Method for filling mass forming of hardening slag mix

FIELD: mining industry, particularly underground mineral mining with excavated space filling with hardening filling mix.

SUBSTANCE: method involves mixing grinded lime-containing binding agent, mixing water and filler; delivering the filling mix to area to be filled; filling mine space with the filling mix in several layers. The lime-containing binding agent is active silica-alumina material and burnt carbonate rock including at least 40% of active Cao+MgO. Above rock is grinded so that not more than 15% of grinded material remains on sieve having 0.08 orifice dimensions. Amount of the grinded burnt carbonate rock is selected so that active Cao+MgO is not more than 9.1% of filling mix mass. Water consumption for oxide Ca and Mg conversion in hydroxide is not more than 20% of burnt carbonate rock recalculated to active CaO+MgO. Retarder is added in mixing water in amount determined from R=(0.005-0.021)-Cr/Cw, where R is retarder content in 1 l of mixing water, kg; (0.005-0.021) is factor, which considers retarder-burnt carbonate rock ratio in the filling mix; Cr is burnt carbonate rock content in filling mix, kg; Cw is experimentally determined mixing water content in filling mix, l. Mine space filling rate is chosen from hardening time and self-heating degree of filing mass. The filling mix contains active silica-alumina material in amount of 5.6-33.2% by weight, carbonate rock burnt at 900-1200°C and containing active CaO+MgO of not less than 40% in amount of 1.0-16.7%, mixing water with retarder in amount of 10.6-27.5%, remainder is filler.

EFFECT: increased operational safety due to improved quality mine space filling, reduced costs and increased mine intensity.

6 cl, 4 tbl, 5 dwg

 

The invention relates to the mining industry and can be used in underground mining systems with mined-out space hardening filling mixture.

There is a method of bookmarks when descending extraction of minerals by benches, namely, that form raznoobrazny array height benches layers with the creation of the bearing of the lower layer and the underlay layer of solid mixtures, the underlay layer lay hardening mixtures with the addition of non-explosive destructive means LDC-1 in the following ratio, wt.%: sand and gravel - 68, cement - 10, NRS-1 - 7, water - 15, and the height of the underlay layer is selected based on the 10%increase hardening of the mixture (patent RF №2069765, E. 21 F 15/00, 1996, bull. No. 33).

The disadvantage of this method is the high cost of filling operations because of the high cost of cement and significant transportation costs for its delivery.

A known method of construction backfill array, comprising preparing a hardened mixture of cement, fly ash and low binding materials, layer-by-layer filling out space, with layers of tabs, adjacent to obrazuemoy surface goaf form of a mixture having a temperature within the time set firmly the ti 20-50° (Author's certificate. The USSR №1199954, E. 21 F 15/00, 1995, bull. No. 47).

The disadvantages of this method are the high shrink deformation of the formed artificial array, due to the absence of any expanding component, the high cost of construction of artificial array caused by the use of his expensive part Portland cement, the failure to provide adequate security operations due to subsequent deformation of the overlying rock mass, significant costs of heat to maintain the temperature of the layer of artificial array with the set of normative strength.

Closest to the technical nature of the method of construction backfill array of solid mixtures, comprising feeding into a mixer binder with the addition of an inert filler and water, warmed up to 16-40°With, the transportation of the filling mixture in the pipeline of concrete pump and the laying of the mixture over the insulating barrier, while the binder ground granulated slag with the addition of 15-20% by weight of binder quicklime, which provides additional heating to be laid in the generation mix up to 40-70°With (author's certificate. The USSR №1730471, E. 21 F 15/00, 1992, bull. No. 16).

The disadvantage of this method is the high cost of filling operations because of the high e is sploitation costs of filling the array due to the costs associated with the necessity of tempering hardening a mixture of hot water (significant heat consumption) and supply it with concrete (high consumption of electricity and compressed air). In addition, the hardening mixture of the proposed structure provides a low quality fill mining, in particular formed negotated due to the fact that the hardening mixture, shut the hot water is characterized by low mobility and fluidity. Negotated provokes deformation of the underlying rock mass, resulting in reduced safety of mining operations, and requires additional work on filling the excavation, resulting in the lowering of the intensity of conducting mining operations.

The technical result of the invention is to improve safety by improving the quality of completion of excavation, lowering the cost of filling operations, and increased intensity of mining operations.

Achieved technical result of the fact that the method of construction backfill array of hardening backlinking mixtures comprising mixing the crushed lime-containing binder, the mixing water and aggregate, transportation of filling mixture to the place of laying, layer-by-layer filling of excavation backfill mixture in to the amount of lime-containing binder use active aluminosilicate material and calcined carbonate rocks with the content of active CaO+MgO is at least 40%, crushed to the fineness of grind, characterized by the sieve residue of 0.08 mm, not more than 15%, serves crushed calcined carbonate rocks in the mixing process with the content of active CaO+MgO not more than 9.1 percent of the mass of the filling mixture, and on the translation of the oxides of CA and Mg hydroxides in water consumption is not more than 20% by weight of the calcined carbonate rocks in terms of active CaO+MgO, mixing water prior to its entering the mixing process, add the phlegmatizer in the amount determined by the formula: D=(0,005÷0,021)×Withand/Sinwhere D is the number of phlegmatizer in 1 l of water mixing, kg (0,005÷0,021) - coefficient taking into account the proportion of phlegmatizer and burnt carbonate rocks in the composition of the filling mixture, Withand- consumption of baked carbonate rocks in the composition of the filling mixture, kg, Cin- the experimentally determined flow rate of the mixing water in the composition of the filling mixture, L., filling the excavation is carried out with intensity, depending on the time of curing and the degree of self heating of filling mass ratio of the components of the filling mixture in the following, wt%:

active aluminosilicate material5,6-33,2
fired at 900-1200°carbonate the cities
with a content of active CaO+MgO is at least 40%1,0-16,7
water mixing with phlegmatizer10,6-27,5
the placeholderrest

In addition, the calcined carbonate rocks are or host carbonate rocks of kimberlite deposits, or carbonate rocks.

In addition, as the active aluminosilicate material used or tuff, or zeolite-containing rocks, or calcined aluminosilicate rock overburden of kimberlite deposits, or burnt marl, or calcined clay or calcined tailings kimberlite ores, or granulated blast-furnace slag.

In addition, as the filler used and/or sand; tailings; powdered aluminosilicate rocks (tuffs), diabase, carbonate rocks.

In addition, as phlegmatizer used or lignosulfate technical (lsls), or superplasticizer C-3 (a polycondensation product of naphthalenesulfonate and formaldehyde) and lignosulfate technical, taken in the ratio of 2:1.

In addition, the capacity of the initial layer stacked backfill array is not less than 3 m per day.

To ensure the safety of mining operations by achieving regulatory strength parameter.validate array and exclude nedozagruzki filled space, to reduce the cost of filling operations and increase the intensity of mining operations proposed to erect filling arrays of hardening filling backlinking mixture on the basis of the active aluminosilicate materials and calcined carbonate rocks containing materials that can be used as a lime-containing binder after some training, when the processing condition of the mixing water prior to feeding into the process of mixing the phlegmatizer, which slows down the hydration process lime-containing binder, and under certain conditions of application hardening of the mixture in the excavation.

So, as a material for obtaining a lime-containing binder are encouraged to use active aluminosilicate material containing oxides SiO2and Al2About3in the active form, the activity of which is caused by nature or are obtained in the process of heat treatment - annealing at temperatures that ensure the destruction of clay minerals adsorption and hydration water with the formation of hydrosolubility salt of metasilicic acid, easily disintegrating in water alkaline ions on Al2(HE)+2and SiO3-2reactive to Cao and MgO, and carbonate rocks, annealed at a temperature of 900-1200°With a view to their full de is urbanizazii, i.e. transition of carbonates of Mg and CA oxides Cao and MgO. The content in the calcined carbonate rocks used in the production of bookmarks active Cao and MgO must be at least 40%. This is the most expensive component of the bookmark. Burn carbonate rocks, in which the content of active oxides is less than 40%, and 60% will be inert materials are not economically feasible.

As a placeholder can be used any material, including waste from mining and processing production, suitable for use in obtaining backfill mixes.

Before serving in the cooking process hardening filling mixture calcined carbonate rocks are crushed alone or in combination with the active aluminosilicate materials, and the subtlety of their grinding should be characterized by sieve residue of 0.08 mm, not more than 15%. Increasing the fineness of the calcined carbonate rocks or a combination of them with active aluminosilicate rocks above the claimed limit (sieve residue of 0.08 mm, not more than 15%) is not advisable due to loss of mobility backfill mixes. Insufficient grinding reduces the strength of the backfill mixes, as this will decrease the degree of contact of the active lime particles with active particles of aluminosilicate rocks.

In the mixing process serves crushed by dry the mu without adding water or with partial padasevanam burnt carbonate rocks. The content of quicklime in terms of CaO+MgO active should be no more than 9.1 percent of the mass of the filling mixture, and partial podsalivanii to convert oxides of CA and Mg in hydroxides with no heat dissipation, is carried out at a water flow rate of not more than 20% by weight of the calcined carbonate rocks in terms of active CaO+MgO. Under these conditions, provided the dissipation of filling mixture is not more than 100 kJ/kg.

To ensure rational use of heat from hydration of the lime-containing binder, i.e. the purpose of the transfer of process heat dissipation and increase in the volume of the calcined carbonate rocks in the goaf, serves to slow the hydration at the time of mixing the components of the mixture and transportation of the mixture in excavation by use as sealer backfill mixtures of water that contains a phlegmatizer, and serve it directly before introduction into the filling mixture calcined carbonate rocks. The phlegmatizer presents or lignosulfates technical (lsls), or lignosulfonate technical and superplasticizer C-3, taken in the ratio 1:2 respectively. The content of the phlegmatizer in water mixing is set based on the content of the calcined carbonate rocks in the backfill mixture according to the formula:

D=(0,005÷0,021)and/Sin/sub> ,

where D is the number of phlegmatizer in 1 l of water mixing, kg,

0,005÷0,021 - coefficient taking into account the proportion of phlegmatizer and burnt carbonate rocks in the composition of the filling mixture,

Withand- consumption of baked carbonate rocks (quicklime) in the composition of the filling mixture, kg,

Within- the experimentally determined flow rate of the mixing water in the composition of the filling mixture, l (determined at the stage of preliminary experiments).

The effectiveness of the phlegmatizer above and below this limit as moderator of the process of hydration of the calcined carbonate rocks decreases. With the introduction of phlegmatizer in the claimed limit the process of heat burned carbonate rocks slowed down (Fig 1, 2), which is reflected in the time of dissipation of filling mixture as a whole (figure 3). Specific consumption of phlegmatizer in water mixing is determined depending on the required time for mixing and transportation of backfill mixture (figure 2, 3). Table 1 presents the dynamics of the temperature of the filling mixture on lime-containing binder, been closed by water containing phlegmatizer (calorimetric method).

The flow rates of filling mixture on the basis of a lime-containing binder was tested experimental the houtem (table 2). Conclusion: phlegmatization process of hydration of lime allows you to freely transport the lime-containing filling mixture through the pipeline in a gravity mode and easy to fill mine working without any auxiliary operations, echoing the contours of the ore body and providing a uniform monolithic structure of artificial array.

When filling excavation backfill mixture is necessary to ensure the intensity of her filling the required temperature of self heating of filling mass and time saving heat from the self heating of filling mass for which there is a set of normative strength. At low temperatures mine air, the mountain massif to retain heat from the self heating of filling the array, you must provide the massiveness of the initial layer of filling the array is not less than 3 m per day. Otherwise, there are high heat loss due to ventilation of mine workings air jet, (4) regulatory strength indicators bookmarks will not be achieved, that will not ensure the safety of mining operations.

However, excessive self heating of artificial arrays (over 70° (C) is impractical due to the emergence of thermal strains during their hardening, table 3. In addition, it is impractical and because of the emerging uncomfortable working conditions of miners.

To avoid thermal deformations at the expense burnt carbonate rocks in terms of active CaO+MgO in a mixture of more than 9.1 percent of the mass of the filling mixture, necessary part of the oxides of calcium and magnesium in the annealed carbonate rocks used in the preparation of bookmarks, translate into hydrates, oxides of calcium and magnesium, with no dissipation. Thus, the self heating of filling mixture is brought to the desired level. To do this, in the process of grinding the calcined carbonate rocks they sprayed the specified amount of water to the extent of providing dissipation of filling the array is not more than 100 kJ/kg (table 3). Moreover, the translation of the oxides of CA and Mg hydroxides in water consumption is not more than 20% by weight of the calcined carbonate rocks in terms of active CaO+MgO, with burnt carbonate rocks remain dry product, because all the moisture is spent on podsalivanii lime.

The amount of heat filling mixture depends on the content in the calcined carbonate rocks of active CaO+MgO, and from the consumption of baked carbonate rocks in the composition of the filling mixture and is calculated from the expression:

GC=(1050 Andand)/γC,

where GC- the dissipation of filling mixture, kJ/kg;

Withand- consumption of baked carbonate rocks in the composition of the filling mixture, kg/m 3,

A=0,4÷1,0 - coefficient taking into account the proportional ratio of active CaO+MgO and sintered carbonate rocks,

γC- bulk filling mixture, kg/m3.

Under the conditions of construction of the backfill array filling mixture does not give shrinkage deformation, and some increase in volume (table 3), which excludes negotated when filling excavations, while ensuring the safety of mining operations, are excluded because the deformation of the overlying rock mass, as well as the need to repay negotated that intensifies the course of conduct filling operations.

The properties of the filling mixture should provide a sustainable mode of transportation from filling complex to lay the formulation, even laying in the developed space with repeating contours of the ore body and a set of desired strength at the specified time. While governed by the following technological parameters backfill mixes: sediment cone "Strasznie" 9,0-14,0 cm; ultimate shear stress of not more than 200 PA; factor stratification is not more than 1.3; setting not earlier than 2 hours after mixing; the spreading angle of not more than 7; yield less than 2%; the regulatory strength in terms of the mine must ensure that the requirements of 0.5 MPa and above. Top the level presented by the field development systems in accordance with the strength of the artificial arrays at their outcrops.

The compositions of the backfill mixes, table 4, include the following components, wt%:

active aluminosilicate material5,6-33,2
fired at 900-1200°With carbonate rocks
with a content of active CaO+MgO is at least 40%1,0-16,7
water mixing with phlegmatizer10,6-27,5
the placeholderrest

Rational region introduction burnt carbonate rocks in the composition of the filling mixture is 1.0-16.7 per cent. When the content of the calcined carbonate rocks below the mentioned limit is not required self heating backfill mixes in the developed space, the strength of the tabs below 0.5 MPa, i.e. below all regulatory indicators (part 22 in table 4).

Introduction burnt carbonate rocks above the claimed limit leads to deterioration of the rheological performance of filling mixture - the mixture becomes thicker, loss of motion, the maximum shear stress exceeds the allowable rate (>200 PA) without increasing the strength of the filling mixture (composition 25 in table 4).

Active aluminosilicate materials play an important role in ensuring durability and providing the required rheological indicators C the mortar mixes. Fine particles of active aluminosilicate materials, adsorption holding on its surface a considerable amount of water, creating a kind of "lubricant" for all components of the filling mixture, reducing the friction between them. At the same time, the adsorbed water acts as a lubricant between the filling mixture and the wall of the pipeline. Occurs thixotropic effect, reduces the coefficient of wall friction and increasing the flowability of filling mixture in the developed space. Adsorption water is held until the cessation of transportation of the mixture and the beginning of the reaction tumors with particles of oxides of magnesium and calcium.

The rational area of introduction of the active aluminosilicate material is 5.6-33,2% of the mass of the filling mixture. When the content is below this limit reduces the strength of the filling mixture. When the maximum allowable indicators burnt carbonate rocks in the composition of the filling mixture reducing the active aluminosilicate rocks below 5.6% of its weight does not provide the strength corresponding to the target (composition 14 in table 4). Exceeding this limit is impractical because it does not increase the strength of the filling mixture (composition 9 in table 4).

Rational mixing water with phlegmatizer in a mixture of 10.6-27,5% by weight of kladochnoy mixture. Wastage of water mixing with phlegmatizer negative impact on mobility and uniformity bookmarks (more than normal, you may receive the water segregation and stratification of the mixture), and on the strength of the filling mixture (composition 26 in table 4). The content of this component is below the proposed limit does not provide maximum mobility filling mixture as below 9.0 cm (compounds 32 table 4).

The role of active aluminosilicate materials can play both on the nature of the active materials (zeolite tuff - compounds 1-14, 19-26, 29, 32-34 in table 4), and activated during the heat treatment of materials (clay - compounds 27 and 30 in table 4; the burnt marl - compounds 15-18 in table 4; calcined tailings - part 31 in table 4, as well as blast-furnace granulated slag composition 28 in table 4).

The temperature of the burning clays, marls and tailings is 700-850°C. When this occurs the complete destruction of the structure of clay minerals contained in the materials, and they are water-soluble compounds, which are active reaction against the hydrates and oxides of calcium and magnesium contained in the calcined carbonate rocks.

Enlarged possible schemes preparation of filling mixture presents on figa-B. They are distinguished by the fact that option on figa as the active aluminosilicate material is in the filling mixture and filler use the same materials, for example tuff rocks. While grinding the active aluminosilicate materials and receipt of the filler is carried out in a single unit - ball mill type MSR 3600×5000, grinding in the mill is carried out by a wet method. As the liquid medium is water mixing with phlegmatizer burnt carbonate rocks, because immediately after the mill discharged from her pulp mixture from the active aluminosilicate rocks and mixing water with phlegmatizer is mixed in the mixer, such as WAH 009, with dry powdered calcined carbonate rocks (grinding is performed offline in a ball mill, for example, CM 1456A), containing the oxides and oxide hydrates of calcium and magnesium in the correct (according to the factor to provide the required heat dissipation bookmarks) ratio.

In a variant on figb grinding the active aluminosilicate rocks and burnt carbonate rocks occurs on the dry method in a ball mill, for example, CM 1456A. Next, ground the product is fed into the continuous mixer, for example, SAT A, where it connects with the aggregates and mixing water with phlegmatizer. From the mixer the finished stowing mixture is directed into the mined-out area.

An example implementation.

Tube "Aikhal" is a steeply-dipping, they are pressed tubular body of the North the Eastern stretch at an angle 63° . At a depth of 126 m tube is divided into 2 ore body: South-West (WSRT) and northeast (SVRT), divided by the array containing carbonate rocks with a capacity of 22 at elevation. -225 to 105 m in elevation.-400 m SVRT at a depth of 620 m is divided into 2 ore post: Western and Eastern. Tube "Aikhal" is located in the zone of continuous permafrost rocks development capacity of 400-500 m of the Zero isotherm was recorded at a depth of about 700 m (- 200 abs.). The temperature of the host rock and kimberlite varies in depth from -4,2 to +2°C.

Due to the low stability of the massif project underground mine "Aikhal" provides a continuous downward layer development system with the mined-out space. The field is limited by the parameters of the ore bodies in the plan. To achieve the specified performance mine production is produced simultaneously in three layers. Practicing tape layer is carried out sequentially. The parameters of the treatment Zachodni 4,5×5 (m) the width of the ore body (about 28 m).

Stowing mixture is put in the development of free flowing as it becomes available from wells drilled in advance of the overlying layer drift in the highest point of the treatment Zachodni, which has a General slope 4° (1-2° more angle spread filling mixture).

N is matuna the strength of the filling mixture in different parts of the backfill array must meet the following requirements:

1) in the walls of the filling mass is not less than 1.0 MPa;

2) surface portion of the array, which is the direct soil when developing the next layer, which in the subsequent works of technological equipment, not less than 1.5 MPa;

3) suspension layer in the underlying roof treatment zagadki - not less than 4 MPa (depending on layer thickness);

4) not obaaama in the subsequent part of the backfill array is not less than 0.5 MPa.

The flow rate of filling mixture in the mined-out area for the uniform distribution along the length of zagadki must be at least 80 m3/h than practically define the lower limit performance of filling complex.

It is obvious that to ensure regulatory strength parameters of filling the array in terms of its hardening in contact with the frozen mountain range it is necessary to provide him self heating sufficient to set the desired strength until it cools filling mass under the influence of heat exchange processes with the frozen mountain. The basic idea is to use as a component of the backfill mixes, enabling them to self heating, powerful fuel material is calcined carbonate rocks.

As raw materials were recommended to use local deposits of aluminosilicate and carbonate materials inventory: carbonate rocks, limestone - Plot No. 52 - 1,4 million3, aluminosilicate materials, tuff - "Backfill" to 3.8 million3.

For flowsheet development in the project underground mine "Aikhal" proposed structure (see below), the technology of preparation (see figa). The composition of the filling mixture, wt.%:

annealed at 1100°With carbonate rocks with
content of active Cao+MgO 60%10,3
active aluminosilicate rocks are tuffs26,15
aggregate - tuff39,45
water mixing with phlegmatizer (LST)24,10.

The number of lsls in 1 l of water mixing is

D=0,018×190/442=0,008 kg/L.

Technological parameters backlinking filling mixture: mobility (cone Strasznie) - 14.5 cm, spreading on the device Attard - 18.0 cm, body weight mixture of 1.84 t/m3, the ultimate shear stress of 60 PA, the compressive strength when cured in conditions adapted to the conditions of the underground mine in 28 days - 5,22 MPa. Within 40 minutes after mixing the mixture were investigated its rheological parameters. Conclusion: transportable properties of the backfill mixture during this time is stored (see table 2).

The pledge is CNA mixture is prepared on the surface of filling complex of baked calcareous materials (limestone), active aluminosilicate materials (tuff rocks) and mixing water with phlegmatizer, representing the technical lignosulphonate (lsls). Active aluminosilicate material and the filler are prepared in the same machine - ball mill MSR 3600×5000-on-wet method, the role of fluid in the grinding process does water mixing with phlegmatizer. Burnt carbonate rocks are crushed offline, in a ball mill CM A to fineness of grinding, characterized by sieve residue of 0.08 mm is not more than 15%. Wet and dry material flow connected in the continuous mixer brand WAH 009. From the mixer the finished stowing mixture is sent to the pipeline, which is transported in a goaf. The initial layer of artificial array with a capacity of 3 m is recommended to build during the day. To ensure the power of artificial array of at least 3 m/day long Zachodni (>40 m) is recommended to establish separate areas for the construction of intermediate jumpers. If the length of the benches less than 40 m intermediate jumpers impractical to build. The length of the individual sections is justified on the basis of the daily performance of filling complex (1200 m3), the width of the benches (5,1 m), slope angle, soil excavations (5°) and angle rastegari the filling mixture (3° ). The distance between the jumper for specific conditions is determined based on the volume produced bookmarks per day by the formula:

L=28,92 ln (GC)-158,15,

where L is the distance between the intermediate jumpers, m,

GC- daily volume of backfill mixture, m3.

Blind jumper at layer ORT allows you to build high-strength tab of the remaining lower part of zagadki and the weakest (higher mobility) - the upper part of zagadki along its entire length.

Subject to the restrictions on the minimum allowable capacity of the constructed layer in the sole of artificial array is formed, the temperature is about 60°providing intensive hardening, which promotes the formation of high-strength carrier layer.

The profitability of the mine system tab is provided under the condition value of constructed artificial arrays of 800 rubles per 1 m3.

The use of the proposed technical solution completely eliminates the consumption for filling operations of imported dorogostojascego and partially hydratious during the long shipping and storage of Portland cement, and also allows the process of self heating backfill mixtures to move in the mined-out area, thereby to eliminate negotated and reduce the time for forming bookmark the exploration of the array in the mine workings, and the latter, in turn, leads to the intensification of mining work.

Table 1

Dynamics of change of the temperature of the filling mixture (phlegmatizer - LST:annealed carbonate rocks=0,005:1)
Time after mixing the filling mixture by mixing water with phlegmatizer, hour-minThe temperature of the filling mixture,°when it burned carbonate rocks, kg/m3
120160200
0-2522,9a 21.526,6
0-3528,726,431,3
0-4030,329,234,8
0-5531,532,140,2
1-1033,234,450,1
1-2533,237,563,0
1-4035,843,067,0
1-5545,650,068,3
2-1050,056,168,7
2-2551,9to 59.670,0
2-40 52,6of 60.570,0
2-5553,561,070,0
3-1054,361,2
3-2555,061,2
3-4055,261,2
3-5555,6
4-1055,2
4-2555,2

Table 2

The change in rheological properties of the filling mixture in time
Time after mixing, minRheological parameters
Mobility, cmFluidity, cmThe limiting shear stress, PA
1014,218,067
2013,6of 17.068
3013,516,872
4013,016,085

Table 3.

the influence of the content of the calcined carbonate rocks in the composition of the filling mixture on thermal deformation of the backfill array (content of active CaO+MgO in the annealed carbonate rocks 87%)
The content of the calcined carbonate rocks in the composition of the filling mixture, kg/m3/ wt.% in terms of CaO+MgO activeThe temperature of the filling mixture, "The dissipation of filling mass, kJ/kgLinear expansion of the filling mass, mm/m (one day)Thermal cracks
120/5,755,669,6+3,4no
160/7,461,284,2+16,1no
200/9,170,0of 98.2+29,6no
240/10,977,0112,7+40,4visually recorded

1. The method of construction backfill array of hardening backlinking mixtures comprising mixing the crushed lime-containing binder, the mixing water and aggregate, transportation of filling mixture to the place of laying, layer-by-layer filling of excavation backfill mixture, characterized in that as a lime-containing binder use active aluminosilicate material and calcined carbonate rocks is with the content of active CaO+MgO is at least 40%, crushed to the fineness of grind, characterized by the sieve residue of 0.08 mm, not more than 15%, serves crushed calcined carbonate rocks in the mixing process with the content of active CaO+MgO not more than 9.1 percent of the mass of the filling mixture, and on the translation of the oxides of CA and Mg hydroxides in water consumption is not more than 20% by weight of the calcined carbonate rocks in terms of active CaO+MgO, mixing water prior to its entering the mixing process, add the phlegmatizer in the amount determined by the formula:

D=(0,005÷0,021)·Cand/Sin,

where D is the number of phlegmatizer in 1 l of water mixing, kg;

(0,005÷0,021) - coefficient taking into account the proportion of phlegmatizer and burnt carbonate rocks in the stowing mixtures;

Withand- consumption of baked carbonate rocks in the composition of the filling mixture, kg;

Within- the experimentally determined flow rate of the mixing water in the composition of the filling mixture, l,

filling the excavation is carried out with intensity, depending on the time of curing and the degree of self heating of filling mass ratio of the components of the filling mixture in the following, wt%:

Active aluminosilicate material5,6-3,2
Fired at 900-1200°With carbonate rocks
with a content of active CaO+MgO is at least 40%1,0-16,7
Water mixing with phlegmatizer10,6-27,5
The placeholderRest

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the calcined carbonate rocks are or host rocks of kimberlite deposits or carbonate rocks.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that as the active aluminosilicate material used or tuff, or zeolite-containing rocks, or calcined aluminosilicate rock overburden of kimberlite deposits, or burnt marl, or calcined clay or calcined tailings kimberlite ores or granulated blast-furnace slag.

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that as aggregate use and/or sand, tailings, crushed silica rock - tuff, diabase, carbonate rocks.

5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that as phlegmatizer used or lignosulfate technical - lsls, or superplasticizer C-3 - a polycondensation product of naphthalenesulfonate and formaldehyde and lignosulfate technical, taken in the ratio of 2:1.

6. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the capacity of the beginning of Lenogo layer stacked backfill array is not less than 3 m per day.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: mining and underground building, particularly underground mining.

SUBSTANCE: method involves double-stage mineral deposit development; erecting artificial rock-and-concrete supports of previously cut primary chamber roof rock in at least two adjacent primary chambers; extracting secondary chamber resources; filling space defined by cut rock with hardening material mix. Mines for drilling and/or filling operations performing are arranged in deposit roof over or inside ore pillars of secondary chambers. Primary chamber roof rock is cut by well undercharge method. Hardening material mix is supplied via cross headings located between mine and cavities and/or via undercharged well sections remained after rock cutting operation.

EFFECT: increased safety and economical efficiency due to reduced number of drilling and filling mines or accompanying mineral excavation, possibility to use drilling and filling mines at secondary chamber development stage for ore cutting, venting and roof condition control.

5 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for use in development of minerals with systems involving filling mined-out space with solidifying stowing mix. The latter is composed of broken lime-containing binder in the form of active aluminosilicate material (5.6-33.2%) and fired carbonate rocks (1.0-16.7%), tempering water with phlegmatizer (10.6-27.5%), and filler. Carbonate rocks are fired at 900-1200°C, contain active calcium-magnesium oxides CaO+MgO at least 40% and not more than 9.1% based on the total weight of mix, which are broken to screen residue 0.08 mm not more than 15%. Active aluminosilicate material is fired marl or fired clay, or fired kimberlite ore concentration tails, or granulated blast furnace slag. Tempering water contains phlegmatizer in amounts found from formula [Ph] = (0.005-0.021)*Cr/Cw, where [Ph] amount of water in 1 L tempering water, kg; (0.005-0.021) coefficient taking into account proportion between phlegmatizer and fired carbonate rocks in mix; Cr amount of carbonate rocks in mix, kg; and Cw experimentally found consumption of tempering water with mix, L. When indicated amount of CaO+MgO in mixture is exceeded, CaO and MgO are converted into hydroxides by spraying with water in amount not higher than 20% of the weight of fired carbonate rocks (on conversion to active CaO+MgO). As carbonate rocks, host rocks of kimberlite deposits are used; as filler, sand and/or concentration tails, and/or broken aluminosilicate rock; and, as phlegmatizer, industrial-grade lignosulfonate or superplasticizer.

EFFECT: improved workability of mix and reduced cost.

5 cl, 4 dwg, 3 tbl

Backfill mix // 2270921

FIELD: mining industry, particularly to develop mineral deposit along with backfilling of worked-out areas.

SUBSTANCE: backfill mix comprises cement, grinded granulated blastfurnace slag, filler and water. The backfill mix additionally has shredded straw. Grinded diabase is used as the filler. All above components are taken in the following amounts (% by weight): cement - 2.9-5.07, grinded granulated blastfurnace slag - 15.21-16.91, grinded diabase - 52.24-53.22, shredded straw - 0.02-0.076, water - remainder.

EFFECT: increased strength and crack-resistance.

2 tbl

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: device has surface composed of upper section with wedges and lower section and backfill material placed on said surface. Upper section is made in form of a rectangle, composed of rectangular triangle and rectangular trapezoid with possible displacement of trapezoid along triangle hypotenuse. Lower section is made of two plates, mounted on holder, fixed to pipe for feeding compressed air. Plate, positioned above the trapezoid, is mounted with possible counter-clockwise rotation around holder. Value of greater base of trapezoid hδ is selected from relation hδ = m - 0.9k, where m - bed massiveness, m, k - size of backfill material, m.

EFFECT: simplified construction, lower laboriousness.

2 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes extraction of deposit resources by chambers through one of them, construction of ice-rock backfill in extracted space of primary chambers and following extraction of inter-chamber blocks. In inter-chamber blocks wedge-shaped slits are formed immediately in ceiling of deposit, space of slits is filled with ice-rock backfill, while slits are formed of inter-chamber blocks for 1/3 of width.

EFFECT: higher durability, higher effectiveness.

3 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes preparation and well extraction of resources of chambers with partial backfill of extraction space. Blocks of upper level relatively to blocks of lower level are placed in staggered order, while blocks are made in form of a stretched upwards hexahedron. Resources of block within one hexahedron are separated on two chambers, one of which, placed along periphery of hexahedron, after extraction and removal of ore from it is filled by hardening backfill. Second order chamber is made of hexahedron-like shape, extracted and removed under protection from artificial block on all six sides of this chamber. Removal of ore from first order chambers is performed through one removal mine - end of level ort and cross-cut in lower portion of block and intermediate sub-level cross-cuts.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes erection of rows of main platforms along bed length in staggered order with length equal or divisible by step value for support displacement, and placing filling material thereon. Along length of main platforms between ceiling and bed soil post support is mounted, upon which filling material is fed. After that between main platforms additional platforms are erected with wedge supporting, and main platforms are rotated counter-clockwise towards pneumatic support and it is displaced for one drive step. During that filling material, while lowering, unwedges wedge support between ceiling and bed soil and forms artificial supports. After that additional platforms are rotated counter-clockwise towards pneumatic support. After movement of cleaning face for two drive steps operations for constructing artificial supports are repeated. Distance between main platforms along bed fall line are selected from mathematical expression.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes partial filling of extracted space of side and central mains by filling stripes from lava extracting shafts. At center of semi-lava on the side of massive, wherein next extractive column will be cut, filling shaft is additionally driven, wherefrom full filling of space between central fill stripe and fill stripe on the side of massive is performed. Preparation of next extraction column is performed under protection of erected fill stripes.

EFFECT: higher safety, higher efficiency.

1 dwg

The invention relates to the field of mining industry and can be used to eliminate voids in underground development ore bodies

The invention relates to the mining industry and can be used in underground mining of thin and medium-power fields with a mined-out space

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes partial filling of extracted space of side and central mains by filling stripes from lava extracting shafts. At center of semi-lava on the side of massive, wherein next extractive column will be cut, filling shaft is additionally driven, wherefrom full filling of space between central fill stripe and fill stripe on the side of massive is performed. Preparation of next extraction column is performed under protection of erected fill stripes.

EFFECT: higher safety, higher efficiency.

1 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes erection of rows of main platforms along bed length in staggered order with length equal or divisible by step value for support displacement, and placing filling material thereon. Along length of main platforms between ceiling and bed soil post support is mounted, upon which filling material is fed. After that between main platforms additional platforms are erected with wedge supporting, and main platforms are rotated counter-clockwise towards pneumatic support and it is displaced for one drive step. During that filling material, while lowering, unwedges wedge support between ceiling and bed soil and forms artificial supports. After that additional platforms are rotated counter-clockwise towards pneumatic support. After movement of cleaning face for two drive steps operations for constructing artificial supports are repeated. Distance between main platforms along bed fall line are selected from mathematical expression.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes preparation and well extraction of resources of chambers with partial backfill of extraction space. Blocks of upper level relatively to blocks of lower level are placed in staggered order, while blocks are made in form of a stretched upwards hexahedron. Resources of block within one hexahedron are separated on two chambers, one of which, placed along periphery of hexahedron, after extraction and removal of ore from it is filled by hardening backfill. Second order chamber is made of hexahedron-like shape, extracted and removed under protection from artificial block on all six sides of this chamber. Removal of ore from first order chambers is performed through one removal mine - end of level ort and cross-cut in lower portion of block and intermediate sub-level cross-cuts.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes extraction of deposit resources by chambers through one of them, construction of ice-rock backfill in extracted space of primary chambers and following extraction of inter-chamber blocks. In inter-chamber blocks wedge-shaped slits are formed immediately in ceiling of deposit, space of slits is filled with ice-rock backfill, while slits are formed of inter-chamber blocks for 1/3 of width.

EFFECT: higher durability, higher effectiveness.

3 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: device has surface composed of upper section with wedges and lower section and backfill material placed on said surface. Upper section is made in form of a rectangle, composed of rectangular triangle and rectangular trapezoid with possible displacement of trapezoid along triangle hypotenuse. Lower section is made of two plates, mounted on holder, fixed to pipe for feeding compressed air. Plate, positioned above the trapezoid, is mounted with possible counter-clockwise rotation around holder. Value of greater base of trapezoid hδ is selected from relation hδ = m - 0.9k, where m - bed massiveness, m, k - size of backfill material, m.

EFFECT: simplified construction, lower laboriousness.

2 dwg

Backfill mix // 2270921

FIELD: mining industry, particularly to develop mineral deposit along with backfilling of worked-out areas.

SUBSTANCE: backfill mix comprises cement, grinded granulated blastfurnace slag, filler and water. The backfill mix additionally has shredded straw. Grinded diabase is used as the filler. All above components are taken in the following amounts (% by weight): cement - 2.9-5.07, grinded granulated blastfurnace slag - 15.21-16.91, grinded diabase - 52.24-53.22, shredded straw - 0.02-0.076, water - remainder.

EFFECT: increased strength and crack-resistance.

2 tbl

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for use in development of minerals with systems involving filling mined-out space with solidifying stowing mix. The latter is composed of broken lime-containing binder in the form of active aluminosilicate material (5.6-33.2%) and fired carbonate rocks (1.0-16.7%), tempering water with phlegmatizer (10.6-27.5%), and filler. Carbonate rocks are fired at 900-1200°C, contain active calcium-magnesium oxides CaO+MgO at least 40% and not more than 9.1% based on the total weight of mix, which are broken to screen residue 0.08 mm not more than 15%. Active aluminosilicate material is fired marl or fired clay, or fired kimberlite ore concentration tails, or granulated blast furnace slag. Tempering water contains phlegmatizer in amounts found from formula [Ph] = (0.005-0.021)*Cr/Cw, where [Ph] amount of water in 1 L tempering water, kg; (0.005-0.021) coefficient taking into account proportion between phlegmatizer and fired carbonate rocks in mix; Cr amount of carbonate rocks in mix, kg; and Cw experimentally found consumption of tempering water with mix, L. When indicated amount of CaO+MgO in mixture is exceeded, CaO and MgO are converted into hydroxides by spraying with water in amount not higher than 20% of the weight of fired carbonate rocks (on conversion to active CaO+MgO). As carbonate rocks, host rocks of kimberlite deposits are used; as filler, sand and/or concentration tails, and/or broken aluminosilicate rock; and, as phlegmatizer, industrial-grade lignosulfonate or superplasticizer.

EFFECT: improved workability of mix and reduced cost.

5 cl, 4 dwg, 3 tbl

FIELD: mining and underground building, particularly underground mining.

SUBSTANCE: method involves double-stage mineral deposit development; erecting artificial rock-and-concrete supports of previously cut primary chamber roof rock in at least two adjacent primary chambers; extracting secondary chamber resources; filling space defined by cut rock with hardening material mix. Mines for drilling and/or filling operations performing are arranged in deposit roof over or inside ore pillars of secondary chambers. Primary chamber roof rock is cut by well undercharge method. Hardening material mix is supplied via cross headings located between mine and cavities and/or via undercharged well sections remained after rock cutting operation.

EFFECT: increased safety and economical efficiency due to reduced number of drilling and filling mines or accompanying mineral excavation, possibility to use drilling and filling mines at secondary chamber development stage for ore cutting, venting and roof condition control.

5 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: mining industry, particularly underground mineral mining with excavated space filling with hardening filling mix.

SUBSTANCE: method involves mixing grinded lime-containing binding agent, mixing water and filler; delivering the filling mix to area to be filled; filling mine space with the filling mix in several layers. The lime-containing binding agent is active silica-alumina material and burnt carbonate rock including at least 40% of active Cao+MgO. Above rock is grinded so that not more than 15% of grinded material remains on sieve having 0.08 orifice dimensions. Amount of the grinded burnt carbonate rock is selected so that active Cao+MgO is not more than 9.1% of filling mix mass. Water consumption for oxide Ca and Mg conversion in hydroxide is not more than 20% of burnt carbonate rock recalculated to active CaO+MgO. Retarder is added in mixing water in amount determined from R=(0.005-0.021)-Cr/Cw, where R is retarder content in 1 l of mixing water, kg; (0.005-0.021) is factor, which considers retarder-burnt carbonate rock ratio in the filling mix; Cr is burnt carbonate rock content in filling mix, kg; Cw is experimentally determined mixing water content in filling mix, l. Mine space filling rate is chosen from hardening time and self-heating degree of filing mass. The filling mix contains active silica-alumina material in amount of 5.6-33.2% by weight, carbonate rock burnt at 900-1200°C and containing active CaO+MgO of not less than 40% in amount of 1.0-16.7%, mixing water with retarder in amount of 10.6-27.5%, remainder is filler.

EFFECT: increased operational safety due to improved quality mine space filling, reduced costs and increased mine intensity.

6 cl, 4 tbl, 5 dwg

Fill mix // 2282724

FIELD: mining, particularly to develop valuable mineral deposits along with goaf filling.

SUBSTANCE: fill mix comprises quick lime, grinded blast furnace slag, filler, industrial lignosulphonate and water. The fill mix additionally comprises trisodiumphosphate. All above components are taken in the following amounts (% by weight): quick lime - 1.61-4.8, grinded blast furnace slag - 10.79-14.4, filler - 60.85-62.14, industrial lignosulphonate - 0.016-0.11, trisodiumphosphate - 0.124-0.35, remainder is water.

EFFECT: increased strength and crack-resistance of fill mix over the full fill body.

2 tbl

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