Method for controlling formation of quality of grape wine

FIELD: viniculture, in particular, methods for predicting and evaluating of wine quality.

SUBSTANCE: method involves determining structural features of crude material such as sugar content, titratable acidity, yield, selection of processing trend, degustation evaluation; measuring under different ecological cultivation conditions values of outside limiting factors at ontogeny phases of grape sort; designing, on the basis of data received, multiple regression models of association among structural features with outside limiting factors; selecting by parameters of model optimal harvesting time, cultivation zone, ecological conditions of which zone maximally correspond to genetic requirements of sort; building multiple regression models of association of degustation evaluation of grape wine with its structural features and, on the basis of data received, building nomograph; on the basis of said nomograph, judging kind and quality of wine by forming four quadrants defined by horizontal and vertical boundaries, first of which extends along line according to which wine has constant degustation evaluation regardless of level of titratable acidity and constant sugar content value, and second of which extends through point of intersection of all the lines on nomograph, with sugar content-acidity interval values lying on lines in left-hand and right-hand upper quadrants corresponding to higher-quality dry and special wines, correspondingly, and left-hand and right-hand lower quadrants corresponding to lower-quality special and dry wines.

EFFECT: provision for selecting grape sort or cultivation zone corresponding to genetic requirements of sort with predetermined quality and productivity factors, and defining optimal harvesting time owing to consideration of effect thereon of outside limiting environmental factors by ontogenesis phases to enable formation of quality and kind of wine.

1 dwg, 1 ex

 

The invention relates to the field of viticulture, in particular to methods for predicting and assessing the quality of the wine.

Currently, the quality assessment is mainly to control the production, from the selection of the area of cultivation of grapes and the realization of finished products. The main parameter in determining the quality of wine at the moment is a tasting. However, this assessment is purely subjective and therefore may not be sufficiently accurate.

Need to assess the quality of the wine on the basis of objective data, which are its physical and chemical characteristics, has resulted in the determination of technical maturity, the direction of processing of the grapes and determining the type of wine began to take into account the values of its sugar content, titratable acidity, and their ratio (Ponomarev VF and others, the Technology of processing of the grapes, Moscow, Publishing house of MAU, 1997, SS-16).

The closest technological essence is a method for the production of wines of a certain quality, which takes into account the influence of structural characteristics, including not only the sugar content and titratable acidity, but also the yield. In this way the industrial processing of grapes begins with the selection of grapes and a selection of plots of land, capable of providing high quality ready what about the product (Scholz H.E. and others, the Technology of processing of the grapes, Moscow, Agropromizdat, 1990, SS-99).

After determining the quality of raw materials decide on the direction of processing of the grapes. Quality assessment this involves a tasting panel.

The disadvantages of this method is inaccurate assessment of the quality and type of wine produced, requiring constant adjustments of the technologies that can be performed only by an experienced technologist, and only when using traditional varieties, knowledge of the conditions of its growth, agricultural practices, etc. At the same time the quality and type of wine taken from the new genotypes, which has a lot of useful economic and biological properties, in General, difficult to implement, and therefore their distribution is ignored by many growers and winemakers.

The technical result from use of the present invention is the provision of selection grade or area of cultivation of grapes, the corresponding genetic requirements of the grade, with specified quality indicators and fruitfulness, as well as determining the optimal time of harvest by taking into account the share of the impact of external limiting factors of the environment on phases of ontogenesis, which allows you to shape the quality and type of wine.

The technical result is achieved due to the fact that the control method forms the management of the quality of wine, including the identification of structural characteristics of raw materials such as sugar content, titratable acidity, yield, choosing the direction of processing, a tasting of the product is provided in various environmental conditions of cultivation of the measurement values of the external limiting factors on phases of ontogenesis grape varieties, on the basis of the received data to build multiple regression models of relationships among structural characteristics with external limiting factors and the parameters of this model to choose the optimal time of harvest and the area of cultivation, the environmental conditions which are most relevant genetic requirements of the grade, then build multiple regression models of communication tasting evaluation of wine with their structural characteristics and taking into account the received data build the nomogram, which is judged on the type and quality of wine by defining the 4 quadrants formed by the horizontal and vertical boundaries, the first of which passes through the line at which, regardless of the level of titratable acidity and a constant value of sugar content of wine has a constant tasting evaluation, and the second is through the point of intersection of all lines on the nomogram, with sugar-acid interval lying on the lines in the left and right upper squares, which is Tvout high quality dry and special wines, respectively, and lower left and right quadrants correspond to lower quality and special dry wines.

At the tasting evaluation of wine have a huge impact not only structural characteristics, agricultural practices, areas of cultivation and the technology of its receipt, but also the external limiting factors of the environment on phases of ontogenesis grape varieties.

As a result of scientific research and mathematical modeling was the dependence of structural characteristics from external limiting factors.

Managing yield and quality of grapes is that, having a mathematical model of the reaction of varieties to specific limiting factors of the environment on phases of ontogenesis and detailed maps of the environmental conditions of the region, for each grade to determine the optimal time of harvest, pick the area of cultivation, the environmental conditions which are most relevant genetic requirements of the grade, or, on the contrary, for a specific area of cultivation pick the appropriate variety.

Control quality of wine and its type is as follows.

A tasting of characterizing the quality of the wine, is directly related to physico-chemical indicators of the composition of grapes and its productivity. These structural features, in turn, are formed in the dependent the tee as from environmental growing conditions, and genetic characteristics of varieties. First formalize causal link tasting evaluation grape variety with its structural characteristics: sugar content, titratable acidity, yield. Substituting in the equation, data on emerging specific weather conditions of ontogenesis, already in the early periods of plant development predict the formation of sugar content, titratable acidity, yield. This prediction can be performed in each phase of plant development. Construct the model of communication tasting estimate these parameters, based on which build the nomogram to determine the tasting evaluation wines from this grape varieties depending on the content of titratable acids with different sugar content.

When approaching maturity data for actual sugar content, acidity and yield (assumed or estimated visually) substitute in equation tasting estimate and calculate its forecast. Tracking the dynamics of these parameters, specify the optimal time of harvest. Available nomograms communication tasting evaluation with sugar content and acidity of each grape varieties make it possible to predict the type and quality of wine grape raw material with specific characteristics. Raw materials are processed to obtain guarantees the consistent type and quality of wine.

An example of a specific implementation.

For example, use of the method were chosen with two new promising varieties of grapes of different origin Ecei simatos and Viorica grown in three agro-climatic zones: Central, Anapa, Taman areas of Krasnodar region and the Eastern district of the Stavropol territory for 10 years. Were taken the values of the five factors (sum of active temperature, minimum air temperature, maximum air temperature, and others) within five phenological phases of each variety, limited calendar start and end dates: beginning of Bud - beginning of flowering; early flowering late flowering late flowering - early ripening of berries; beginning of ripening berries and technical maturity; technical maturity - November. For each structural characteristic were created monofactorial linear regression model. Then, for each characteristic were developed multivariate linear model including all factors in all phases of development (25 variables). Next, for each grade were obtained nonlinear model based tasting estimates from the structural characteristics of the sugar content, titratable acidity and yield.

The model links the tasting evaluation with structural characteristics for varieties Ecei zapatos shown in equation (1)

where y is a tasting, score;

x1the sugar content of grapes, g/100 cm

x2- titratable acidity, g/DM;

x3- yield, t/ha

and for varieties Viorica equation (2)

* In the equations above the line indicates the share of influence factors

Models of cause-effect relationships of the studied signs with tasting evaluation showed that it largely influenced not so much linear components factors as their ratio, the share of influence which can reach 60%.

As in any ecological zone of cultivation there are fluctuations in weather conditions from multiyear averages, and predicted using models testing estimation will not be constant. We have calculated the Viorica and Gacey zapatos dozens of variants of the possible combinations of the selected three components of the tasting evaluation under actual conditions of the studied areas was seen in the genotypic differences of the studied varieties and each of them have sugar-defined interval to obtain quality wines (see drawing).

The drawing shows a nomogram for calculation of the tasting evaluation of wines from grapes Viorica.

From the Nomograph shows that when all the possible variety of titratable acids for grades Viorica boundary sugar for p the receipt of high-quality dry wine is the sugar content of the grapes of 21%. Variation acids from 6 to 11 g/DM3when the sugar content does not change degustation evaluation 8.4 points.

With increasing sugar content above 21% high-quality dry wine cannot be obtained.

Such boundary charactersare the variety Ecei samatas, according to our calculations, is 19%. At lower sugar content (17-18%) high a tasting can be obtained when the pH of 6-8 g/DM3. When the sugar content of 19% for all the studied range of colatosti (6-10 g/DM3) a tasting almost did not change (7,9 8,1 points). When charactergen 20% and higher raw material can be used in the production of special wines.

Thus, nomograms derived using models, demonstrate qualitative transition of wine from one type to another.

The line separating the high-quality wine from less quality when, regardless of the level of acid in the grapes at a constant value of sugar content of wine has a constant tasting evaluation, we called "fantastic quality". Quality standard is the lower limit of high-quality wine from the berries of this variety. The magnitude of the tasting evaluation, the corresponding strap quality depends on the genotypic characteristics of the variety and slightly varies when changing the harvest.

"Quality standard" is one of the borders sharachelon is the interval partition of wines in quality and type.

All lines nomograms intersect in one point of inflection, which passes through the second boundary "sugar" interval. When acidity corresponding to this point, change the sugar content does not change the tasting evaluation.

"Standard of quality" and the ordinate passing through the inflection point, divide the field coordinates in 4 quadrants with different characteristics, the type and quality of wine. Values of sweetness and acidity, lying on the graphs in the left upper quadrant, consistent with high-quality dry wines; in the right upper quadrant - high-quality dry wines; in the right upper quadrant - high-quality special wines; in the lower left - lower quality and in the lower right quadrant tasting score corresponds to a lower quality dry wines.

Thus, for example, varieties Ecei simatos and Viorica did a thorough study of the dependence of the tasting assess the yield and physico-chemical characteristics of the grapes. From the obtained models is a clear genotypic differences of the studied varieties in character formation tasting wine evaluation received from each grape varieties, depending on the yield and content of sugars and titratable acids.

Nomograms constructed model showing the dependence of degust the traditional estimation of sugar content, acidity, yield and, in turn, from the external limiting factors during the growing season, allow for any kind of forecast as possible Optima tasting evaluations and possible recessions.

The practical significance of the proposed method of controlling the formation of the quality of wine is that it can be used to evaluate the potential of sorts, to calculate the optimal time of harvest, to predict the type and quality of the wine, to make adjustments to the technology of its preparation and to take appropriate management decisions on the organization and conduct of the winemaking process.

Minor deviations from the calculated borders the sugar-acid" interval quality and type of wine can be caused by unaccounted here amino acids, vitamins, aromatic compounds and other biologically active substances.

We offer a methodical approach to the analysis of the dependence of quality wines from the physico-chemical characteristics of the grapes, the yield, as well as from external limiting factors allows using computer simulation to calculate the "standard of quality" and the conditions for obtaining high quality wines for any grape variety. These estimates are necessary to elucidate the potential of the variety at the time of harvest and directed the spine of its use during processing.

The practical significance of the proposed method is that it allows you to calculate the optimum time of harvest, to predict the type and quality of the wine, to make adjustments in technology to obtain the necessary quality of the wine.

The method of controlling the formation of quality wine defining structural characteristics of raw materials such as sugar content, titratable acidity, yield, choosing the direction of processing, a tasting product, characterized in that the different environmental conditions of cultivation produce measurement values of the external limiting factors on phases of ontogenesis grape varieties, on the basis of the received data to build multiple regression models of relationships among structural characteristics with external limiting factors and the parameters of this model to choose the optimal time of harvest, the area of cultivation, the environmental conditions which are most relevant genetic requirements of the grade, then build multiple regression models of communication tasting evaluation grape wine with its structural characteristics and taking into account the received data to construct a nomogram, which is judged on the type and quality of wine by defining the 4 quadrants formed by the horizontal and vertical boundaries, the first to the x goes along the line, in which, regardless of the level of titratable acidity and a constant value of sugar content of wine has a constant tasting evaluation, and the second is through the point of intersection of all lines on the nomogram, with sugar-acid interval lying on the lines in the left and right upper squares correspond to high-quality dry and special wines, respectively, and left and lower right quadrants correspond to lower quality and special dry wines.



 

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