C (%) Catinat starch

(f/t)
The Gurley stiffness (gurley units)Fatigue strength in bending (log 10 MIT)A Sheffield roughness (ml/min)
MDCDMDCDArr. partyFelt
3600225711,220,58202230
36010204981,620,90192230
3620215681,120,54177207
36210185381,530,88180213
73003901641,731,11232284
730104201942,171,48237287
73203301581,55 0,90222279
732103761651,991,29223264
In the table: ft - ft, lb - pounds, in inches, f/t £ / tonne

On Fig shows the increase of the internal friction of paper by Scott adding 2.0% EFA-C. also Observed an additional increase when you add 10 pounds per ton of cationic starch.

On Fig the possibility of reducing the porosity of the sheet when adding EFA-C. Porosity in accordance with the method TAPPI test Method Gurley Porosity was measured as the time required to pass 100 ml of air through a given area of the sheet. The more necessary for the transmission of air through the sheet interval of time, the lower the porosity of the sheet. The higher the porosity Gurli (Gurley), the higher hiding power of the coating.

On Fig shows the seal paper adding 2.0% EFA-C.

Conclusion: the Addition of 2.0% EFA-C leads to an increase of the internal friction of the paper (Scott), measured in accordance with test method Scott Bond TAPPI Method. In addition, the introduction to the paper 2.0% EFA-C reduces the porosity of the sheet. Bulk density paper adding 2.0% EFA-C increases. The introduction of cationic starch in which the Umag with 2.0% EFA-C enhances the above properties. Tests on an experimental paper machine also showed that there is a synergistic effect of joint use of EFA and cationic starch in relation to operating parameters of the machine associated with drainage and retention.

Example 12. Paper production: analysis of EFA-C in paper product

The objective of this study is to investigate the possibility of establishing a test method that can identify technology EFA in the paper product, using the microscopic and/or spectroscopic techniques. Paper with different concentrations of EFA was prepared on a pilot paper machine at the University of Western Michigan University, Department of Paper Science & Engineering Department.

The preparation of the composition for paper production: commercially Available bleached Kraft pulp of hardwood and soft wood received from University Western Michigan University. For the study were prepared with two different party compositions with 60% hardwood and 40% soft wood. Each batch contains one of the following levels EFA-From: 0%, 0.5%, 1.0%and 2.0%. Each batch was prepared as follows. Mixed 60% hardwood and 40% soft wood with a consistency of 5% by weight and produced a stirring mixture in Dutch" grinding machine. To achieve 5% consist is ncii used tap water. After receiving the mixture of the fibrous mass and its degidrirovaniya water suspension of pulp served in the rear tank for pulp and diluted with tap water to the consistency of 1.5% by weight. Bring the pH of the slurry to 7.5 due to the introduction of H2SO4. From the rear tank to the pulp slurry of pulp is passed three times through a single disc refiner of Gordon. Was obtained the degree of grinding of 480 ml CSF (according to the method TAPPI Test Method T-227). The refiner of Gordon had the following operating parameters: weight load of 20 pounds, a flow rate of 60 g/min, while refining for each party maintained constant. Then the song was pulled from the rear tank to the pulp through the single-disc refiner of Gordon in the machine chamber. After emptying the back of the tank for pulp refiner off. Then the party moved from the camera to the machine again in the rear tank to the pulp. This process was repeated 3 times for each batch containing different levels of EFA-C. After refining the suspension of the fibrous mass was transferred into the chamber of the machine and diluted to the consistency of 0.5% by weight.

Paper manufacturing: the aim was to obtain three different types of paper on the main mass component 20, 40, and 60 lb/3300 ft2(pounds per 3300 square feet). Different core masses were obtained by controlling the speed of the machine To improve the performance p of the parameters in camera raw machine was added 10 lb/ton (lb / ton) of cationic starch (Charge+110). 0.5% fibrous mass moved from the camera to the machine head in the camera. From the head camera fibrous mass was moved to the grid of the machine, and further, similar to the previously described, skirting past the size press and second sections drying. At the final stage the fabric is passed through a set of calenders and wound on a drum.

Example 13. Properties of paper: a study under the microscope

Samples of paper from Example 12 was investigated using standard scanning electron microscopy to determine the presence of structural changes resulting from the use of EFA-C in the paper production process. On Fig shows the SEM image with the increase of only 800 meters of sheet 40 pounds made in the manner described above. Note the small microfibers that connect fibers, and large empty space where it overlaps fibers for the formation of the surface of the paper. It is known that the presence of microfibrils increases the strength of the paper sheet (..Conners and S.Baneijee in Surface Analysis of Paper, CRC Press, 1995). On Fig shows the SEM image with the increase of only 800 meters sheet made with the introduction of 1% EFA before surgery refining. Note the increase in the number of microfibrils in this example, as well as to reduce the area of empty space compared to Fig, which indicates the improvement of the formation of the paper the East.

It was found an overall increase of 23% in the number of microfibrils in these paper sheets. Counting was conducted on 20 SEM images of paper without adding EFA and 20 SEM images of paper with the introduction of 1% EFA-C. Paper without adding EFA average is 13 microfibrils in each field mikronika, and the paper with the introduction of 1% EFA-average is 16.5 microfibrils in each field mikronika, which gives an increase of 23% in the number of microfibril compared to paper without adding EFA.

Example 14. Properties of paper: an analysis of the infrared spectrum with the Fourier transform

Analysis of the infrared spectrum of sheets of paper handmade character (SOA) was conducted in order to determine the possibility of creating a detection of the use of EFA in the paper. Were obtained spectra infrared reflectance Fourier transform for the paper sheet 40 pounds without adding EFA-and the paper sheet 40 pounds with the introduction of 1% EFA-C. On Fig shows the results of the analysis. The upper spectrum corresponds to the paper without adding EFA, the average spectrum corresponds to the paper with the addition of 1% EFA, and the bottom spectrum corresponds to the difference after spectral subtraction in 1:1 scale. The area of greatest difference between the two spectra are circled.

Example 15. Properties of paper: an analysis of the reflectance in the near infrared region

Despite the fact that the analysis reflect the introduction infrared spectroscopy with Fourier transform (FTIR) and is suitable for qualitative assessment, it is less suitable for quantitative evaluation, especially if the samples have a high or varying amounts of moisture. So after using FTIR analysis were detected area differences for quantitative studies using analysis of reflectance in the near infrared region.

The analysis was performed on the reflectance in the near infrared region for a set of sheets of paper handmade character. Just used b different sets of sheets of paper handmade character: the sheets 20, 40 and 60 pounds without the introduction of EFA-C and the sheets 20, 40 and 60 pounds with the addition of 1% EFA-C. Representative samples cut many sheets and conducted analysis of the reflectance spectra in the near infrared region. On each sheet explored the 3 areas, which gives a total of 18 samples for analysis.

On Fig shows the results of applying a simple ordinary correlation analysis to the data of the quantitative analysis of the reflectance in the near infrared region. There was obtained a simple correlation coefficient (degree of linearity) for each wavelength. This is useful in order to determine which wavelength is the most suitable for the construction of a quantitative model calibration.

Note 2 the area of highest correlation. If data to apply the algorithm of multiple linear regression, using these two on the in waves can be obtained a linear relation. A linear relationship derived from these data has a correlation coefficient of 0.96 and a standard error of 0.14 with confidence probability of 95%. This is conclusive evidence that the content of EFA in the paper can be determined by independent analysis.

Example 16: a Comparison of EFA-C with commercially available fibrous additives

Compared EFA with other commercially available sources of insoluble dietary fiber, including cereals solka floe, microcrystalline cellulose, oat fiber, corn bran and wheat bran. The comparison results are given in Table 9.

Table 9.

Comparison of EFA-C with commercially available insoluble fibrous products
EFA-CMicrocristalina celluloseFlakes Solka FlocKukuruz. branPhenic. branOat fiber
% TDF (dry weight)87,293 -971008138 -5093
% soluble00-90240
% insoluble 87,284 -971007934 -4693

The full content of dietary fiber (TDF) of commercially available products is in the range from approximately 81%to 100%, except of wheat bran, which contain only 38-50% TDF. All these products are used for enrichment of food as concentrated sources of dietary fiber. Refined analysis described in Example 7, confirms that the addition of EFA-C, containing about 87.2% of insoluble dietary fiber, comparable to other commercially available products.

Example 17. Functional properties

A common practice in the food industry is the use in food compositions combination of insoluble and soluble fiber. Insoluble fibers are widely used for enrichment and soluble fibers are used to improve functional properties. Were carried out for different products basic testing of functional properties, such as viscosity, water retention ability, and the ability to hold oil. The protocols for these tests are described in Example 7.

Preliminary analysis shows that EFA has a higher ability to increase viscosity, holding capacity and water holding capacity oil than some other commercially available is not Astoriya fibrous products including microcrystalline cellulose, cereal solka floe and corn bran. Known functional properties of EFA suggest that this Supplement can be used to improve the organoleptic properties such as taste when chewed, and furthermore, other desirable properties of the products, such as stabilization of the emulsion, stickiness, imitation fruit pulp in drinks, preventing stagnation (or staling of bread), the stability to freezing and thawing, as well as the increase in the heat treatment. The results of the test of functional properties are summarized in Table 10.

Table 10.

Testing the functional properties of different foods with insoluble fiber
Viscosity after 24 hours (CP)Water number %*Oil-capacity % @
MixingCuttingHomogenization
EFA-1020440550 b300 b
Avicel CL-611F13013013048080 g
Avicel RC-581F2121330680136080 g
Avicel FD-100<10<10<10180 f100 e
Solka Floc 40 FCC<10<10<10530 be340
Solka Floc 200 FCC<10<10<10350 d220
Solka Floc 300 FCC<10<10<10310 d200 d
Corn bran Ultra<10<10<10210 d, f100 e
Corn bran Fine<10<10<10170 e100 e
Corn bran Medium<10<10<10250 e95 e
*values with the same letter do not differ significantly at a confidence limit of 95%.

@ values with the same letter do not differ significantly at a confidence limit of 95%.

Example 18. The increased viscosity

Samples for analysis is and viscosity were prepared by dispersing 3 g of fiber in 200 g of deionized water, using one of the following three methods:

1. Stirring for 1 min on a magnetic stirrer (table column Mixing).

2. Cutting for 1 minute on a high speed grinder of Maringa (Warring) (in the table column "Cutting").

3. Homogenization in a single pass, at a pressure of 5000 psi (pounds per square inch) in the homogenizer Gaulin (Gaulin) (in the table column "Homogenization").

The measurement of the viscosities of the samples in chemical beakers 250 ml produced after 24 hours at room temperature, using a Brookfield viscometer RV spindle #2 at 20 rpm

Two product Avicel MCC have the highest ability to increase viscosity for all fibers. Product Avicel RC581F reaches more than 1000 centipoise and Avicel CL-611F reaches 130 centipoise at high shear. However, these products also contain 59% of carboxymethyl cellulose, which is a soluble fiber and which may be responsible for the increased viscosity. These samples represent opaque suspension milky-white color that is slightly deposited after 24 hours. Avicel FD-100, solka floc and corn bran, which do not contain soluble fiber, do not increase the viscosity under any of the conditions of mixing and cutting, and deposited on the bottom of the chemical glass.

The viscosity of the EFA-With more than 400 Sant who poises at homogenization, moreover, this additive has the appearance of a white, translucent flakes suspended solids that do not settle out of solution. This functional property of the additive is good for all (pure) insoluble fibrous product. Due to its characteristics, increasing the viscosity, EFA is suitable for use in the food and drinks make them thick and juicy taste, ideal for enhancing the suspensions of fine powders such as cocoa powder and powder of minerals, and is also suitable to help stabilise emulsions. The appearance of the additive, similar to cereal, like a fruit pulp, so this Supplement can be used as a tool for simulation of fruit pulp in juices and soft drinks.

Example 19. The use of the water retention properties of EFA in certain food applications

The ability EFA to link the amount of water in 5 times its weight, can significantly extend the shelf life of bakery products, as well as to enrich their insoluble fiber at low or average levels.

In this example, there were used 5 types of bread are homemade, which contain the following components:

Bread flour40,8
Water23,1
Whole wheat is flour 13,0
Eggs8,9
Honey7,9
Non-fat dry milk1,9
Unsalted butter1,4
Sol1,2
Lemon juice0,9
Active dry yeast0,9
Only100%

The yeast was dissolved in water and left for some time. The wet ingredients were combined with dry ingredients and mixed for 1 minute by using a Hobart mixer (Hobart) mixer for the dough. Gave the test twice to rise before it is baked at 375°F for 50 minutes.

In the sample And added 1% EFA (on flour basis) to the mixture for baking bread. Samples b, C and D contain respectively 3%, 5% and 7% EFA (on flour basis). The fifth sample does not contain EFA and used as a control. Additional water or in one of the trains was not added, and for all samples, the technology is the same. Analysis of the percentage moisture content, as well as soluble, insoluble and total dietary fiber in finished products was conducted in the laboratory Medallion Laboratories. The results were as follows

% moisture% segodnyashego fiber % insoluble dietary fiber% soluble dietary fiber
Control33,2a 3.92,91,0
A sample And33,04,33,31,0
Sample34,05,14,20,9
Sample33,6the 5.74,61,1
Sample D34,45,85,50,3

As can be seen from the above table, the humidity levels are higher for bread that contains 3-7% EFA. The data also show a modest increase in the content of insoluble fiber in the bread due to the introduction of relatively small amounts of EFA. A similar observation can be made for yellow cake and soft-baked oatmeal.

To further illustrate the properties of binding water by the addition of EFA was prepared whipped the batter with the following ingredients in Example 2:

Milk52,3
Flour35,2
Eggs11,4
Baking0,9
Sol0,2
Only100%

Sample a contains 1% EFA, the sample contains 1.5% EFA and the sample contains 2% EFA, calculated on the total weight of the batters. The dough was stirred until no lumps and left for 10 minutes. Fry in oil for 4 minutes at 375° onions, mushrooms, zucchini and chicken, which had previously been dipped in batter. Fried foods were removed from the hot oil and place on paper towels to cool. Then removed the crust of fried dough and made the analysis of the percentage of fat (by acid hydrolysis). Results for mushrooms and zucchini shown in Fig and 30.

Since the addition of EFA is more hydrophilic than lipophilic, there is a decrease in fat content in fried foods that contain EFA. Moreover, the introduction of EFA can increase the strength of the fried products due to its fibrous nature, which leads to a decrease in the number of broken items during roasting and transportation.

Example 20. The use of retention properties of oil EFA in certain food applications

Because EFA has the ability to bind fat in 3 times its weight, and the ability to link the amount of water in 5 times its weight, then the introduction of EFA in processed meat product which leads to a direct increase in the yield of the finished product due to heat treatment and to the improvement of fat and moisture in foods such if EFA is present at levels of from 1% to 3% based on the total weight of the meat mixture (minced meat).

For the tests in this example were used as the basis 4 of the sample, which contain 80% fat ground meat (Chuck mascara) without additives or preservatives. In the sample And added 1% (by weight) crushed EFA to 500 g ground meat. In samples b and C similarly added, respectively, 2% and 3% (by weight) crushed EFA to molotow meat. The fourth sample does not contain EFA and was used as a control. All mixture samples were mixed at low speed for 10 minutes using a mixer Hobart blade that provides good mixing for each of the samples. In a mixture of additional added water or other ingredients. Of the meat mixture (minced) was shaped cakes (cakes) weight 125 g, which was stored in a cold place, to provide for all the pies the same initial temperature before cooking. 4 pie each type fry on each side at 350°F for 6 minutes. Fried pies laid out on a wire rack and cool to room temperature, after which produced the weighting of each Patty to determine changes in weight due to the heat treatment. Was also analyzed for moisture content (AOAC Method 960.39) and fat (AOAC Method 950.46) in the sample is H. The results of the analysis are summarized in the following table.

% reduction in outputbody fat%% moisture
Controlto 38.318,051,8
A sample And33,918,453,8
Sample29,818,354,0
Sample29,718,854,2

From the presented results one can see that the introduction of EFA in ground meat leads to improved output by heat treatment. Introduction EFA also increases the content of lipids and moisture in the cakes. Moreover, all meat pies that contain EFA, seem to be more juicy and tasty than the control.

VI. The mode of action of the improved fibrous additives in paper products

As it was shown in Examples 8 and 9, it was found that the sheet BROUGH 40 pounds (40#) with 0.5% EFA has the same tensile strength and tensile strength, as the sheet BROUGH 60 pounds (60#) without EFA; and therefore, 0.5% enhanced fiber additive made from corn (EFA) has the potential to replace 33% of wood fibers in a standard sheet 60# without losing its strength, with the same degree of grinding CSF. Thus, the material EFA has significant potentially its use as additives high quality paper. In this section the analysis of the principle properties of increased strength of the material EFA and its possible interaction with paper fiber.

VI. A. Surface properties

On Fig shows a micrograph obtained by scanning electron microscope (SEM), paper with EFA and paper without the EFA. All paper for this study was obtained on a pilot paper machine at the University of Western Michigan University, as described previously in Example 10. At first glance in surface morphology (paper with EFA and paper without EFA) no significant differences.

However, at a higher can discover the amazing properties that were discussed here earlier in Example 13 and from the comparison Fig and 20. On Fig shows the SEM micrograph at magnification only 800 meters of paper without EFA.. you Can see microfibers, which connect together thicker fibers. These microfibrils are well known in the art, and believe that they contribute to improving the strength of paper. These microfibers occur when the layout and forming of sheet and increase the effects of hydrogen bonds.

On Fig shows the SEM image of the paper with 1% EFA, where you can see a noticeable increase in the number of microfibrils. To determine the fact that this effect is persistent studies have been conducted with the use of the em REM multiple sheets of paper, which made counting the number of microfibrils. It was shown that the paper material EFA has a number of microfibrils, increased by more than 10% (usually more than 15%, for example, approximately 23%) compared to paper without the EFA. You can come to the conclusion that the increase in the number of microfibril plays a significant role in improving the strength properties due to the introduction of EFA, mainly due to the formation of a network of jumpers from microfibril between thicker fibers of pulp (cellulose).

VI. Century Deep properties

Although SEM is a powerful tool for studying the surface, it is not possible to determine the details of the patterns, especially those that are not visible on the surface. Another useful technique for the analysis of the paper is laser confocal raster microscopy (CLSM or LCSM). This technique not only allows us to consider the details of the surface, but also to scan the material in the Z direction (depth) for reconstructing a three-dimensional view of the structure.

An experiment was conducted and received LCSM fluorescent image of the paper without EFA and paper 1% EFA, and were used 2-wavelength excitation, one from 542 nm laser, and the other from the laser 488 nm. By combining the two images was obtained combined image. For images from the various lasers used in isovale different colors. It was made up to 20 Z series of slices that were used to increase the depth of field.

When studying morphological differences in the images of the important features not found. As paper with EFA and paper without EFA has similar structural characteristics, packaging, fiber and density. Thus, gross morphology (structure) of paper with EFA and without EFA are so similar that this type of analysis allows you to find differences. This is important for many applications of paper, because it means that the addition of EFA likely not cause any significant changes in the gross structure of the paper, although, as has been mentioned here previously, it affects the formation of microfibrils. As it will be clear from the discussion in the next section, the reason did not observe significant changes in the gross structure of the paper is that EFA forms a partial coating of the cellulose fibers of the paper (that is, combined with large pulp fibers), and then, partially due to the hemicellulose contained in the EFA, forms a jumper from microfibril.

VI. C. Chemical analysis

While studying the morphology shows that the introduction of EFA supplements does not cause significant morphological changes in the paper, which is an important observation, chemical detection EFA in the paper is the importance of the first importance for understanding the chemical interactions, and also provides a mechanism for determining the existence and location of EFA supplements in the paper.

Spectroscopic study material paper allows to determine the chemical similarity and difference of paper with EFA and without EFA. As discussed in Example 14, Fig shows the results of FTIR analysis, where the upper spectrum corresponds to the paper without adding EFA, the average spectrum corresponds to the paper with the addition of 1% EFA, and the bottom spectrum corresponds to the difference of the two spectra. The area of greatest difference between the two spectra at 1100-1300 cm-1circled. It seems that this difference is caused by chemical differences, and not just gross differences in reflectivity.

Note in the lower spectrum Fig stripes greatest differences in 1137 and 1220 cm-1that can be used, for example, as follows:

1. In the chemical system for forming the image, when these bands can be used to build chemical distribution EFA in the paper; and

2. In the qualitative method of analysis for the direct measurement of the EFA content in the produced paper.

VI. D. Chemical imaging

Chemical imaging is a technology that can be used to visualize the interactions of chemical compounds in the materials. Known as Combi is sure (Raman), and infrared systems imaging. Due to the fact that the samples of paper have a high background fluorescence (and therefore a high capacity for analysis CLSM), using Raman systems of image formation is not productive. However, the infrared system imaging allow you to create a very detailed map of the chemical morphology of the surface.

On Fig shows infrared chemical image of the paper without EFA, and Fig shows infrared chemical image for the paper with the EFA. These images were obtained using techniques Geometrie, which is called principal components analysis (PCA). This type of technology allows you to enhance the chemical differences between variations of basic components in the studied material. Shown in Fig and 25 images belong to the third principal component image of the paper. When forming chemical images obtained in the image contrast is related to the chemical, not to morphological differences. The chemical analysis of the images was carried out at the company Chemlcon, Inc. Pittsburgh, PA, using hardware and software company, under the supervision of the company Cargill, Inc., the assignee of the present invention.

Please note that the paper material EFA (Fig) has x the chemical morphology with very low contrast, which indicates a rather homogeneous chemical composition. In contrast, paper with EFA (Fig) has a pronounced contrast, i.e. localized chemical differences in the image. In fact, careful study of the image of the paper with EFA shows that the chemical changes caused by the presence of the material EFA, localized or ordered in such a way that they accompany (or define) the individual strands of fibers (in this case, the fibers of the fibrous mass or pulp). This Supplement EFA localized in such a way that it covers or at least partially covers the various fibers of the paper (that is, in this case cellulose fibers or fibrous mass). As the material EFA has significant signs of holocellulose, he easily communicates with wood fibers (cellulose fibers). Due to its behavior similar to the behavior of hemicelluloses, EFA acts as a "glue" in the production of paper. Thus, it can be concluded that EFA Supplement provides effective full (or partial) coating each fiber paper (from holocellulose) thin film hemicelluloses "glue"that increases the overall strength of paper.

In order to make sure that the contrast enhancement of SAR in the image caused by the introduction of the EFA, a small particle ismel the obtained material EFA was placed on the paper and obtained her image in native space components.

It should be noted that when carrying out experiments, and upon receipt by the researchers of the images, chemical differences were shown in color to increase the contrast in the resulting images. However, the attached drawings images are black and white.

VI. E. Quantitative analysis

After have found that it is possible spectral detection EFA and even spectral imaging, came to the conclusion that can be built quantitative spectral model. This model allows to determine not only the presence of the material EFA in the paper, but the amount of this material EFA in the paper.

The set of calibration data was used in conjunction with 0 and 1% EFA in order to show the construction of quantitative spectral model. Due to the registration of the reflectance spectrum in the near infrared region for each sample of paper were constructed graph spectra correlations.

On Fig, discussion of which is held earlier in Example 15 shows the resulting graph of the correlation. Note 2 the area of the highest correlation of paper with the EFA. These two wavelengths is directly correlated with the third higher harmonic of the main bands of the differences in spectral subtraction FTIR (Fig).

When using these data for the near-infrared region and in the application were elaborated to the and multiple linear regression, it was found a linear relation by using these two wavelengths. On Fig shows a line graph, obtained by this calculation.

VI. F. Conclusion

On the basis of the performed experiments and analysis, you can come to the following conclusions regarding the use of EFA in the paper:

1. Improve paper by EFA occur when very small observed visual differences (REM at only 800 meters) in total structure of paper with EFA and without it.

2. There is a statistically significant Association between the number of microfibrils and EFA content. This effect contributes, at least partially, to improve the strength characteristics of the paper by the EFA.

3. There are differences in the parameters of the infrared spectra, which show that there are chemical differences between EFA and cellulose.

4. Differences in FTIR spectra appear as harmonics of the bands that are in correlation analysis of the near IR region of the spectrum.

5. the formation of images in the near infrared region graphically shows that EFA localizes chemical differences, forming a "floor" of the paper fibers (cellulose fibers). This phenomenon contributes to the improvement of strength characteristics of paper by the EFA.

6. Spectral differences are large enough to suggest a path analysis EFA in the paper using near IR of the region.

VII. Samples of chemical affinity

Another useful tool to assess the characteristics of EFA are samples of chemical affinity, namely, samples of affinity to the enzyme, which can be used in conjunction with the image of a transmission electron microscope (TEM).

Generally speaking, samples cytochemical affinity can be used to determine the various chemical parameters of the samples. In particular, the sample of cellulose affinity-gold selectively connected with the cellulose material and is not associated with cutino and other hydrophobic material.

A reasonable prerequisite for the use of such studies is that the relationship of the samples of affinity-cellulose gold substrate on the surface area affected by the hydrophilicity of the wall. This is confirmed by the information that the walls that contain suberin or cutin, cannot be classified breakdown cellulose-gold, even if they do not contain cellulose. On the other hand, significiance walls such as the walls of the xylem elements, can be classified in the breakdown of cellulose-gold. If there is information that convert SBF in EFA through a preferred type of processing allows you to remove the lignin or decrease its contents, and to influence hydrophiles fiber, a study was conducted to assess the possibility OBN is pursued differences using the sample pulp is gold.

On Fig shows a digital image of the sample SBF-With corn, obtained using samples of cellulose affinity-gold corn. On Fig shows a digital image of the sample EFA-With corn after similar treatment. Higher density samples on Fig shows that EFA was modified so that it has become more susceptible to the effects of the sample. It can be assumed on the basis of these results that the modified material has a more acceptable signs of pulp and holocellulose. This is confirmed by the analysis carried out in section VIII.

VIII. The definition of a simple monosaccharides in materials containing lignin and cellulose (i.e. in SBF and EFA) using anion exchange chromatography high-resolution pulsed amperometric detection (HPAE-PAD)

Used in this section, the approach can be used for the separation and quantification of monosaccharides, which are usually present in lignocellulosic (containing lignin and cellulose) components of plants. As examples of such components can be specified (but without limitation) arabinan, galactan, glucan, xylan, and mannan. The proposed method involves the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic material with sulfuric acid, followed by direct analysis of monosaccharides using anyoneon the military chromatography high-resolution pulsed amperometric detection (NRE-PAD). This method is an adaptation of the techniques that have been previously published (see publications ..Garlab, L.D.Bourquin, G.C.Fahey, Jr., J. Aqric. Food Chem. 37, 1287-1293, 1989; and M.W.Davis, J. Wood Chem. Technol, 18(2), 235-252, 1998). The full text of these two publications are included in this description by reference.

Materials

Sodium hydroxide, 50% (by weight), and concentrated sulfuric acid were purchased by the Fisher Scientific company. Deionized water (>18 Mω-cm) was obtained by using water purification systems Barnstead/Thermolyne NANOpure Infinity. D-arabinose, D-galactose, D-glucose, D-xylose and D-mannose were purchased by the company Sigma Chemical Co. All hydrocarbons had a purity of more than 99%.

Preparation of sample and standard solution

Each sample was dried and ground to pass through a sieve of 40 mesh. The moisture content for each sample was determined using NIR scales with the scale graduated in percent humidity, with 130°C. the Hydrolysis of the samples was carried out in accordance with TAPPI method Method T249 cm-85, Tappi Test Methods, Tappi Press, Atlanta, Ga, 1985. (The full text of this technique Tappi included in this description by reference). Briefly, it consists in the following. 40-60 mg samples are being steklannuju tube where add the exact amount of 1 ml of 72% sulfuric acid. Samples incubated in a water bath for 1 hour at 30°With, with the possible mixing glass fell ccoi to facilitate dissolution of the sample material. After that, plant hydrolysates 4% (by weight) sulfuric acid, diluted with deionized water, and placed on 60 minutes in the autoclave with pressure 103±7 kPa. After hydrolysis the samples were diluted to 1000 ml in a volumetric flask and filtered through 0.45 μm nylon syringe filter before injection. Standard solutions the hydrolysis-comfort similar to the samples.

Chromatographic conditions

After separation of hydrocarbons was performed quantitative analysis using anion exchange chromatography high-resolution pulsed amperometric detection (HPAE-PAD). Was used chromatographic system DX-500 (Dionex Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA), which contains a gradient pump (model GP50), auto sampler (model AS-50), having a fuel injection valve Rheodyne, and electrochemical detector (model ED-40) with pulsed amperometric detection with a reference electrode with a combination pH-Ag/AgCl. For the separation of hydrocarbons were used analytical column CarboPac PA-1 (250 mm×4 mm (inner diameter)and a protective column (50 mm×4 mm (inner diameter)). Pulsed amperometric fluctuations E1, E2, E3 and E4 were setting +0.1, -2.0, +0.6 and-0.1 V, with a pulse duration of respectively 400, 10, 30 and 60 MS, only 500 MS, in accordance with the publishing company Dionex Technical Note 21, which is included in the Noah description as a reference. Eluent were prepared using filtered, degassed and deionized water of high purity and were stored under compressed helium. For the purification column was pumped 100 mm NaOH at a flow rate of 1 ml/min for 10 minutes. For equilibration of the column used to pump deionized water with a flow rate of 1 ml/min for 10 minutes, and the hydrocarbons were suirable injected with deionized water at a flow rate of 1 ml/min for 40 minutes. In order to stabilize the line scan and optimize the sensitivity of the detector was added 300 mm NaOH after column, with a flow rate of 0.6 ml/min, in accordance with the publishing company Dionex Technical Note 20, which is incorporated in this description by reference. Full running time of the sample was 60 minutes.

Results

The odds of response (RF) for each of the monosaccharides were determined by dividing the peak area of each hydrocarbon to its corresponding concentration. The concentration of an analyte, calculated on the dry weight of the material sample, calculated using the external computing machinery, on average, to about 0.1% for two doubles. All concentrations are based on the anhydrous weight equivalent of each hydrocarbon, for example, 0.88 for arabinose and xylose, and 0.90 for galactose, glucose and mannose.

1. The control fiber SBF on the basis of grain (seed plants) (that is, not processed in accordance with the written here earlier by the way)

Arabinan (%)Galactan (%)Glucan (%)Xylan (%)Mannan (%)Holocellulose

Total (%)
Hemicellulose

Total (%)
Corn1(SBF)a 14.1-of 17.04,0-5,020,5-24,2-0,6-0,968,1-77,543,1-53,0
Soy2(SBF-S)5,33,739,18,86,963,824,7
Oats3(SBF-0)3,3-3,71,2-1,333,0-29,1-0,166,7-73,333,7 of 38.1
1 Shows the results obtained in the analysis of 6 samples

2. The results obtained in the analysis of 1 sample

3. The results obtained in the analysis of 2 samples

2. Enhanced fiber additive (EFA) (processed in accordance with Examples 1-3)

Arabinan (%)Galactan (%)Glucan (%)Xylan (%)Mannan (%).Holocellulose

Total (%)
Hemicellulose

In the its (%)
Corn4(EFA-C)0,2-0,4of 0.7-0.964,5-5,3-6,41,6-73,3-89,0of 8.1 to 9.2
Soy5(EFA-S)1,2-1,81.1 to 1.458,4-11,3-3,4-76,9-83,618,5 of 20.4
Oats6(EFA-0)0,6-0,80,168,9-11,3-0,185,1-86,to 12.1 and 16.2
4 results based on the analysis of seven samples.

5 the results are based on the analysis of four samples.

6 the results are based on the analysis of two samples.

General considerations regarding analysis

Generally speaking, the analysis allows to identify and to distinguish the preferred materials EFA from simple materials SBF, if you perform the above processing. In particular, the evaluation of the percentage of arabinan, galactan, glucan, xylan and mannan in accordance with the described method allows to identify the factor holocellulose" or "characteristic holocellulose in the sample. This ratio is usually associated with the total amount of hydrocarbons in the sample, which may correlate with the existing hemicellulose and and cellulose, because the resulting contents of monosaccharides reflect the presence of components of cellulose and hemicellulose.

Analysis of glucan is generally regarded here as the ratio holocellulose" or "characteristic holocellulose"because the monosaccharide glucose is most closely correlated with cellulose content.

Total content arabinan, galactan, xylan and mannan consider here as the ratio of hemicellulose or characterization of hemicelluloses", because these monosaccharides usually correlates with the content of hemicelluloses in the sample.

From the above it follows that the exact percentage of cellulose, or the exact percentage of hemicellulose in the sample is specifically correlated with the measured ratios. These coefficients rather just give information about the relative quantities (relative to each other) available materials, as well as relative to other hydrocarbons that are present in the sample.

From the conducted experiments, we can make a comparison between the materials that passed and did not pass the acid treatment, a treatment using an acidic chlorite and processing peroxide, in accordance with the principles described here (see Examples 1-3). In particular, the fiber on the basis of grain from corn (or SBF-C) overall represents Soboh the material, which was not acid processing, processing using acidic chlorite and processing peroxide. Enhanced fiber additive made from corn (or EFA-C) represents the same material, but has been processed in accordance with the principles described here, i.e. mainly in accordance with Examples 1-3). Similarly, in the experiment with soybean was compared SBF-S EFA-S, and in experiments with oats were compared SBF-0 with EFA-0.

From the conducted experiments can be easily made some General observations, in particular the following:

1. Convert SBF in EFA usually leads to a noticeable increase in the measured ratio of cellulose (%).

2. SBF materials usually have a complete ratio of cellulose is not more than 45%, and typically 20-40%, while EFA materials have the full ratio of cellulose at least 50%, and typically 50-85%.

3. SBF materials typically have a coefficient of hemicellulose, which is higher than in the corresponding EFA materials. (In this case, "appropriate," you see the same pattern, but after processing in accordance with the processes described here (Examples 1-3) to convert EFA).

4. SBF materials usually have a full factor of hemicelluloses over 23%, while EFA materials have the full factor hemicellulose, comprising measures at the 5%, but not more than 23%, and usually not more than 21%.

5. Processing, resulting in the conversion of SBF in EFA, usually increases the full factor hemicellulose (%).

6. With regard to maize, the total ratio of cellulose to SBF With typically less than 30%, while the full ratio of cellulose to EFA-is usually at least 60%, for example, 64-81%.

7. With regard to maize, the total coefficient of hemicelluloses for SBF-is usually at least 40%, for example, 43-53%, while the full factor hemicelluloses for EFA-is usually not less than 5% and not more than 15%, for example, 8-9 .2%.

8. As for corn, the full factor holocellulose for SBF-C usually lies in the range of 68-78%, while the full factor holocellulose for EFA-C usually lies in the range 73-90%.

9. As for soybeans, the typical full factor holocellulose for SBF-S is less than 70%, for example, 63.8%, while the full factor holocellulose for EFA-S is usually at least 70%, e.g., 75-85%.

10. The coefficient of hemicelluloses for EFA-S is usually not less than 5%, for example, 18.5-20.4%.

11. As for soybeans, the conversion process SBF in EFA usually leads to higher measured ratio of cellulose; for example, SBF-S usually has a full factor of cellulose in the range of 35-45%, while EFAS usually has a full factor of cellulose at least 50%, usually in the range of 55-65%.

12. As for the oats, then the overall ratio of cellulose to SBF-On is less than 40%, usually 30-36%, while EFA-O usually has a full factor of cellulose at least 60%, typically 65-75%.

13. As for the oats, then the conversion process SBF in EFA usually leads to a full reduction of the coefficient of hemicelluloses.

14. For SBF-About the complete factor hemicelluloses usually exceeds 25%, for example, 30-40%, while EFA-On usually has a full factor of hemicelluloses at least 5% and not more than 20%, for example, 10-17%.

15. As for the fiber from the oats, then the conversion process SBF in EFA usually leads to higher measured rate holocellulose. Usually SBF-On has a full factor holocellulose 65-75%, while EFA-On usually has full factor holocellulose at least 80%, and usually 84-88%.

If to carry out further analysis of these observations, it is possible to come to certain conclusions, for example:

A. Usually in EFA compared to SBF the ratio of the total ratio of cellulose to the total coefficient of hemicellulose increases, i.e. the process of conversion of fibrous material in SBF fibrous material EFA leads to an increase in the relation of the ratio of cellulose to the total coefficient of hemicelluloses, while the coefficient of hemicelluloses cochranae is camping at the level of at least 5%. Usually achieved ratio of at least 2:1.

1. As for corn, the ratio increases from a value of less than 1:1 to at least 5:1, and typically at least 7:1.

2. As for soybeans, the ratio increases from a value of about 1.5:1 to at least 2:1, and typically at least 2.5:1.

3. As for the oats, then the ratio increases from a value of about 1:1 to at least 4:1.

Century concerning the full factor holocellulose (in %), then the full rate holocellulose is usually reduced when converting SBF in EFA.

1. As for corn, the ratio of the total coefficient of hemicelluloses to total factor holocellulose for SBF decreases from values greater than 0.5:1 (usually 0.6:1 or more) to the value of usually not more than 0.2:1.

2. As for soybeans, the ratio decreases from values greater than 0.3:1 to the value of usually not more than 0.3:1.

3. As for the oats, then the ratio is reduced from the value usually at least 0.45:1 to the value of usually not more than 0.3:1, for example, 0.2:1 or less.

C. the conversion Process SBF in the EFA in accordance with the principles of the present invention generally leads to a corresponding increase of the ratio of cellulose and the relationship of ratio of cellulose to the total factor holocellulose, such as the er:

1. As for corn, the SBF-usually has a ratio of the total ratio of cellulose to the total factor holocellulose not more than approximately 0.5:1, while the EFA-is the ratio of the total ratio of cellulose to the total factor holocellulose typically at least 0.7:1.

2. As for soybeans, the ratio of the total ratio of cellulose to the total factor holocellulose for SBF does not exceed approximately 0.65:1, while the EFA-S usually has a ratio of approximately not less than 0.69:1.

3. As for the oats, then the ratio of the total ratio of cellulose to the total factor holocellulose for SBF, typically less than approximately 0.6:1, while the EFA-O is the ratio of the total ratio of cellulose to the total factor holocellulose usually approximately not less than 0.75:1.

IX. Other modifications SBF for education EFA

Can be carried out various kinds of processing before the formation of the EFA, to reduce the levels of natural oils in the fibers. One of the ways to remove these natural oils is Soxlet extraction. In the tank Soxlet extractor can be downloaded material SBF and added solvents, followed by irrigation. During a period of 24 h the dissolution of the natural oils in the preferred solvent and extraction of the fraction of solvent To remove oils of different polarity can be conducted in many extraction for the same material SBF. For example, it can be used non-polar solvent, such as pentane or hexane to remove non-polar oils. After extraction for 24 hours to remove the fraction of pentane or hexane in a Soxlet extractor download more polar solvent, such as dichloromethane. After 24 hours, remove the solvent and loads more polar solvent, such as methanol. After extraction for 24 hours to remove the solvent and begin drying SBF material. Three fractions of solvent evaporated to remove fractionated oils, specific solvent system. The material is then SBF can be used in the manufacturing process EFA without residual contamination of natural oils.

In addition, due to its hydrophilic and hydrophobic nature, the material EFA before its use can be improved or enriched by various additives. For example, it can be associated with nutrients.

In some cases it may be desirable additional modification of the material SBF intended for the formation of the EFA, or material EFA after forming. For example, before the formation of the EFA may provide lower levels of natural oils present in the fibers. Alternatively, the levels of natural oils can be reduced after the formation of the EFA.

1. A fibrous product, characterized in that it contains the acid-treated fibrous material on the basis of grain, which has a full factor of cellulose at least 50% and the coefficient of hemicelluloses at least 5%.

2. A fibrous product according to claim 1, characterized in that the acid-treated fibrous material on the basis of grain is related to the ratio of cellulose to the ratio of hemicellulose, comprising at least 2:1.

3. A fibrous product according to claim 2, characterized in that the acid-treated fibrous material on the basis of grain represents the acid-treated fiber from corn, and the acid-treated fiber from corn has a full factor of cellulose at least 60%.

4. A fibrous product according to claim 3, characterized in that the acid-treated fibrous material made from corn is the ratio of the ratio of cellulose to the ratio of hemicellulose, comprising at least 5:1.

5. A fibrous product according to claim 2, characterized in that the acid-treated fibrous material on the basis of grain represents the acid-treated fiber from soy.

6. A fibrous product according to claim 5, characterized in that the acid-treated fibrous material of soybean is related to the ratio of cellulose to the ratio of hemicellulose, of at the ore 2:1.

7. A fibrous product according to claim 2, characterized in that the acid-treated fibrous material on the basis of grain represents the acid-treated fiber from the oats, and the acid-treated fiber from oats has a full factor of cellulose, comprising at least 60%.

8. A fibrous product according to claim 7, characterized in that the acid-treated fiber from oats is the ratio of the ratio of cellulose to the ratio of hemicellulose, comprising at least 4:1.

9. A fibrous product according to claim 1, characterized in that the acid-treated fibrous material on the basis of grain includes the acid-treated material selected from the group that includes the acid-treated fiber from corn; the acid-treated fiber from soy; the acid-treated fiber from oats and mixtures thereof.

10. A fibrous product according to claim 1, characterized in that the acid-treated fibrous material on the basis of grain is a fibrous material, which is obtained by a method comprising the following operations:

(i) rinsing the fibers on the basis of grain diluted acid solution, which contains at least about 0.1% acid, calculated on the dry weight of the fibers on the basis of grain;

(ii) carrying out processing of the material obtained at the output of the operation (i), using acidic chlorite is and

(iii) carrying out processing of the material obtained at the output of the operation (ii)peroxide.

11. A fibrous product, characterized in that it contains crushed, the acid-treated fibrous material on the basis of grain, having a whitish appearance of the surface in the study using a scanning electron microscope with magnification of 100X.

12. Paper product, characterized in that it contains from 0.1 to 10% of the acid-treated fibrous material on the basis of grain in terms of residual fiber content in the composition for the production of paper, from which the resulting paper, and the acid-treated fibrous material on the basis of the grain has a full factor of cellulose at least 50% and the coefficient of hemicelluloses at least 5%.

13. Paper product, characterized in that it contains a fibrous mass and the acid-treated fibrous material on the basis of grain, which has a full factor of cellulose at least 50% and the coefficient of hemicelluloses at least 5%.

14. Paper product according to item 13, wherein the acid-treated fibrous material on the basis of the grain has a full factor of cellulose in the range of 50-85%.

15. Paper product, characterized in that it contains fibers at least partially coated with a modified valorisation on the basis of grain, oriented along the fibers of the paper, and the modified fibrous material on the basis of the grain has a full factor of cellulose at least 50% and the coefficient of hemicelluloses at least 5%.

16. Paper product according to item 15, wherein the modified fibrous material on the basis of grain selected from the group comprising a modified fiber from corn, modified fiber from oats, modified fiber from soy and mixtures thereof.

17. Food product, characterized in that it contains flour and at least 0.5% of the acid-treated fibrous material on the basis of grain in terms of the weight of flour in the mixture, from which the food product, and the acid-treated fibrous material on the basis of the grain has a full factor of cellulose at least 50% and the coefficient of hemicelluloses at least 5%.

18. A food product according to 17, characterized in that it contains at least 3% of the acid-treated fibrous material on the basis of grain in terms of the weight of flour in the mixture, from which the food product.

19. The food mixture, characterized in that it contains at least 0.5% calculated on the total weight of the original ingredients of the acid-treated fibrous material on the basis of grain, which has a full factor of cellulose at least 50%, coefficie the t hemicelluloses at least 5%.

20. The method of processing fibers on the basis of grain, characterized in that it includes

(a) combining fiber-based grain with dilute acid solution to form an acidic slurry; and

(b) washing the acid-treated fibers with obtaining fibrous material, which has a full factor of cellulose at least 50% and the coefficient of hemicelluloses at least 5%.

21. The method of processing fibers on the basis of grain in claim 20, characterized in that it further includes, after processing in accordance with the operation (b) modification, which provides for at least one of the following operations:

(i) the treatment of the fibers with a solution of acid chlorite;

(ii) the treatment of the fibers with a solution of peroxide and

(iii) the treatment of the fibers in the individual transactions processing solution acidic chlorite and peroxide solution.

22. The method according to claim 20, wherein in operation (a) using an acid solution selected from the group comprising hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, acetic acid, perchloric acid and phosphoric acid.

23. The method according to one of PP-22, characterized in that it involves the use of from 0.1 to 2.0% acid, calculated on the dry weight of the fibers on the basis of grain.

24. JV is the FDS in claim 20, wherein the operation (a) is conducted at a temperature of from 100 to 140°C.

25. The method according to claim 20, wherein the operation (a) is conducted for 0.5 to 2.0 hours

26. The method according to claim 20, characterized in that after the operation (b) the acid-treated fiber is treated with the help of acidic chlorite selected from the group, which mainly consists of a solution of sodium chlorite; chlorite solution of potassium; solution of magnesium chlorite solution chlorite calcium.

27. The method according to p, characterized in that the solution is acidic chlorite is from 1 to 5% by weight of the acid-treated fibers to be processed is specified solution.

28. The method according to claim 20, characterized in that after the operation (b) spend processing peroxide solution.

29. The method according to p, characterized in that the operation is carried out of the processing solution acidic chlorite between the operation (b) and the processing operation peroxide solution.

30. The method according to one of p and 29, characterized in that the specified processing operation peroxide solution provides for the treatment of hydrogen peroxide.

31. The method according to claim 20, characterized in that the complete treatment is carried out with reduced lignin content in the fibrous material on the basis of grain.

32. A method of manufacturing paper, characterized in that it includes an operation used in the paper is treated with acid in onestage material on the basis of grain, manufactured by a method in accordance with one of p-31.

33. A method of manufacturing paper p, characterized in that it includes the operation of preparation of the fibrous mass; and use the acid-treated fibrous material on the basis of grain in the composition of the fibrous mass.

34. The method according to p, characterized in that the acid-treated fibrous material on the basis of grain used in the composition of the fibrous mass in the amount of at least 0.1% weight by weight of the fibrous mass in the composition.

35. The method according to one of PP-34, characterized in that the operation of using the acid-treated fibrous material in the paper includes the operation of coating the fibers of the paper, at least partially, the acid-treated fibrous material on the basis of grain.

36. The method of cooking a food product, characterized in that it comprises the use in the food product the acid-treated fibrous material on the basis of grain produced by the method in accordance with one of p-31.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: polymer materials and papermaking industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aqueous silicon-containing composition containing anionic organic polymer comprising at least one aromatic group and silica-based anionic particles in aggregated form or microgel form. Anionic organic polymer, in particular, contains at least one aromatic group and silica-based anionic particles in amount at least 0.01% of the total mass of composition. Composition contains essentially no sizing substance capable of reacting with cellulose, whereas anionic organic polymer containing at least one aromatic group is not naphthalenesulfonate-formaldehyde condensate. Invention also relates to methods for preparing the composition and to utilization thereof as a substance providing dehydration and retention in paper making process. Invention further relates to a paper making process using aqueous suspension containing cellulose fibers and optionally filler, wherein aqueous silicon-containing composition and at least one charged organic polymer are added to pulp.

EFFECT: improved dehydration and/or retention in paper making process and increased storage stability.

20 cl, 4 tbl, 4 ex

FIELD: paper-and-pulp industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to unbleached pulps, which are used in binder-based cellulose products, which are kraft pulp products. Cellulose product is maintained under alkali conditions during washing operation since initial soaking phase to cellulose drying step and exhibits chemical oxygen demand not higher than 2.0 kg per 1000 kg dry cellulose.

EFFECT: increased strength characteristics of product.

11 cl, 1 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: fungicides.

SUBSTANCE: invention proposes use of strobilurines as fungicidal agents designed to be applied in the form of dispersions in industrial process water and in the form of pulp both used in paper industry. Application areas include preservation of wet sheet, protection against mildew, in particular protection of paper products, or other areas wherein fungicidal or mildew-controlling agents are required. Water systems, which can be treated with strobilurines include papermaking machine systems, fibrous intermediate and paper systems, cooling towers, and heat-exchangers.

EFFECT: increased availability, reduced toxicity, and avoided involvement of volatile and inflammable organic solvents.

38 cl, 2 tbl, 4 ex

FIELD: paper-and-pulp industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of pulps used in binder-based articles. Method of invention comprises repetitive soaking and washing of unbleached pulp in water, which is maintained in alkaline state at elevated temperature to obtain cellulose product characterized by chemical oxygen demand not above 2.0 kg per 10 kg dry cellulose.

EFFECT: improved strength characteristics of products.

14 cl, 1 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: paper-and-pulp industry.

SUBSTANCE: pulp for manufacturing mainly packaging cardboard contains sulfite cellulose, wood-pulp, and secondary fiber. Sulfite cellulose is, more particularly, bisulfite cellulose having rigidity 40-50 Kappa units, tear resistance 390-450 mN, and punching resistance 580-620 mN. Such bisulfite cellulose is obtained by pulping softwood at pH of cooking liquor 2.4-2.9, SO2 concentration 5.0-5.5%, and temperature 155-157°C. Wood-pulp is the one subjected to chemical, thermal, and mechanical treatment and characterized by whiteness 60-65%. Secondary fiber is ground paper waste with specified degree of grinding, optionally in the form of blend of differently ground marks.

EFFECT: improved strength characteristics and reduced manufacturing expenses.

4 cl, 1 tbl, 4 ex

FIELD: paper-and-pulp industry.

SUBSTANCE: pulp for manufacturing mainly box-destination cardboard contains sulfite cellulose, wood-pulp, and secondary fiber. Sulfite cellulose is, more particularly, bisulfite cellulose bleached to 84-86% and having rigidity 30-35 Kappa units, tear resistance 430-460 mN, and punching resistance 430-460 mN. Such bisulfite cellulose is obtained by pulping mixture of softwood and foliferous wood at pH of cooking liquor 1.6-2.3, SO2 concentration 6.0-6.5%, and temperature 145-152°C. Wood-pulp is the one subjected to chemical, thermal, and mechanical treatment and characterized by whiteness 72-75%. Secondary fiber is ground paper waste with specified degree of grinding, optionally in the form of blend of differently ground marks.

EFFECT: improved strength characteristics and reduced manufacturing expenses.

4 cl, 1 tbl, 4 ex

FIELD: paper-and-pulp industry.

SUBSTANCE: corn stems are reduced to fragment, boiled, ground, dispersed, flattened, and dried to produce paper sheets. Boiling is carried out for 1.5-4 h at ratio of aqueous solution of reagent to corn stem material between 3:1 and 6:1 and temperature 120-200°C.

EFFECT: achieved high quality of pulp, improved environmental condition, and reduced expenses.

5 cl, 2 tbl, 7 ex

FIELD: chemical and pulp-and-paper industry.

SUBSTANCE: aqueous suspension of at least one filler or mineral contains natural carbonate, polymeric dispersing agent as stabilizer of suspension viscosity, product of natural carbonate treatment with gaseous CO2, and product of natural carbonate reaction with at least one medium or strong H3O+-donors, has pH more than 7.5 at 200C. As natural carbonate suspension contains calcium carbonate (e.g., marble, calcite, carbonate-containing dolomite, chalk, ore mixtures thereof with talcum, and/or TiO2, MgO, or other minerals inert to H3O+-donors). As H3O+-donors suspension contains H2SO3, HSO

-4
, H3PO4, oxalic acid or mixtures thereof in molar ratio to carbonate of 0.1-2. Used carbon dioxide under pressure of 0.05-5 bar may be added from outside, recycled or obtained by continuous H3O+-donors addition. Treatment with H3O+-donors and gaseous CO2 may be carriedout simultaneously or separately, wherein in the last case temperature and time of respective stages are 5-900C and 1-5 h. Claimed suspension is dried to obtain colorant. Colorant has BET specific surface of 5-200 m2/g according to ISO 9277 and mean grain size measured by sedimentation method of 0.1-50 mum. Colorants are used in compositions, as agent for paper lamination, for paper pulp filling, coloration, and board production. Obtained paper is useful in numeric and ink-jet printing.

EFFECT: paper with decreased mass at constant surface.

33 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl, 8 ex

The invention relates to the pulp and paper industry and can be used in the manufacture of paper for corrugated cardboard
Toilet paper // 2275836

FIELD: production of sanitary and hygienic articles.

SUBSTANCE: toilet paper according to one version has paper base containing substance effectively acting upon skin of anal and perianal regions. Conjugate acid-base pair used as said substance is adapted for forming upon contacting with skin of anal and perianal regions of buffer system with pH of from 4.5 to 6.0, said system being composition containing weak acid and weak acid salt with strong base, or weak base and strong base salt with weak base or combination of acid salts. Toilet paper according to other version includes paper base containing active components of medicinal drugs. Paper base additionally contains composition of weak acid and weak acid salt with strong base or of weak base and strong acid salt with weak base or of weak base and strong acid salt with weak base, or combination of acid salts. Said composition provides, upon contacting with skin of anal and perianal regions, pH value of said skin in the range of from 4.5 to 6.0.

EFFECT: increased hygienic, curative and prophylactic efficiency of toilet paper.

3 cl

FIELD: fibrous materials.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method for production of fibrous semi-finished product with antibacterial properties, containing no heavy metals and useful in production of sanitary, domestic and hygienic paper as well as domestic articles (spoons, fogs, plates cups, etc.). Waste paper mass or mixture thereof with craft hardwood or coniferous cellulose is treated with potassium permanganate in amount of 0.1-0.5 % based on mass of dry cellulose in acidic medium using sulfur acid in amount of 3.1-18.6 % at 20-40°C until total reagent is absorbed.

EFFECT: semi-finished product of improved quality due to increased hygienic properties.

2 tbl, 25 ex

FIELD: cellulose production.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to manufacture of cellulose from cotton lint after alkali pulping or from prehydrolyzed wood cellulose and can be utilized in paper-and-pulp industry or in manufacture of artificial fibers, films, and other cellulose materials. Pulped cotton lint or prehydrolyzed wood cellulose is bleached by sodium hypochlorite at modulus 1:20 to 1:30 and 20-30°C, washed, treated for 50-60 min with 1.0-1.5% sodium hydroxide solution at 80-90°C, and subjected to souring, after which desired product is recovered. More specifically, cotton lint after alkali pulping is bleached in two steps separated by washing. In the first step, bleaching is carried out for 0.5-2.0 h at active chlorine concentration 0.3-2.0 g/L and, in the seconds step, for 0.5-6.0 h with 1.0-6.0 g/L active chlorine concentration. Prehydrolyzed wood cellulose is leached in one step for 0.5-6.0 h with 0.3-6.0 g/L active chlorine concentration.

EFFECT: improved quality of product, reduced average degree of polymerization, and increased reactivity thereof.

2 tbl, 18 ex

FIELD: paper-and-pulp industry.

SUBSTANCE: corn stems are reduced to fragment, boiled, ground, dispersed, flattened, and dried to produce paper sheets. Boiling is carried out for 1.5-4 h at ratio of aqueous solution of reagent to corn stem material between 3:1 and 6:1 and temperature 120-200°C.

EFFECT: achieved high quality of pulp, improved environmental condition, and reduced expenses.

5 cl, 2 tbl, 7 ex

FIELD: manufacture of fibrous materials, in particular, cardboard.

SUBSTANCE: method involves first subjecting secondary filament-waste paper to breaking-up procedure in hydraulic breaker at temperature of 37-390C and pulp concentration of 2-4%, followed by processing in thermal dispersion apparatus at temperature of 38-550C and pulp concentration of 10-12%.

EFFECT: improved physico-mechanical properties of fibrous materials produced and reduced power consumption.

1 tbl, 5 ex

The invention relates to biotechnology; multicomponent system for mediated mediated enzymatic oxidation includes (a) an oxidation catalyst chosen from the group margantsovistyh oxidase, (b) an oxidizing agent chosen from the group comprising oxygen and oxygen-containing compounds, b) the mediator from the group of compounds containing Mn ions

The invention relates to a method for production of cellulose, in particular to a method for cotton cellulose from cotton linters, and can be used in the pulp and paper, chemical industries, to obtain nitrocellulose, cellulose acetate, carboxymethyl cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose, copper ammonia fiber, cardboard and powder industry

The invention relates to pulp and paper production and can be used for the manufacture of tissue paper with a high absorption capacity and other popular kinds of securities

FIELD: pulp-and-paper industry, in particular, production of cellulose from cellulose semi-finished products.

SUBSTANCE: method involves cooking ground larch wood in mixture having 37 wt% of hydrogen peroxide and 30 wt% of acetic acid used in mole ratio of 0.3-0.5 in the presence of molybdic acid catalyst used in an amount of 0.5-0.7% by weight of perfectly dry wood; providing cooking at liquor ratio of 7.5:1 - 10:1 and at temperature of 110-140°C for 2-3 hours.

EFFECT: improved quality of cellulose semi-finished product, reduced consumption of reactants and catalyst, wider range of available raw materials owing to utilization of larch wood, and manufacture of cellulose semi-finished product without preliminarily providing of arabinogalactane extraction stage.

3 tbl, 22 ex

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