Drive (versions)

FIELD: mechanical engineering; devices for control of rotational speed of working member shaft.

SUBSTANCE: proposed drive has unadjustable electric motor, adjustable electric motors, input shaft 1 and output shaft 2, gear trains, differential gear trains formed by two wave gear trains with common wave generator 3 and worm transmissions and differential gear. Worm shafts 11 and 12 are set in rotation from adjustable electric motors. External gear wheels 6 and 7 of wave gear trains are coupled with worms 11 and 12. Internal gear wheels 9 and 10 of wave gear trains are kinematically linked with differential gear wheels 19 and 20 which are connected with output shaft 21 of drive. Two wave gear trains are chain-type in construction and are related as follows: Zch1+Zch2=2Zext; Zch1+Z=Zch2-Z, where Zch1 and Zch2 is number of rollers in chains of first and second wave gear trains; Zext is number of teeth of external gear wheel of wave gear drives thrown into engagement with rollers of chains; 2Z is difference of rollers in chains.

EFFECT: possibility of changing the direction of rotation and rotational speed of shaft of working member in wide range; increased speed of response; enhanced reliability.

5 cl, 3 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of mechanics, in particular to devices, systems of regulation of frequency of rotation of the shaft of the working body (mainly to crane mechanisms and mechanisms shovel of excution).

The most common is the drive that allows you to receive various size and direction of the rotation speed of the working body consisting of the drive electric motor that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy, the key elements for making electrical energy and its redistribution between the electric motor and the regulatory elements of the Converter and a speed reducer [1].

But in relation to the intermittent operation of equipment the most common actuator has significant drawbacks, which are as follows: first, the high cost of electrical energy, which is manifested in moments of switching on the electric motor (due to the increase in inrush current), and leading to overheating of windings; secondly, the harmful effects of large inertia of the rotor of the electric motor, which determines the degree of performance of the actuator, and the additional power loss on acceleration and braking of the electric motor; third, asynchronous electric motors, the most cha is then used in the above devices, starting mode is associated with the unstable operation of the electric motor.

Known differential transmission of the machine tool, including worm [basic movement] and the planetary, in which the sun gear transmission gets an extra movement [2].

The main disadvantage of the known differential transmission is the need to change the directions of rotation of the primary and secondary shafts of the differential handed (as a drawback noted above). The power drive electric motor on an additional shaft, depending on the power of the electric motor on the main shaft and kinematic data transmission requires increased installed capacity to provide counter torque on the additional shaft of the transmission, since the main shaft kinematically connected with additional.

The closest technical solution as the primary apply unregulated electric motor is drive [3], which are accommodated in the housing two electromagnetic clutches, differential, gears, input and output shafts, made of wave transmission with roller wave generator, the rollers of which is kinematically connected with electromagnetic clutches.

Along with the dignity of the actuator, consisting in the absence of it is Timoti include an electric motor at each change of direction of rotation of the output gear, it has a significant disadvantage in the impossibility of smooth adjustment of frequency of rotation of the shaft of the working body from zero to nominal. This deficiency can be easily corrected, if [3] is used instead of the electromagnetic clutch electromagnetic clutch slip. But then the drive will have a significant dynamic moment associated with high inertia of the rotating parts of the electromagnetic clutch slip, and, hence, the drive will have a small performance.

Actuators valves Assembly plants must have high accuracy speed when performing precision docking operations during Assembly of the components. Object of the invention is to provide such a drive in which the power management system would strive to zero under this condition, the function of the control shaft of the working body when using the radio [1] could be transferred fitter-assembler, which under the terms of the work performed in the immediate vicinity of the place of performance of the docking operations. Also, when performing this task as control elements can be applied to semiconductor elements, is able to increase the accuracy of change of frequency of rotation of the output shaft of the working body.

Actuators crane mechanisms and mechanisms ADNOC Usovich excavators must meet such requirements, as:

1. to have a smooth change of the rotation speed of the working body in a wide range;

2. allow to change the direction of rotation of the shaft of the working body without switching the main electric motor;

3. to have a relatively low cost of energy consumed by the regulating device;

4. to have high performance;

5. to have small dimensions and weight (with control system), and also:

6. lower cost compared to existing;

7. to have a higher reliability (due to the significant decrease of the contacts of the control equipment).

These requirements are met by the proposed actuator. The main electric motor is unregulated, easy to manufacture and reliable in operation, an asynchronous electric motor with squirrel-cage rotor (or synchronous electric motor), which shaft (option 1) is coupled with the shaft of the generator wave two wave transmission, the flexible element is a chain. To obtain the opposite directions of rotation of the shafts wave transmission (reverse drive) must satisfy the condition:

where ZCand ZC- the number of rollers in the circuits of the first and second wave transmission;

Znthe number of teeth Nar is the author of wheels of wave transmission, coupled with the rollers of the chains;

2Z is the dierence between the rollers in the chain.

In the center of each wave gears, part of the differential, there are gears that with the help of gear rollers of wave generators coupled circuit. These circuits are another group of toothed rollers of wave generators coupled with the outer wheels of the wave transmission, which have a rigid connection with the worm wheels, worm gears, also included in the differential. The worm gear (with respect to the geometric dimensions of the worm) is executed on condition that the angle of elevation is the average helix of the worm more angle of sliding friction materials worm pairs on the value of:

where αto- angle of friction created by the balls in ball bearings on the shaft of the worm;

N is the number of ball bearings in the hall of the worm;

n is the number of balls in the bearing;

ftothe magnitude of the rolling friction of the balls through the hoops ball bearings, mm;

dnand din- outer and inner diameters of the contact points of balls and cages for ball bearings, mm

When this condition arises the need of additional rotation of the electric motors in one direction only, and the power of electric engines can theoretically be equal to zero. Then to get PR is unjust in the extreme directions of rotation of the shaft of the working body between the input shafts of the differential gear and the shaft of the working body in the kinematic chain should enter the differential.

Wave having a chain as a flexible element, the transmission is recommended for actuators move the bridge and trolley of the crane (in General, for power on the output shaft is not more than 20...30 kW). For the lifting mechanism, the most useful application of the planetary transmission. For reverse drive, you could only use one of the planetary transmission (option 2) should one shaft differential kinematically associated with the input drive shaft through a gear reducer, and the second shaft - planet carrier of the planetary gear, a member of the differential. The first input shaft (main) planetary gear made in one piece with the input shaft gear and the second input shaft connected to the worm of the worm pairs, worm wheel which covers the outer wheel of the planetary gear. Its final drive ratio of kinematic chains with planetary gear must be two times smaller than the gear ratio, the gear ratio of the transmission (gearbox), which will result in no rotation of the output drive shaft when the rotation of the worm speed, two times smaller nominal speed of the electric motor, resulting in a rotation of the worm. The above drive is useful for a power of the main electric motor is not bolee...100 kW, because electricity costs (energy to overcome friction) are compensated by the decrease in the value of the components of an electric drive.

Currently developed (perhaps only in the stage of development) porous antifriction alloys, are able under certain conditions to have a fairly low values of the friction angle. But in this case (provided that: the angle of elevation is the average helix of the worm is approximately equal to the angle of friction, because the magnitude of the rolling friction αtoquite small) must be a sharp increase in the frequency of rotation of the worm under other equal conditions, such as the ratio of all transfers included in the drive. Also increases the normal component of the forces acting on the teeth of the worm. Thus, when using a porous antifriction alloys, it is advisable to increase the angle of elevation is the average helix of the worm, and the electric motor on the shaft of the worm be used as a generator that runs on electrical load (e.g., battery or electric furnace to heat the cabin), a change which can adjust the rotational speed of the worm, while the installed capacity of the electric motor on the shaft of the worm should be:

where Rhand Rto- power on the shafts of the worm and the number of the CE worm gear;

α - the angle of elevation is the average helix of the worm;

f is the coefficient of sliding friction materials worm pairs.

For security purposes, the operation of overhead cranes equipped with limit switches: overwind, travel limits of the bridge and trolley. This causes the complexity of the design of the crane and complexity in the operation of the limit switches, because they are in remote locations and require cables from the control Cabinet to install them. In addition, the valves do not have a limit switch, which signals "excessive winding of the rope from the drum. Self winding drum for rope is not dangerous, but when winding a free hanging rope on the drum, it may not lie in the grooves of the drum, specially designed for this. Therefore, the shafts of the worms should be equipped with springs breaking stress, allowing for the increase of this force the worms to move in the longitudinal direction and impact limit switches, mounted in the actuator housing, where their contacts are less exposed to the harmful influence of the atmosphere. For limit switch "excessive twisting of the rope" mechanism should be used to limit the spring is released.

Analysis of the dynamics of the above drives shows that the transmission of torque to the shaft of the working body is made from non-regulated (the speed) of the electric motor, more reliable and cheap, with a capacity sufficient for the required time, and the frequency of rotation of the output drive shaft is adjustable by electric motors. Thus, there is a distribution of functions between the input shafts of the differential drive transmission.

While studying in the above technical field other known technical solutions signs (providing distribution of functions between the shafts of a differential transmission, the application of one wave generator for two wave transmission, the combination of gears and the planetary to obtain reversal of the output shaft, the angle of elevation is the average helix of the worm more angle of sliding friction materials worm pairs within the angle of friction generated by the balls in ball bearings on the shaft of the worm), DISTINGUISH the claimed invention from the prototype, were not identified, and therefore they provide the claimed technical solution according to the criteria of the invention of "NOVELTY."

The drawings show:

1 and 3 is a kinematic diagram of the actuator;

figure 2 is a kinematic diagram of wave transmission.

The actuator (figure 1) consists of the input shaft 1, associated with the wave generator 2, resulting in the movement of a group of rollers 3 wave generator, coupled by means of roller chains 4 and 5 Narozhnyi toothed wheels 6 and 7 wave transmission. The other group of rollers 8 wave generator coupled with the inner wheels 9 and 10 of wave transmission. External teeth, wheel, covered worm wheel engaged with the worm 11 and 12. On the same shafts with the wheels 9 and 10 are also gears 13 and 14, is coupled through an intermediate wheel 15 and 16 (these wheels may be missing) with wheels 17 and 18. On the same shaft with the toothed wheel 17 is a gear wheel 19 of the differential, and on the same shaft with the wheel 18 is the wheel 20. The output shaft 21 by means of wheels 22 which is free to rotate on the axis 23, coupled with the wheels 19 and 20 of the differential. The worms 11 and 12 mounted for movement in the axial direction and held opposing springs 24 with a force, a moment which balances the static torque on the shaft of the worm wheel. The case of thrust bearings on the shafts worms associated with limit switches 25 (figure 2).

The actuator (figure 3) consists of members of the first kinematic scheme of the shaft 1, the outer wheel, made in one piece with the worm wheel 6, the worm 11, the gear wheels 14, 16, 17, 18 and differential 19, 20, 22, 23 and the output shaft 21. Also in the drive structure includes: gears 26, 27, 28, 29 and 30, forming a gear, the gear 31 engaged with the gear wheels 32, freely mounted on the axes of the carrier 33 of the PLANETARY gear.

When the od (Fig.) works in the following way. The shaft 1 is driven from unregulated electric motor with torque needed to overcome the static resistance torque on the shaft 21. The shafts of the worms 11 and 12 are rotated from regulated electric motors, since the direction of rotation coincides with the direction of the static moment of resistance on their shafts.

When enabled, unregulated electric motor (main) starts to rotate the shaft 1, resulting in a rotation of the rollers wave generator 3, concatenated with outer wheels 6, 7, and 8, coupled with the internal wheels 9 and 10 of chain wave transmission. Since the number of the rollers 4 less than the number of teeth of the gear 6, and the number of the rollers 5 on the same magnitude greater than the number of teeth of the gear 7, the gear wheels 9 and 10 will rotate in different directions with the same speed as the wheels 6 and 7, as the wheels 9 and 10, have the same number of teeth. Through gears 13, 15 and 17 and the wheels 14, 16 and 18 wheels 19 and 20 will rotate with the same speed but in different directions, and the axis 23, which is equipped with wheels 22 will be fixed. When casting the rotation of the worms 11 and 12 in different directions, but with the same frequency of rotation axis 23 is also fixed. Changing the frequency of the rotation shaft worms 11 and 12 (granting of the nogo and decreasing the other) is driven into rotation of the output shaft 21, the direction of rotation depends on the direction of change of frequency of rotation of the worms. Because at the same time attended both wave transmission, the rotational speed of the driving electric motor can be increased two to three times the weight of such electric motor is smaller and the cost is lower in comparison with an electric motor to a lower speed).

The actuator (3) works as follows. From the input shaft 1 through the gears 26, 27, 28, 29, 30 and 17 rotate receives the wheel 19 of the differential. The wheel 20 receives differential rotation through the planetary gear 6, 31, 32 and 33 and the gear wheels 14, 16, 18. Wheel differential 19 and 20 are rotated in opposite directions. As the ratio of kinematic chains 31, 32, 33, 34, 16, and 18 in two times less then the wheels 17 and 18 will rotate with the same rotation speed when the rotation of the worm wheel 6, and hence the worm 11 with a speed equal to half of the nominal speed (nn) worm 11. Regulation of frequency of rotation of the shaft 21 by changing the frequency of rotation of the worm 11, and if the rotational speed of the worm is reduced from nn/2 to zero (where nn- rated speed electric motor), the output shaft 21 rotates in one direction, and increases if the n n/2 to nnthe output shaft rotates in the opposite direction.

When using an electric motor as a generator drive (figure 1) works as follows. When turning on the main unregulated by the frequency of rotation of the electric motor and in the presence of static torque on the output shaft of the drive screws are rotated, since the angle of elevation is the average helix worms significantly more friction angle of the material of the worm pairs. For adjusting the frequency of rotation of the output shaft of the electric drive motors, resulting in a rotation of the worms, alternately switched to the mode generators (depending on the required direction of rotation of the output shaft of the drive).

Wave transmission (using chains as a flexible element) can be replaced by a planetary using a single input shaft to both of the differential gear. For this purpose between the gear wheels 14 and 16 in the kinematic chain to put another toothed wheel.

Sources of information

1. Agiler. Electrical thread-transport machines. M: motor cycle", 1959, with 308...316, 358...361.

2. Nfrancisco. The planetary gear. M: motor cycle", 1947, 90.

3. Auth. St. 1569466, prior. 15.09.87, (prototype).

1. Actuator, comprising a housing, unregulated electric motor, input the th and output shafts, gear, wave gears with roller wave generator and the differential, characterized in that it further introduces adjustable electric motors, differential and worm gear, and adjustable electric motors are connected with the shafts of the worms worm gears, input shafts of the differential kinematically connected with the output shafts of the differential gear comprising a worm gear and driven in rotation of the input drive shaft two wave transmission with the General wave generator made chain with the outer and inner wheels condition:

where ZC1, ZW2- the number of rollers in the circuits of the first and second wave transmission;

Znthe number of teeth of the outer wheel of the wave transmission, coupled with the rollers of the chains;

2Z is the dierence between the rollers in the chain.

2. The drive containing the main motor, the input and output shafts, differential, planetary, worm and gear, characterized in that it is equipped with an adjustable frequency electric motor, planetary and worm gear form a differential gear, one input shaft of the differential gear via the kinematic chain formed gear connected to the drive shaft of the actuator, the second input shaft is different the Ala through the kinematic chain, formed by the differential gear is connected with an adjustable frequency electric motor, and the gear ratio of the kinematic chain of the differential transmission in two times less than the ratio of the kinematic chain gear.

3. The actuator according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the angle of elevation is the average helix of the worm, angle slip material worm pairs and power adjustable electric motor connected.

4. The actuator according to claim 3, characterized in that the worm gear elevation average helix of the worm more angle of sliding friction materials worm pairs in size

αto=arctan [Nnfk(2/dN+2/dIn)], where

αto- angle of friction created by the balls in ball bearings on the shaft of the worm;

N is the number of ball bearings on the shaft of the worm;

n is the number of balls in the bearing;

fkthe magnitude of the rolling friction of the balls through the hoops of bearing, mm;

dNdIn- outer and inner diameters of the contact points of balls and cages for ball bearings, mm

4. The actuator according to claim 3, characterized in that the power of the electric motor on the shaft of the worm is

Ph=Pto(tgα-fcos2α),

where

Phand Pto- modestina shafts of the worm and worm wheel gear;

α - the angle of elevation is the average helix of the worm;

f is the coefficient of sliding friction materials worm pairs.



 

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