Method and system for controlling x-ray flux

FIELD: roentgen optics; roentgen ray flux reflecting, focusing, and monochromatization.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method for controlling X-ray flux by means of controlled energy actions on control unit incorporating diffraction medium and substrate includes change of substrate and diffraction medium surface geometry and diffractive parameters of this medium by simultaneous action on control-unit substrate and on outer surface of control-unit diffraction medium with heterogeneous energy. X-ray flux control system has X-ray source and control unit incorporating diffraction medium and substrate; in addition, it is provided with diffraction beam angular shift corrector connected to recording chamber; control unit is provided with temperature controller and positioner; substrate has alternating members controlling its geometric parameters which are functionally coupled with physical parameters of members, their geometric parameters, and amount of energy acting upon them. Diffraction medium can be made in the form of crystalline or multilayer periodic structure covered with energy-absorbing coating.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of roentgen-ray flux control due to dynamic correction of focal spot shape and size.

3 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to x-ray optics, in particular, to devices for reflection, focus and monochromatization of x-ray flux, and can be used for carrying out processes in x-ray lithography, x-ray microscopy, x-ray spectroscopy, diffractometers, as well as in astronomy, physics, biology, medicine and other fields of technology, which uses x-rays.

A device for focusing x-rays protected by the patent of Russian Federation patent RF №2080669, IPC G 21 K 1/06 published 1997.05.27. Device focus x-ray radiation comprises a base and two buildings placed on it one behind the other along the axis of the x-ray radiation, with symmetrical installation of each of the two pairs of mirrors, each pair of mirrors are rotated one relative to the other 90° and each mirror is equipped with individual mechanism cantilever bending. Mirrors made in the form of plates of constant thickness, in which are asymmetrical a-line with a curve at the base of the sides and the axis of symmetry is the line parallel to the axis of the x-ray beam.

The disadvantage of this device for focusing x-rays is the presence of a large number of mechanical devices that ensure the necessary parameters of the curve.

The second disadvantage of this device is the limited control of the parameters of curvature of the bent surface required to achieve the specified parameters focusing x-ray radiation.

These disadvantages of this device makes it difficult in wide use in x-ray optics devices and optics of visible and IR ranges.

The known method for bending crystals protected by the patent of Russian Federation №919248, IPC B 28 D 5/00, published February 10, 2000). The method includes bending the installation of the crystal between the mandrels, one surface of which is covered with the adhesive composition, heat of the crystal with the mandrel and removing the mandrel after the acquisition of crystal forms. As mandrels use plates made of martensitic alloys having "shape memory effect", which before installing between them crystal is pre-bent to a predetermined radius when the temperature of the beginning of the reverse martensite transformation, straighten them at room temperature, and the heating is carried out until the temperature of the end of the reverse martensite transformation.

The disadvantage of this method is the inability to dynamically control the parameters of the bending of the crystal in the process of setting the focusing system, which limits its use in x-ray optics systems is X.

Closest to the proposed invention to the technical essence and the achieved result, selected as a prototype, is a device to control the flow of x-ray radiation and its production method protected by the patent of Russian Federation №2109358, IPC G 21 K 1/06, published April 20, 1998.

The device consists of a substrate and alternating layers with different decrements made of a material consisting of atoms of carbon and hydrogen. When this difference decrements layers is achieved by varying the hydrogen content in the layer and different spatial patterns of layers. A method of obtaining a device is to create a substrate of a multilayer structure with varying according to a given law values decrements its constituent layers. Forming at least one layer is produced by deposition from the gaseous carbon-containing environment. The invention allows to improve the performance of devices to control the flow of x-ray radiation due to the decrease of the absorption coefficient of x-ray radiation, increase resolution and shirokopolostnoe, more sophisticated interfaces between layers.

The disadvantage of this device is the lack of adjustment of the relief surface of the substrate, the through which it is possible to dynamically adjust the parameters of the substrate for x-ray optics scheme and, therefore, to improve the controllability of the x-ray flux. In addition, the production of such a substrate constituting a diffraction grating with a depth profile component units or tens of nanometers, and smooth surface, is a complex technical task.

The disadvantage of this method is the difficulty in establishing on a substrate of a multilayer structure with varying according to a given value decrements its constituent layers, capable of the specified image forming x-ray beam.

These disadvantages of the known method and device for its implementation do not allow to interactively generate x-ray beam with the necessary parameters and make it difficult for widespread use in x-ray facilities using focusing optics.

The problem solved by the invention is improved method of controlling the x-ray flux (RI) when the diffraction rentgenoterapii, as well as the irradiation of biological objects in x-ray optics devices and systems for its implementation.

The technical result from the use of this invention is to improve management of the flow of RI due to the dynamic adjustments of convergence of the x-ray beam.

This result is reached which is the fact that in the method of controlling the x-ray flux by controlled energy impacts on the control unit, consisting of a diffraction environment and the substrate, changing the geometric shape of the surface of the substrate, the diffraction environment and its diffraction parameters by simultaneous inhomogeneous energy impacts on a substrate of the control unit and the external surface of the diffraction environment control unit.

This result is achieved in that the system flow control x-ray radiation, including x-ray source and a control unit consisting of a diffraction environment and the substrate is further provided with a device for the correction of angular displacement of the diffraction beam, connected to a computer connected to the recording chamber, the control unit is equipped with a temperature stabilizer and positioner, the substrate with alternating it controls the geometric parameters of the substrate, functionally associated with the physical parameters of the elements, their geometrical parameters and the value placed on them, the energy of the impact.

Diffraction environment can be made in the form of crystal or multilayer periodic structure with a deposited energy absorbing impact aircraft is receiving.

In the method of controlling the flow of RI by controlled energy impacts on the diffractive elements of the control unit (DBU) flow RI energy impacts on a substrate DBU, causes a geometric change of the bending shape of the diffraction surface environment (DS) and changes the convergence of RI, energy impact on the diffraction environment DBU locally changes its diffraction parameters and adjusts the convergence of the x-ray beam.

Method and system for its implementation involve dynamic control of parameters of the x-ray beam used in devices, x-ray optics. To implement this control is used we have developed a method and system management parameters RI quanta with energies in the range of 5-150 Kev.

In the drawing given schematic illustration of the main elements of the system. The system contains a source of RI 1, DBU x-ray 2 with the device temperature stabilization and positioner corrector angular displacement of the diffraction beam, hereinafter referred to as the corrector beam (KP) 3 connected to the computer 4 connected to a recording chamber 5.

As a source of RI used synchrotron radiation source or weight fine-focus x-ray tube with a focal spot size, on reeseman tasks focus for example 0,1×0.1 mm2. DBU 2 consists of a diffraction medium 6 and the substrate 7, see drawing. As DS 6 can be used crystal plate, for example, silicon, pyrolytic graphite, etc. and multilayer structures, for example W/C. as the substrate 7 uses a modular system consisting of a pre-curved for a given geometric shape of the elastic plate, such as titanium. The shape of the plate is determined by the x-ray diagram of the specific unit, the management tasks of RI and may be, for example a parabolic cylinder. On the inner side of this plate is fastened DS, with the outer side of the plate, the grooves are made of a certain shape, for example triangular, posted by active elements. As the active elements are used termorasshirennyi elements (TE) or piezoelectric (PE) 8, which change their dimensions under the action of temperature, in the case of TE or voltage, in the case of PE, and, consequently, alter the geometric shape of the substrate and, respectively, the geometric shape of the DS. The shape and size of the recesses and, accordingly, the shape and size of TE and PE are calculated under a specific x-ray optics diagram.

As TE is used metals, such as bronze, etc. as PE, you can use piezoceramic, is for example a group of piezoceramic materials like lead zirconate titanate (CTS) and other As the device temperature stabilization thermostat is used with a water cooling system or any other device, such as a device using thermoelectric Peltier effect. As a positioner is used, the device is assembled, for example, on piezophiles, allowing fine-tuning of the diffraction environment under the Bragg diffraction angle. The flow control RI perform both automatic and manual modes by using the graphical interface of the computer software.

The flow control RI can be carried out as follows. On DBU 2 from source RI 1 direct x-ray beam angle to the surface DS 6, satisfying the Bragg condition for diffraction. The shape change and the convergence of the x-ray beam diffracted from DS 6 is carried out by simultaneous energy of impact on the substrate 7 and the outer surface DS 6. Energy impact on the substrate is carried out with the aim of changing the geometric shape of its surface and, therefore, the geometric shape of the surface DS. In the case of TE these changes are achieved through a controlled temperature changes DBU 2. In the case of PE, these changes are achieved through a controlled change is through the supplied voltage to them. To adjust the angle of convergence of the x-ray beam on LT 6 effect of modulated energy efficiency or energy intensity (e, light, infrared, etc.) beam capable of locally change the temperature of the surface DS. For example, the effects of temperature can be performed via CP 3, which represents a unit which includes an optical device (laser projection lamp and so on) and device for controlling the position of the light beam on the surface DS 6 (reflectors and optical modulators). How temperature effects on DC 6 can also be carried out using a multimedia projector (for example, VPL-CS1, Barco SLM G5, BarcoGraphics 9300/BarcoReality 9300 etc). Exposure may be carried out directly on DS 6 or through fiber optics (optical fibers), led matrix, etc. as the computer 4 uses the computer, the functionality of which is not lower than a Pentium 4.

Modulated energy beam creates on the surface DS 6 temperature field, locally changes its diffraction parameters, calls the local angular displacement of the Bragg reflections from the DS. Angular displacement of the Bragg reflections, functionally connected with the distribution of energy impacts on the surface DS. Due to the controlled bending of the surface DS, and C is the account managed shift of the Bragg reflection of x-rays from sites form DS spatially inhomogeneous x-ray beam. The size, shape and intensity distribution in the generated x-ray beam is functionally associated with the shape of the surface DS, variable with the substrate, the distribution of temperature field in DS and, therefore, with the magnitude of temperature effects on DC. When used energy impact, such as light, weakly absorbed by DS, is used prior "blackening" of the illuminated surface DS (on a surface of DSBU applied absorbing optical radiation layer, for example, of lead sulfide (PbS)).

The temperature dependence of the Bragg angle of reflection θijto point the crystal surface with coordinates ij is expressed as follows:

where θijis the Bragg angle for the (hkl) planes in the point with coordinates ij; tij- the temperature of the crystal surface at the point with coordinate ij; λ wavelength; α - coefficient of thermal expansion of the crystal in the direction of the vector of the reciprocal lattice; dij=d0ij+Δdij; d0ij- the value of the interplanar distance of a point on the crystal surface at a temperature t0, t0- temperature is not illuminated region of the crystal; Δdij- change the interplanar distances in the point with coordinates ij caused by temperature change Δtij/sub> in this point.

The focused beam is registered by the camera 5. As a recording camera can be used, for example, x-ray digital camera SMART (The Small Molecule Analytical Research Too), produced by Siemens.

The control parameters of the x-ray beam, i.e. shape, size, and convergence, is performed via a graphical interface of the computer 4 interactively in manual or in automatic mode with the use of software, for example, using the technology of neural networks.

The source of information to enable one or another mode of the program is a series of images of the projection of the x-ray beam recorded by the camera 5, obtained by changing the geometrical parameters of the DS, and the change in the spatial distribution of energy impacts on the surface DS.

The inventive method and system for its implementation allow you to dynamically change the parameters of the x-ray beam that will allow you to:

1. To use the system in the diffraction LIGA technologies, including technologies for deep x-ray lithography for forming microstructures in polymers, metal or ceramics.

2. To irradiate the tumor with different anatomical and topographic parameters of the primary lesion and to ensure effective protection of bodies of high radiation risk for the odd limitations of absorbed doses in a given direction.

3. Interactively specified way to change the parameters of the diffraction peaks of the crystals. This will allow, for example, to change the size of the area of the diffraction reflections from the investigated crystal.

4. The ability to create with the help of the light beam on the surface of the crystal or multilayer structure required profile thermal deformation allows you to control their dispersion properties.

1. The method of controlling the x-ray flux by controlled energy impacts on the control unit, consisting of a diffraction environment and the substrate, wherein changing the geometric shape of the surface of the substrate, the diffraction environment and its diffraction parameters by simultaneous inhomogeneous energy impacts on a substrate of the control unit and the external surface of the diffraction environment control unit.

2. System flow control x-ray radiation, including x-ray source and a control unit consisting of a diffraction environment and substrate, characterized in that it further provided with a device for the correction of angular displacement of the diffraction beam, connected to a computer connected to the recording chamber, the control unit is equipped with a temperature stabilizer and positioner, the substrate with alternating what I controls the geometric parameters of the substrate, functionally related to the physical parameters of the elements, their geometrical parameters and the value placed on them, the energy of the impact.

3. System flow control according to claim 1, characterized in that the diffraction environment made in the form of crystal or multilayer periodic structure with a deposited energy absorbing impact with the floor.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: X-ray diffraction and X-ray topography methods for studying the structure and quality control of materials during nondestructive testing.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is intended for X-ray beam shaping, in particular, the synchrotron radiation beam, by means of crystals-monochromators. The device for X-ray beam shaping has two crystals-monochromators in the dispersionless diffraction scheme. It is ensured by the possibility of displacement of one from crystals in the direction of the primary beam with crystal fixing in two discrete positions. Both crystals-monochromators have the possibility of rotation for realization of the successive Bragg diffraction. Device for crystal bending has displacement mechanism, two immovable and two movable cylindrical rods, between of which the end parts of a bent crystal are located. The axes of these parts are displaced one in respect to the other. The immovable rods are leaned against the upper surface of a flat parallel plate near its end faces. The L-shaped brackets are attached to the end faces of plate. The parallel surfaces of the brackets contact with immovable rods. The parallel surfaces of the end faces of the upper joints of L-shaped brackets contact with movable rods. The plate with L-shaped brackets is embraced with crooked shoulders of floating rocker with cylindrical pins, installed on the rocker ends. The pins are leaned against the surfaces of movable rods perpendicularly to them. The displacement mechanism is located between the lower surface of plate and middle point of the rocker.

EFFECT: increasing the energy range of X-ray beam when maintaining its spatial position; improving the uniformity of bending force distribution and homogeneity of crystal deformation.

2 cl, 2 dwg

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FIELD: X-ray diffraction and X-ray topography methods for studying the structure and quality control of materials during nondestructive testing.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is intended for X-ray beam shaping, in particular, the synchrotron radiation beam, by means of crystals-monochromators. The device for X-ray beam shaping has two crystals-monochromators in the dispersionless diffraction scheme. It is ensured by the possibility of displacement of one from crystals in the direction of the primary beam with crystal fixing in two discrete positions. Both crystals-monochromators have the possibility of rotation for realization of the successive Bragg diffraction. Device for crystal bending has displacement mechanism, two immovable and two movable cylindrical rods, between of which the end parts of a bent crystal are located. The axes of these parts are displaced one in respect to the other. The immovable rods are leaned against the upper surface of a flat parallel plate near its end faces. The L-shaped brackets are attached to the end faces of plate. The parallel surfaces of the brackets contact with immovable rods. The parallel surfaces of the end faces of the upper joints of L-shaped brackets contact with movable rods. The plate with L-shaped brackets is embraced with crooked shoulders of floating rocker with cylindrical pins, installed on the rocker ends. The pins are leaned against the surfaces of movable rods perpendicularly to them. The displacement mechanism is located between the lower surface of plate and middle point of the rocker.

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8 cl, 5 dwg, 1 tbl

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