Combustion chamber for gas-turbine engine

FIELD: continuous combustion chambers.

SUBSTANCE: combustion chamber comprises hollow cylindrical housing whose wall receive scroll and air radial swirlers with blades that provide swirling in opposite directions, shells, bushings mounted for permitting movement in radial direction, branch pipe, swirling chambers, and nozzle. Each combined nozzle has centrifugal nozzle whose outer side is in a contact with inner side of the bushing and jet nozzle with cylindrical housing mounted coaxially in the inner space of the branch pipe between the outer wall of the housing of the jet nozzle and inner wall of the branch pipe. The outlet section of the housing of the jet nozzle is bent to the passage of the scroll spiral of the radial swirler. The outlet section of the jet nozzle is parallel to the wall of the inlet section of the branch pipe and is at a distance of 0.8-1.2 of the diameter of the jet nozzle housing from it.

EFFECT: reduced hydraulic drag and oxides emission.

9 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of gas turbine engines, primarily to the combustion chambers terrestrial power systems using liquid or gaseous fuel with the injection of water or steam into the combustion chamber to reduce emissions.

Known combustion chambers of gas turbine engines used in land-based power plants, containing the outer housing, heating pipe, filter caps, manifolds and piping for supplying fuel, water or steam, the nozzle of the burner (see RF Patent №2137936, IPC 7 F 02 C 3/30, 20.09.1999,). Known combustion chamber reduces the emission of nitrogen oxide (NOxdue to the supply of water or steam into the mixing zone of hot gases and air, but water or steam through the holes in the hollow rack mixer, placed inside the flame tube in the mixing zone, significantly increases the hydraulic losses in the combustion chamber, which eventually leads to the deterioration of the basic parameters of the engine.

The closest in technical essence to the combustion chamber is the chamber described in the gas turbine installation (see RF Patent №2181163, IPC 7 F 02 C 3/30, 14.06.2001 year). Known combustor includes an outer housing, heating pipe, filter caps, manifolds and piping for supplying fuel, water or steam, combo nozzle, the Christmas tree device. In this design the injection of water or steam through heat exchangers located on the outer and inner walls of the flame tube, which leads to an increase of the volume of the working fluid and increase the velocity of flow of products of combustion, and hence to decrease the residence time of the gases in the zone of high temperatures and, consequently, to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxide (NOx. However, the presence of the pipelines supplying water or steam flowing in the outer side and the inner annular channel of the combustion chamber leads to the blocking its flow part, the increase of hydraulic losses, which eventually leads to the deterioration of the basic parameters of the engine as a whole. In addition, the supply of water or steam into the mixing zone of hot gases and air less efficiently reduces the flame temperature in the combustion chamber and, consequently, less effective in reducing emissions of nitrogen oxides NOxthan, for example, when water or steam into the combustion zone. More effective reduction of the flame temperature at the feed water or steam in the mixing zone is achieved by a substantial increase in the amount of water or steam into the combustion chamber, which is also undesirable because of impairing the combustion chamber.

The objective of the invention is the reduction of hydraulic losses in the combustion chamber and the mind is isenia emissions of nitrogen oxides NO x.

The technical result is achieved in that the combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine containing the outer housing, heating pipe, filter caps, manifolds, communications in the supply of fuel and water, combined nozzles, burners, each burner device consists of a hollow cylindrical body, the walls of which are located snail and radial air swirler blades having opposite spin, the shell, the sleeve can be moved in the radial direction of the pipe, satirically chamber and nozzle, and each combination nozzle includes a centrifugal nozzle, a casing which its outer surface is in contact with the inner surface of the sleeve, and jet nozzle with a cylindrical casing, is placed coaxially in the inner cavity of the pipe with a gap between the outer wall of the housing of the jet nozzle and the inner wall of the pipe, and the output part of the body of the jet nozzle is curved in the direction of the channel of the spiral snail radial swirler, and the output section of the jet nozzle is made in the form of a flat face parallel to the wall of the inlet part of the tube and is separated from it by a distance of 0,8...1,2 magnitude of the diameter of the jet nozzle.

The invention explains the I drawings.

Figure 1 presents a schematic diagram of a longitudinal section of the site combustion chamber.

Figure 2 presents a schematic diagram of the input part of the combustion chamber with cuts, explaining the design of the burner with jet nozzle.

Figure 3 presents the cross section a-a figure 2.

4 shows the section b-B figure 3.

Figure 5 presents a schematic diagram of the input part of the combustion chamber with cuts, explaining the design of the burner with a centrifugal atomizer.

Figure 6 presents a cross-section In figure 5.

Figure 7 presents the appearance of a combined nozzle.

On Fig section G-G Fig.7.

Figure 9 presents a view from the entrance on the arrow On figure 1.

The combustion chamber includes an outer housing 1, the heating pipe 2, starting the igniters 3 and the reservoir 4, 5 communications the supply of fuel and water, combined nozzle 6, the burner 7 with a hollow cylindrical housings 8, snail 9 and 10 air radial swirler blades 11 and 12, with the shells 13 and 14, with the sleeves 15, the nozzles 16, zavihriteljami chambers 17 and 18, the nozzles 19 and 20. Combined nozzle consists of a centrifugal 21 of the nozzle body 22 and the jet nozzle 23 with a cylindrical casing 24, is placed coaxially in the inner cavity of the pipe 16 with a gap 25 between the outside the second housing wall 24 and inner wall 26 of the socket 16, the output part of the housing 24 of the jet nozzle 23 is bent in the direction of the channel 27 of the spiral snail swirl 9, while the output section of the jet nozzle 23 is made in the form of a flat face 28 parallel to the wall 26 of the inlet portion of the nozzle 16.

In addition, the drawings are shown: the pipes 29 and 30, the front wall of the flame tube 31, the shell stabilizer flame 32 and 33.

The combustion chamber is as follows. The liquid or gaseous fuel, for example natural gas, or back-fed into the reservoir 4 and 5 and the pipes 29 and 30 is fed to the input of the combined nozzle 6, which comes to the burner 7, where it is mixed with air, rasplivaetsa, is converted into a homogeneous mixture enters the combustion zone and ignited (at startup), for example, flare igniters 3, and further, the combustion chamber works, ensuring the operation of the engine in all expoitation range of modes.

When working with injection of water or steam in the fuel supply system of internal engine switch (not shown) cuts off the supply of liquid or gaseous fuel in the manifold 4 and the piping 29 to supply ink jet nozzles 23 and instead connects the fuel supply of water or steam (quantity of injection water or steam is determined by calculation or experimentally) with simultaneous submission that the lib in the collector 5 and the piping 30 centrifugal nozzles 21. Water or steam from the jet nozzles 23 with the air supplied to the nozzles 16 snail radial swirler 9, and the fuel of the centrifugal nozzle 21 is fed through the sleeve 15 on the blades 11 snail radial swirler 9.

Fuel rasplivaetsa centrifugal nozzles 21 and enters satirically chamber 17 of burners 7, and the water or steam rasplivaetsa jet nozzles 23 and slice 28 output section in the direction of the channel 27 of the spiral snail radial swirler 9 lands on his shoulder blades 11 and then goes to satirically camera 17. The air enters at the blades 12 air swirler 10. As the twist of the threads in the swirler 9 and 10 has the opposite direction, the flow of the powdered fuel and air with water spray or steam intersect, mixed in satirically chambers 17 and 18 and are directed to the inner surface of the nozzles 19 and 20, forming a thin layer of the mixture, which, breaking with the output of the edge nozzles 19 and 20, forms a cone spray pattern of a homogeneous mixture. In addition, satirically chambers 17 and 18 is rotating flow with a large angular velocity, resulting in the front wall 31 of the flame tube 2 is formed by a pressure differential, which, in turn, leads to the formation of a stable area of the reverse currents of air mixture, sprayed fuel, sprayed water or steam is. Homogeneous mixture enters the combustion zone and is burned to produce heat, the evaporation of the water or steam drawing heat and increase the volume of the working fluid, which causes a decrease in the temperature of combustion, increasing the rate of flow of products of combustion, thereby reducing the residence time of combustion products in the chamber, which ultimately leads to the reduction of harmful vybrosov nitrogen oxides NOx.

The performance of each burner in the form of a hollow cylindrical body, the walls of which are located snail and radial air swirler blades having opposite spin, cylindrical shell, a floating bushing, pipe, satirically chamber, nozzle and combination nozzle with centrifugal and jet nozzles, allows for operation on liquid and gaseous fuels spray toplinarstvo mixture in carburising associated with a zone of reverse currents at the output of cylindrical shells, and thereby to obtain the combustion of fuel with high combustion in the entire operating range of the coefficient of excess air, with minimal smoke and harmful emissions from combustion chamber not exceed the permissible limits. When water (in the fuel supply system of internal engine auto switch is installed on the water supply) in the jet nozzle, R is smeshannuyu coaxially in the inner cavity of the flow part of the socket snail swirl with a gap between the outer wall of the nozzle and the inner wall of the pipe, curved part of the hull of the jet nozzle outlet cross-section in the direction of the channel of the spiral snail swirl and execution of the output section of the jet nozzle in the form of a flat face parallel to the wall of the inlet portion of the nozzle and spaced from it by a distance l=0,8...1,2d, where d is the diameter of the jet nozzle (value gap "l" is determined by calculation or by experiment), allows you to feed the water through the jet nozzle to the burner in the right direction and prevent a direct hit by a jet of water into the wall snail swirl and to ensure water supply to the combustion zone and turn it into steam.

Size l is selected optimal 0,8-1,2 magnitude of the diameter of the jet nozzles on the basis of the following conditions:

when l>1.2 water flow is sharply directed toward the rear end wall of the cochlea, and the incoming flow of air in the pipe will take down the flow of water directly on the wall without the formation of air spray;

when l<0,8 increases the curvature of the bending nozzle that moves the nozzle to the front end wall of the cochlea, and the broken symmetry of the entrance to the cochlea.

The transformation of water into steam causes a decrease in the combustion temperature, the increase in the volume of products of combustion and, as a consequence, the increase in the rate of flow of products of combustion flow path of the camera and the mind is nisene residence time of combustion products in the chamber, therefore, to reduce harmful emissions at the outlet of the engine. The use of pipes for supplying fuel jet nozzles for water or steam allows you to avoid the installation of additional pipelines on the path of a flowing part of the combustion chamber, to avoid cluttering the flow area of the combustion chamber and, consequently, to minimize hydraulic losses in the combustion chamber from the project level while reducing harmful emissions of nitrogen oxide (NOx.

Using the same communication supply fuel to a combined nozzle fed with liquid or gaseous fuel (including reserve fuel), and to feed water or steam by a special team, without cluttering the pipelines flowing part of the combustion chamber, makes it extra bulkheads and replacement of the material part to reduce harmful emissions from combustion chamber without increasing the hydraulic losses in its path around the operational range of the engine.

The combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine containing the outer housing, heating pipe, filter caps, manifolds, communications in the supply of fuel and water, combined nozzles, burners, each burner device consists of p is setlogo cylindrical body, in the walls of which are located snail and radial air swirler blades having opposite spin, the shell, the sleeve can be moved in the radial direction of the pipe, satirically chambers and nozzles, and each combination nozzle includes a centrifugal nozzle, a casing which its outer surface is in contact with the inner surface of the sleeve, and a jet nozzle with a cylindrical casing, is placed coaxially in the inner cavity of the pipe with a gap between the outer wall of the housing of the jet nozzle and the inner wall of the pipe, and the output part of the body of the jet nozzle is curved in the direction of the channel of the spiral snail radial swirler, and the output section of the inkjet nozzles made in the form of a flat face parallel to the wall of the inlet part of the tube and is separated from it by a distance of 0,8...1,2 magnitude of the diameter of the jet nozzle.



 

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