Reactor for gas phase catalytic processes

FIELD: chemical and oil industry.

SUBSTANCE: reactor comprises housing, means for supplying initial components and discharging finished product, unit for heating and cooling made of a number of heat pipes, additional catalyzer applied on the heat pipes and/or housing and made of a coating. The heat pipes are staggered in the space of the housing. The total area of the surface of the heat pipes in the catalytic zone should provide heating and cooling the catalytic zone.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

5 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of technological equipment for gas-phase catalytic processes and can be used in chemical, petrochemical and other industries that use gas-phase catalytic processes.

Known apparatus of the capacitive type (SU inventor's certificate No. 318405, 1970), comprising a housing with means of input components and output the finished product, and the case contains a rotating heat exchanger mixing device made of pipes, mounted on the hollow shaft and located on different radii of rotation, and the inner cavity of the shaft and the specified device communicated with each other to enable the circulation of the refrigerant. This allows regulation of the inlet/outlet of the heat from circulating around the enclosure volume of the reaction medium.

A disadvantage of the known device should recognize the different conditions of flow of the refrigerant in the tubes of the device and in the hollow shaft, which does not allow to create a completely isothermal process conditions.

Known capacitive reactor type (SU authorship 225856, 1967), comprising a housing with means of input components and output the finished product, and the case contains a mixing device, the blades of which ispolneny of heat pipes, mounted on the shaft radially in the same horizontal plane.

The disadvantages of the known reactor should recognize the impossibility of obtaining a fully isothermal process due to the specified placement of the heat pipes. In addition, the placement of the heat pipes may not provide optimal heat transfer and inside heat pipes and, consequently, a significant reduction in heat transfer coefficient.

The closest analogue of the proposed device can be recognized (SU authorship 852341, 1981) reactor, preferably intended for the polymerization and copolymerization of gaseous monomers. The specified reactor includes a housing with input and output of the circulating gaseous medium, source components and finished product, shaft with peremestivsheesya blades, made in the form of heat pipes, heat exchanger and pump, and heat pipes are installed vertically and concentrically relative to the shaft at different radii of rotation, and means input and output of the gaseous environment are diametrically in the upper part of the reactor, between these means are the upper ends of these heat pipes.

The technical problem to be solved by the proposed reactor design is to improve the quality of the products.

The technical result obtained by the implementation of the proposed reactor design consists in accelerating the exit of the reactor to the operating mode.

To achieve the technical result of the proposed use of the reactor for the implementation of the gas-phase catalytic processes, comprising a housing, means of input components and the output medium of the finished product, expand the supply or removal of heat, made in the form of multiple heat pipes. It also contains the catalyst, deposited on a heat pipe and/or casing in the form of a coating. While heat pipes on the volume of the body are staggered, and their total surface area, located in the catalytic zone, ensures the supply or exhaust of the catalytic zones are necessary for carrying out catalytic process, the quantity of heat energy. In the most preferred embodiment of the proposed device is a heat pipe according to the volume of the body are located concentrically. Practically this means that the vertical axis of the casing arranged concentrically heat pipes and tubes of each subsequent row are set against the gaps between the pipes of the previous row. In addition to fixing the catalyst on the surface of the heat pipes and/or case possible for more on Esenia catalyst on a carrier, placed between the heat pipes. The carrier is preferably mounted on the inner surface of the housing. Typically, the tools of the input components and the output medium of the finished product have on the opposite walls of the housing. To start the process, but also for its regulation in the housing preferably include sensors monitoring the process. This is usually the sensors of temperature, pressure, and possibly the content of the source components and the resulting products. The outputs of the sensors can be connected to instrumentation and to the means for automatic regulation of the process. To maintain the temperature inside the reactor is preferably around and/or inside additionally there are means to control the process temperature. These funds can be used to supply thermal energy to the parts of the heat pipes located outside of the shell, and inlet/exhaust heat energy in emergency mode.

Since the energy characteristics of the process, for which it is intended the proposed reactor, known as the properties of the metal heat pipes, the properties of the catalyst layer deposited on the surface of the heat pipes, the location configuration of heat pipes in which auctore, and characteristics of the substances inside the heat pipe, the first on the basis of thermodynamics and Thermophysics calculate the total surface area of the heat pipes placed inside the reactor. This allows to simplify the achievement of the isothermal characteristics of the process. Excluding at least one of the listed conditions specified calculation is obtained approximate, making it difficult to obtain an isothermal process conditions and, ultimately, reduces the yield of the target product.

Used the term "heat pipe" has the meaning generally accepted in science and engineering (see, for example, a Large encyclopedic dictionary "Polytechnic". M., Scientific edition of "Great Russian encyclopedia", 1998, str).

In addition to gas-phase catalytic processes this reactor can be used for liquid-phase catalytic processes.

The drawing shows the basic variant of the claimed design, while the following notation is used: case 1, 2 input components, the tool 3 output of the finished product, the catalytic region 4, the insulation 5, the heat pipe 6, the area of heat supply to the heat pipe 7.

The proposed reactor is endothermic chemical reaction is as follows. Pre-determine optimalisatie modes of the process. Pick up substance, the temperature of vaporization of which corresponds to the optimum temperature of the reaction. Calculated taking into account the above mentioned conditions, the total surface area of heat pipes located in the reaction zone. If necessary, use additional means of temperature control give the body the required thermal conditions. Bring heat energy to the ends of the heat pipes located outside the reactor vessel. Served in case the original components, pass them through a catalytic zone, adjusting if necessary by measuring modes the filing of the original components. Away from the body of the finished product, if necessary, separating it from unreacted starting components. During the flow in the reactor exothermic reaction heat pipe according to the above diagram divert heat from the reactor.

The use of the proposed reactor design illustrated on the example of the steam reforming of methane.

The process of steam reforming of methane leaks on the catalyst (NiO on Al2O3) at a temperature of 650÷1000°and the pressure is 5÷7 MPa. In the process of methane is formed a mixture of N2and WITH the. The reaction takes place with absorption of heat at the level of 3.4 kW per 1 kg of converted methane.

The process of steam reforming of methane at the present time usually is about carried out in a tubular reactor with a supply of heat through the heat transfer wall.

In this case, the steam conversion can be accomplished in two ways:

1. Supply provide heat due to the combustion of fuel, and the process flows in the tubes, which is the catalyst. This option has the following major drawbacks:

- the inability to achieve an isothermal process with the input of heat by radiation and convection flue gases due to the large temperature difference between the cooled and heated environment with the possibility of local overheating. While applying heat only at the expense of the Convention required the expenditure of large circulation of flue gases, which dramatically increases the energy consumption through the use of high performance exhausts and, consequently, investments;

- the complexity of the organization uniform distribution of gas flow through the pipes loaded with a catalyst.

2. Heat input is performed by the coolant circulating through pipes placed in the catalyst bed.

The coolant has a temperature of 40÷60°higher than the required temperature of the process (i.e. at the level 710÷1060°). The heating fluid is carried out in a single heating furnace.

This option enables you to carry out the process in a mode closer to isothermal, although the length of the tubes also there is a big temperature difference at the level of 10° C and above.

The disadvantages of this method are:

- the mode of convective heat transfer in pipes with a small temperature difference between the coolant and the catalytic space requires large heat transfer surfaces and, as a consequence, complexity and cost structures, as well as increasing energy consumption for the circulation of coolant;

- high temperature fluid level significantly increases the cost of the organization of its circulation (hot pumps, valves etc), expensive materials of construction, low margin of safety because of the high temperatures.

The proposed version of the reactor design allows for the benefits of option 2, with a sharp reduction of heat transfer surface, the lack of equipment for the organization of the brine, combine the reactor and heating furnaces in one device.

From the experience of the conversion of methane is known optimal catalyst, pressure and temperature of the process.

Pipe reactor are heat pipes filled with sodium, on the surface of which is coated with the layer of catalyst (NiO on Al2About3). The process in the reactor is carried out at a pressure of 7 MPa and a temperature of 900°C.

Determination of the optimal total surface area of heat pipes located in kata is eticheskoi zone, conducted empirically, gradually increasing the size of the specified area.

Thus, it was found that for a reactor of specified design volume of 6 m3the optimal value of the total area of 3.8 m2and for similar reactor with a volume of 8 m3- 5,4 m2.

Thus, while maintaining the standard process of steam reforming of methane volume of catalyst space reduced by 30-40% while maintaining the reaction time of the race. Dramatically reduced the capital cost of establishing the system of the reactor furnace at least 60-80%.

When using the optimal amount of the surface area of the heat pipes in the reactor installed in a checkerboard pattern, without using a catalyst, the process actually happens.

When using the catalyst, deposited on the surface of the heat pipes installed concentrically, when using the optimal amount of the surface area of the heat pipes in the reactor, the product yield increased by about 14%, and the operating mode is reduced by a factor of 1.2.

When using the catalyst, deposited on the surface of the heat pipes installed in a checkerboard pattern, but with an increased area of heat pipes located in the reactor, increasing the yield of the target product was 12%, while the ramp-smart who agrees 1.1 times.

When using the catalyst, deposited on the surface of the heat pipes installed in a checkerboard pattern, but when calculating the size reduction of heat pipes located in the reactor, increasing the yield of the target product was 14%, while the operating mode is reduced by a factor of 1.1.

When using the catalyst deposited on the surface of heat pipes arranged in a checkerboard pattern, the total surface area which is located in the reactor, calculated using all these parameters, the yield of the target product, compared with option 2, is increased by 20%, and the operating mode is reduced by 1.4 times.

The use of the proposed reactor design allows you to rapidly achieve a constant temperature in the catalyst space around the reactor, which leads to an increase in the percentage of yield by increasing the proportion of unreacted starting components, as well as reduction of the time of the exit of the reactor to the operating mode.

1. The reactor for the implementation of the gas-phase catalytic processes, comprising a housing, means of input components and the output medium of the finished product, expand the supply or removal of heat, made in the form of multiple heat pipes, characterized in that it further contains a catalyst that caused the and of the heat pipe and/or casing in the form of a coating, while heat pipes on the volume of the body are staggered, and their total surface area, located in the catalytic zone is selected in such a way that ensures the supply or exhaust of the catalytic zones are necessary for carrying out a catalytic process, the amount of thermal energy.

2. The reactor according to claim 1, characterized in that the heat pipes on the volume of the body are located concentrically.

3. The reactor according to claim 1, characterized in that the catalyst supported on a carrier and is located in the annular space of the heat pipe.

4. The reactor according to claim 1, characterized in that the means of the input components and the output medium of the finished product are located on opposite walls of the enclosure.

5. The reactor according to claim 1, characterized in that the housing is located sensors monitoring the process.

6. The reactor according to claim 1, characterized in that around and/or inside additionally there are means to control the process temperature.



 

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Reactor // 2246345

FIELD: chemical industry, catalytic processes.

SUBSTANCE: the invention presents a reactor for catalytic processes and is dealt with the field of chemical industry and may be used for catalytic processes. The reactor contains: a body; units of input and output for a reaction mixture and products of reactions; units of loading and unloading of a catalyst; a catalyst layer with the groups of the parallel hollow gas-permeable chambers located on it in height in one or several horizontal planes and each of the chambers has a perforated gas-distributing pipe with impenetrable butt connected to the group collector and used for input of additional amount of the reaction mixture. Each of perforated gas-permeable chambers is supplied with the second gas-distributing pipe with impenetrable butt. At that the impenetrable butts of the pipes are located on the opposite sides. The given engineering solution provides uniformity and entirety of agitation of the reaction mixtures.

EFFECT: the invention provides uniformity and entirety of agitation of the reaction mixtures.

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The invention relates to the field of chemical technology

The invention relates to an improved process for the preparation of methanol by direct oxidation of hydrocarbon gas, comprising the sequential feeding site mixing of the reactor, which is located in the upper part of the reactor, the heated hydrocarbon gas and compressed air, followed by direct oxidation of the hydrocarbon gas, cooling the reaction mixture and separation, in which the cooled reaction mixture is separated into exhaust gases and liquid products, and regeneration obtained in the process of separation of methanol, with the release of methanol and exhaust gas discharge, and the oxidation of the hydrocarbon gas is carried out in two stages: homogeneous oxidation of the tubular part of the reactor and subsequent heterogeneous oxidation in the shell side of the reactor using a two-layer catalyst at a temperature 390-4900C and a pressure of 8.0 MPa, and cooling the reaction mixture is performed first in the heat exchanger “gas-gas”, then in the air cooler gas

The invention relates to the ongoing ways in the reactor and, in particular, to the use of such reactors for the implementation of the reaction between a liquid and a gaseous reagent

Reactor // 2246345

FIELD: chemical industry, catalytic processes.

SUBSTANCE: the invention presents a reactor for catalytic processes and is dealt with the field of chemical industry and may be used for catalytic processes. The reactor contains: a body; units of input and output for a reaction mixture and products of reactions; units of loading and unloading of a catalyst; a catalyst layer with the groups of the parallel hollow gas-permeable chambers located on it in height in one or several horizontal planes and each of the chambers has a perforated gas-distributing pipe with impenetrable butt connected to the group collector and used for input of additional amount of the reaction mixture. Each of perforated gas-permeable chambers is supplied with the second gas-distributing pipe with impenetrable butt. At that the impenetrable butts of the pipes are located on the opposite sides. The given engineering solution provides uniformity and entirety of agitation of the reaction mixtures.

EFFECT: the invention provides uniformity and entirety of agitation of the reaction mixtures.

5 cl, 4 dwg

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