Method for mineral excavation from open-cast mine
FIELD: mining industry, particularly open-cast mining, particularly to produce natural stone blocks from sheet deposits by open-cast mining.
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming benches in each separate deposit so that production deposit is arranged at bench bottom; excavating mineral blocks by moving hydraulic excavator bucket teeth under productive deposit bottom and removing the blocks having natural configuration due to applying hydraulic action of excavator boom, handle and bucket to block with the use of natural deposit fracture porosity, which defines configuration and volume of produced blocks.
EFFECT: increased output, possibility to produce blocks from thin sheet deposits along with maintaining natural block volumes.
The invention relates to the mining industry and can be used for the open development of mineral resources, in particular in the extraction of blocks of natural stone from reservoir deposits form in the open pit.
There is a method of open pit mining of layers of minerals, such as coal, including the formation of the mining ledge and the recess of the mineral when it is in the recess of the latter are sinking deep chambers, through the deep development of the reservoir of the multi-link conveyor, the blasting hole charges and shipment of the rock mass (see RF patent №2204721 C1, CL E 21 41/26, 20.05.2003,).
The disadvantage of this method is the use of explosions for mined.
There is a method of extraction of minerals from the open pit, including the formation of ledges and excavation of minerals. To effect the extraction of the mineral produce drilling on the top floor of a high ledge, charging and blasting (see RF patent №2239063 C2, CL E 21 41/26 from 27.10.2004,).
The disadvantage of this method is the use of explosions for mined
The invention solves the problem, consisting in the extraction of minerals - natural stone be the use of technogenic influence on the formation.
The technical result that can be obtained with the implementation of the invention is to increase the output of blocks of natural stone from thin layers of deposits with the conservation of volume blocks.
To achieve the mentioned technical result in the proposed method of extraction of minerals from the open pit, including the formation of ledges, mining ledges form for each individual layer mineral with a reservoir at the base of the ledge, and extract minerals in the form of natural units through the establishment of the teeth of the bucket hydraulic excavator under the base of the productive formation and the exercise of the recess blocks the natural configuration due to the hydraulic forces of the boom, dipper and bucket of the excavator, while using natural fracturing of the reservoir, determining the configuration and volume of extracted blocks of natural forms.
Distinctive features of the proposed method are the use of natural fracturing of the productive formation for the extraction of minerals (stone), the formation of mining benches for each individual layer mineral with a reservoir at the base of the escarpment, the extraction of minerals in the form of blocks with a natural f the RMU, appropriate configuration of fractures in the reservoir, through the establishment of the teeth of the bucket under the base of the reservoir. This allows the recess, the maximum natural volume without its technological destruction due to the separation of operations for the extraction of blocks and obtaining from them blocks corresponding to the requirements of GOST 9479-98.
The method is as follows.
After carrying out the Stripping each from reservoirs developed a separate mining ledge at the base of which lies the actual reservoir, including blocks of natural stone. The hydraulic excavator (working body of the excavator consists of the boom, dipper and bucket), fixed in position, "shovel", is put under the base of the productive formation and due to the hydraulic forces (the force at the notch created by the hydraulic movement of the working body elements relative to each other along the connecting axis) is a recess (rise) sheet-like unit natural configuration with further loading and transportation to the site for processing and obtaining from them sawn and split blocks corresponding to GOST 9479-98 "Units of the rocks for the production of tiles, architectural, memorial and other ed is Lee. Technical conditions".
An example of a specific implementation of the method.
The method developed and applied in the career field of natural stone of Lubosi in the Tula region.
After Stripping of minerals representing bedded deposits of blocks of natural stone and get the roof of the mining ledge, following operations are made:
- the formation of the mining ledge with the formation of minerals in the ground by excavation disassembly and removal of the rock mass to the height of the ledge to form the working platform, the area is large enough to hold and maneuver hydraulic excavator with further extraction of minerals;
- moving hydraulic excavator formed on the working platform at the base of the mining ledge;
- sweep the rock mass above the reservoir on the length of the working body of the excavator including a boom, arm and bucket, loading rock mass on the roof of the mining ledge or loading onto trucks for removal from the quarry;
- establishment hydraulic force of the boom, dipper and bucket teeth excavator bucket under the base of the formation;
- "rocking" hydraulic force elements of the working body of the excavator, above, block natural form, separated the CSOs from the array of the productive formation is fractured;
- lifting block the natural shape of the teeth of the bucket with the further establishment of hydraulic force to the actual bucket under the raised block natural forms;
- execution of the previous operation until such time as the unit of natural forms is fixed by crumbling under it containing rock mass in position, sufficient for institution of a sling or coverage unit slings;
- lifting and loading crane block natural forms trucks for removal from the quarry for further processing (sawing, splitting) with regard to the maximum utilization of its natural shape for receiving the blocks corresponding to GOST 9479-98.
The present invention will significantly increase the amount of recoverable natural stone deposits with thin layers.
The method of extraction of minerals from the open pit, including the formation of ledges, characterized in that the mining ledges form for each individual layer mineral with a reservoir at the base of the ledge, and extract minerals in the form of natural units through the establishment of the teeth of the bucket hydraulic excavator under the base of the productive formation and the exercise of the recess blocks the natural configuration due to hydraulic forces to the s, the arm and bucket of the excavator, while using natural fracturing of the reservoir, determining the configuration and volume of extracted blocks of natural forms.
FIELD: mining, particularly opened mining of horizontal and flat-lying seams.
SUBSTANCE: method involves cutting upper stripping ledge and rock interlayer ledges by shovel in mined-out space; mining mineral and conveying thereof. Covering stripping and rock interlayers are cut simultaneously with the use of single shovel located on lower rock interlayer roof. Upper stripping ledge is developed by upward digging operation, rock interlayers are developed by upward and downward digging operation performed during reverse shovel movement, wherein shovel moves along zigzag path and throws interlayer rock between ridges of banks.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of deposit development.
FIELD: mining industry, particularly to form single-layer dump or lower layer of multilayer dump along with successive and simultaneous creation of dump layers.
SUBSTANCE: method involves creating dump layer by unloading rock within predetermined land zone from vehicle performing a number of runs onto the layer in radial direction. The layer filling is carried out by longitudinal sections in direction away from pit and rock is freely laid in single direction within the limits of each above layer section. Above mentioned vehicle runs are began from pit exit end.
EFFECT: possibility to create dump over the full land zone near pit and at remote locations.
4 cl, 2 ex, 3 dwg
FIELD: methods of surface mining, particularly to transport rock from open-cast mine.
SUBSTANCE: hoisting device comprises drive, haulage rope and load container with spherical balloon. The balloon is enclosed in teardrop-shaped shell. The head shell part is directed towards upper horizon, bottom part thereof is opened and provided with stiffening ring and stringers.
EFFECT: reduced power input and provision of favorable drive operation conditions, reduced haulage rope cross-section and, as a result, reduced hoisting device size as a whole.
FIELD: mining art, applicable for mining by open method in rocky and semirocky rocks at placing of high benches on planned contour.
SUBSTANCE: the method consists in collaring of inclined holes from the upper bench to be height of a doubled bench, for production of a cut-off slot at formation of the upper inclined part of the bench and contour vertical holes from the intermediate bench to the same depth for formation of the lower vertical part of the bench, loading and blasting. The novelty in the method is in the fact that the drilling of holes of the contour row from the intermediate bench is performed in three stages: initially in the first stage drilled is the part, of inclined holes from the initial to the final point of the section of sloping with one direction of inclination, in the second stage drilled are the inclined holes of the contour row having the same inclination and the same distance between the holes as in the first stage, but in the contrary direction, in the third stage between the mentioned inclined contour holes drilled are vertical contour holes, the inclined holes of the contour row are loaded by a permanent charge from the face to the mouth of the holes, and in the vertical contour holes positioned between the inclined contour holes, the amount of the charge is changed successively from the face to the mouth, corresponding to the minimum distance between the inclined and vertical contour holes at the bottom of the lower bench is the minimum charge in the vertical contour hole, which in proportion with removal from the bottom of the lower bench successively increases, reaching its maximum value at the bottom of the intermediate bench, at the maximum distance between the inclined and vertical contour holes at the bottom of the lower bench the value of the charge in the vertical contour hole from the face to the mouth is changed in the reverse order.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of sloping.
7 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: mining industry, particularly opened cast mining.
SUBSTANCE: method involves dividing and successively providing shifting of overlaying hill-shaped rock layers outside the cast by drilling well rings in shifting plane from drilling rooms, wherein the wells extend at an angle enough to initiate layer shifting during sliding surface preparation in rest prism area; placing charges into the wells and blasting thereof in rest prism area; supplying clay mix by its own gravity before sliding surface preparation in upper pressure prism part; blasting well rings in pressure prism area; opening the mine; excavating mineral and overburden rock; developing the cast up to design depth with cast wall building and creating dump of crashed overburden rock at cast contour.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of mineral excavation and reduced overburden ratio.
1 ex, 6 dwg
FIELD: mining industry, particularly to built non-working pit wall in permafrost ground.
SUBSTANCE: method involves loosening rock, constructing trap trench along haulage berm under the berm and forming protective rock bank. Trap trench is of triangular shape and one side thereof arranged opposite to main slope of non-working pit wall has inclination angle of not less than 36° and not more than 40°. Horizontal adjustable rebound area panel is left in area extending from lower ledge edge to trap trench contour. Rock loosening within area defined by excavation contours of working ledge and trap trench is performed by simultaneous blasting out blast-holes and trench-forming holes of the first and the second rows. Holes of the first and the second rows are drilled in working ledge and have subdrilling depth equal to trap trench depth and to one-half thereof correspondingly. Distance between the rows is determined from the given relation.
EFFECT: reduced volume of works for trap trench forming.
1 ex, 4 tbl, 5 dwg
FIELD: mining industry, particularly for open-cast mining of steeply inclined, even vertical, laterally bounded ore body, for instance diamondiferous kimberlite pipe under flooded conditions.
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming hydraulic-mining dump; opening quarry field by pit excavation; filling the pit with water; installing floating pump dredger in plant with cutter; performing rock excavation at quarry field; transporting the obtained rock to ground surface through pulp conveying line and conveying dead rock to hydraulic-mining pump. The quarry field is previously zoned into horizontal layers (horizons) and quarry field development is performed by cutting horizontal layers in top-bottom direction so that water level is lowered as layers are excavated and water surface is maintained at current production horizon level.
EFFECT: reduced power and cost inputs for field dewatering.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: mining industry, particularly crystal-saving diamond mining when developing permafrost kimberlites under difficult hydrogeological conditions of permafrost zones.
SUBSTANCE: method involves loosening rock, converting rock into pulp and conveying pulp through pulp line by dredger. Before subpermafrost zone opening hole having large diameter is driven from pit bottom for the full depth of field to be developed and inclined borehole is built. The borehole is connected to the hole in point located at said depth and then high-pressure subpermafrost brine is pumped into the pit. Airlift dredger is arranged on water body surface, ripper-dozer provided with all-purpose boring bit is lowered on pit bottom. Loosening of kimberlites weakened by brine is performed by ripper-dozer along helical cuts. Fine ore cuttings are conveyed by means of airlift through pulp line to ore mill. Coarse ore cuttings are moved to ground surface to ore storage through hole, caisson drift and inclined borehole provided with skip hoist. Kimberlite pipe development below pit bottom is performed at right angles of faces depreciation without performing overburden operations.
EFFECT: increased gem diamond yield and resource saving due to deep horizons with opened worked-out space development without overburden operations and improved ecological safety.
4 dwg, 1 ex, 1 tbl
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes extraction of quarry to planned depth in stages with construction f boards with parameters, allowed from stability condition, shutting boards, finishing mineral resource massif. Building and shutting of temporary boards during extraction of steep layers of next level after change of order of extraction of opening and ore zones is started after construction and spacing in center of cut of well-like mine with vertical shelves, with parameters, which are provided for by minimal radiuses of rounded edges enough for movement of rock via spiral chutes to surface to outer dumps, with narrowing space towards bottom at level of opened level of deep portion of deposit with lesser total coefficient of opening of stage and finally board is constructed by steep vertical shelves in deep zone.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
1 ex, 10 dwg
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes opening deposit at distance 150 meters from river and forming of natural filtering wall between river and trench, pumping of water from trench into river, extraction of mineral resource, revegetation of dumps, filling of trench with water, accomplishment of formed water body. Mineral resource is extracted from two serially opened trenches - auxiliary, revegetated as water body, and main, positioned at opposite side of river, and soil from opening of which is used for revegetation of auxiliary trench, while in main trench along whole board on the side of river right beyond mining operations inner dump is formed with width not less than 250 meters and with height at same level with earth surface, water from trenches is fed into river, and then into water body through intermediate collectors, while after forming of water body currents of soil waters between trenches and river are made balanced, balance level is estimated on basis of water levels in auxiliary trench and river.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: mining art, in particular, open-pit mining of mineral resources by high benches.
SUBSTANCE: large-diameter single holes are replaced by a pair of divergent holes of a smaller diameter, in which one hole is always vertical, and the other one is inclined towards the bench; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced with a pair of divergent bundles of parallel converged holes, in which one bundle is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced with a pair of divergent holes of a smaller diameter, in which one hole is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench and positioned in the vertical plane parallel with the first one and distant from it by 1-2 hole diameters; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced by a pair of divergent bundles of parallel converging holes, in which one bundle is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench and positioned in the vertical plane parallel with the first one and distant from it by 1-2 hole diameters.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of blasting of the benches.
7 cl, 6 dwg