Driving axle with suspension and agricultural tractor with such axle

FIELD: agricultural engineering; offroad tractor.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to driving axle with suspension and agricultural tractor with such axle which has central housing with build-in final drives and left-hand and right-hand axle housings suspended by means of upper and lower adjusting arms, with axle-shafts projecting from axle on which wheel-and-tire units are installed. Constant-velocity universal joint is installed between fitted-in final drives and axle-shafts. Said universal joint has pair of journal members and coupling holder radially enclosing driving and driven races of joint, thus minimizing axial length of universal joint providing arrangement of wheels on axle-shafts at width of 1524 mm.

EFFECT: possibility of using driving shaft on tractor-cultivator without changing design of load-bearing frame of standard tractor-cultivator with preservation of performance characteristics of said tractor-cultivator.

39 cl, 15 dwg

 

The technical field to which the invention relates.

The invention relates to an agricultural tractor with a leading axle with suspension and, in particular, to a tractor having an independent rear suspension. The present invention also relates to a universal joint for power transmission of rotational motion to the leading axle suspension system for a work vehicle.

The level of technology

Agricultural tractor is designed mainly for off-road use, and its design provides for supply of power, mainly to agricultural implements. Agricultural tractor is a self-propelled vehicle and creates a pulling force in the direction of movement, to ensure that is attached to the tractor and buried in the soil, the instrument will carry out its function. In addition, agricultural tractor can provide the above-mentioned instrument mechanical, hydraulic and/or electric power. When designing agricultural tractors should be considered sufficient normal force, i.e. the downward force acting on the driving wheels with the aim of creating the necessary traction. As a rule, in the case of the tractor is driven on two wheels this leads to the creation of the vehicle, kotorogo rear wheels more than the front wheels, so that these rear wheels can absorb the required normal force. Agricultural tractors differ from vehicle to transport goods, such as trucks on chassis of motor vehicles (pickups) and wheel-crawler tractors, the fact that the trucks do not need to create stable traction load. Truck creates traction load only during periods of acceleration and deceleration, and the creation of the traction load associated with the maximum load it can withstand the leading wheels.

The performance of the agricultural tractor can be increased due to the increased speed in the field and on the road. A significant limiting factor in the speed of an agricultural tractor, is the convenience of the operator during movement on uneven surfaces. A typical tractor has a complex construction in which the rear axle and the hitch is integrated into one unit, which is part of the design on the frame. In this case, between the rear axle and the frame of the tractor there is no suspension. Depreciation between a rough surface and the frame of the tractor provides only the deflection of the tire. In order to make the operator's job easier, also used suspension seats and suspension cab, but with limited success.

Front axle that m is bound to be or not to be leading, in a typical case is a continuous bridge mounted on the axis on the tractor and intended for limited rotation about the longitudinal axis. For tractors designed front axles on the suspension, such as described in U.S. patent No. 5879016. In this case, the rigid beam axle with outboard planetary final drives, suspended on the tractor frame. It is proved that the front axles on the suspension provided greater convenience for operators.

However, due to the lack of rear suspension heavy loads that occur due to uneven terrain, still passed on to the frame of the vehicle and affect the operator of that vehicle. The speed of the tractor, in particular in the field is limited impact loads that act on the operator. The stronger the impact on the operator in the cab, the faster the tires of the operator. Thus, there is a need to develop rear suspension for an agricultural tractor in order to reduce operator fatigue, which will allow him to work more hours and/or work at a greater speed.

One attempt of the rear suspension design is presented in U.S. patent No. 5538264. In this case, the rear beam axle is suspended on the tractor frame. To enable suspension design is the construction of the tractor last developed than which usually has a tractor comparable power at least the following features: 1) rear axle equipped with a hinged side planetary gearboxes instead of the built-side gear; 2) the tractor is equipped with four tires of the same size, all of which are smaller than the large rear tires on conventional row-crop tractor of comparable capacity, and 3) rear axle significantly shifted backward relative to the tractor cab compared to conventional row-crop tractor.

Outboard final drives limit the adjustability of the width of the stroke and prevent stepless regulation of the width of the stroke along the axis. Possible only discrete changes the width of the stroke due to the use of different configurations of wheels and rims. From industrial supply tractors embodying the invention according to U.S. patent No. 5538264, only tractor least power are of such small width of the stroke, as 1524 mm (60 inches). Smaller tires have less capacity, which leads to less traction. The location of the rear axle to the rear relative to the cab prevents the operator to see the hitch. An additional disadvantage of this design is that the hitch of the tractor is supported by the axle with suspension and therefore is part of the unsprung mass. The lack of a suspension for coupling causes the towed guns on slizyvaut vertical movement of the tire and axle, not more stable movement of the frame of the tractor. An additional disadvantage is that continuous bridge does not allow to implement independent suspension.

As a result of all these differences between the tractor according to U.S. patent No. 5538264 and conventional row-crop tractor, the tractor according to U.S. patent No. 5538264 does not reach the same level of performance as conventional tractor. The tractor according to U.S. patent No. 5538264 allows you to reach higher speeds, both in the field and on the road, but at significant additional cost of providing adequate health field. The tractor according to U.S. patent No. 5538264 is designed more for use as a tractor-tractor and for the traffic on the roads than for field work, causing the need to drag a tillage tool. Therefore, there is still a need for row-crop tractor having rear suspension and at the same time the relevant health and performance of conventional row crop tractor of comparable capacity with continuous rear axle without suspension.

Tilled agricultural tractor is designed to work in the field and has a width of stroke set for the wheels to provide movement between rows. This usually means that we are talking about the truck is the op with such a small width of the stroke, as 1524 mm (60 inches), which provides the tractor the opportunity to cover two sides of two rows of tilled crops, distant from each 762 mm (30 inches). It is possible to control the width of the stroke so that it can be used for specific agricultural applications, in which inter-row spacing is different from 762 mm (30 inches). You can provide stepless adjustability due to the mounting of the wheel hubs on the bridge at any location along the length of the bridge. This type of regulatory mechanism necessitates the built-in onboard planetary gearbox. Other regulatory mechanisms cause a configuration change rims and wheel discs to change the width of the stroke.

Small General-purpose tractor, such as series tractor JOHN DEERE 6010, have a nominal power in the range from 49 to 71 kW kW (65-95 PS). Large row-crop tractor, such as series tractor JOHN DEERE 8010, have a nominal power in the range of 123 kW to 175 kW (165-235 PS). All these tractors are built side gears to provide a stepless variable stroke width. The series tractors JOHN DEERE 6010 width of crankcase rear axle differential between the built-side planetary gearboxes is 665 mm (26.2 inches). Rear suspension must be outside from the side gear and the inside of the t installation snap-in wheels with a width of stroke 1524 mm (60 inches), to keep the air suspension of a tractor this size have the same processing capabilities of tilled crops, as the tractor without suspension.

Disclosure of the invention.

The present invention is to develop an agricultural tractor, with which it is possible to solve the above problems and to satisfy the aforementioned needs. In particular, the present invention is to develop an agricultural tractor with a rear axle with suspension that satisfy the requirements for row-crop tractor with adjustable stroke width. In addition, the present invention is to develop a universal joint and a suspension system that sochinyayut can move Carter drive axle and the axis of the vehicle with the design on the frame.

In accordance with the invention the aforementioned problems are solved by the implementation of the provisions of one of the items 1, 31 and 34 of the claims.

Other preferred variants of the design and development of the invention will become apparent from the dependent claims.

In a preferred specific embodiment of the present invention installed on the tractor transmission, the node rear differential and integrated planetary b is rtovyh gearboxes row-crop tractor of comparable size without rear suspension. The tractor according to the present invention, equipped with the left and right crankcases axle with suspension, each of which is attached to the crankcase side of the gearbox by means of a pair of regulatory control arm and one or more potresajuwij nodes. Left and right axle shafts installed in the housings of the axle with suspension and coupled to the output elements of final drive with universal CV joint, such as a dual universal (cardan) joint. Universal CV joint attached to such a configuration, in which the end face of the output element of the onboard gear is close to the embedded end of the axis. The rest of the hinge - two caplovic element and the connecting link is made with a larger diameter and radially surround the ends of the axes. This arrangement of connections reduces the axial length of the universal joint to a minimum, ensuring that the suspension will fit in the existing narrow space. Required universal joint relatively high velocity, because he must be in the kinematic chain after the on-Board gear, and means to transmit a large torque.

Stationary Carter bridge to bridge suspension without coming out from the side of the gearbox replaced the internal crankcase is odeski, which is attached to the differential housing. Upper and lower control levers pass from the interior of the crankcase suspension to Carter bridge with suspension. The axle is placed in the crankcase of the bridge and is out of it. The wheels are positioned on the left and right axis in the same manner as in the case of the axle without suspension, providing stepless adjustability of the width of the stroke. Also saved the functionality of dual tires. One or more potresajuwij nodes, passing between the inner crankcase suspension and Carter bridge to provide the elastic displacement of the bridge up and down relative to the frame of the tractor. Due to the suspension setup on the differential housing, and not on Carter fixed bridge if the bridge without suspension, obtaining axle with suspension is achieved by introducing only minor changes in axle without suspension. In the result, the manufacturer may, with economic benefits to offer models of tractors as with suspension, with or without pendants.

The tractor preferably has a complex structure, in which a Central crankcase drive axle is a part of the design on the frame. But it is also possible, in which the Central sump attached to a separate frame of the tractor, and the Carter bridge sochinyayut can travel with this frame. The tractor hitch is ustanavlivaut to a Central sump, located on the tractor frame.

Brief description of drawings

Figure 1 presents a side view of the row crop tractor.

Figure 2 presents a perspective image of the rear of the known rear drive axle without suspension for a tractor, shown in figure 1.

Figure 3 presents a perspective image of the rear of the known rear drive axle without suspension, shown in figure 2, the left crankcase bridge removed to show the built-side planetary gear.

4 shows the rear view of the left suspension system according to the present invention installed on the crankcase rear axle differential, shown in figure 2 and 3.

Figure 5 shows a front view of the left suspension system, shown in figure 4.

Figure 6 presents a section through the connecting link, essentially along the line 6-6 shown in figure 5.

Figure 7 presents a cross-section through the upper regulating arm.

On Fig presents a cross-section through the lower regulatory arm.

Figure 9 shows a fragment of securing the ball joint upper regulating lever to the outer crankcase suspension.

Figure 10 presents a cross-section of the universal joint connecting the side planetary gear with the axis.

Figure 11 presents a perspective izobrageniem spatial diversity of the parts of the universal joint, shown in figure 10.

On Fig represented by vertical projection of alternative specific options for performing the left suspension system containing cylinder control rear wheel.

On Fig presents a perspective image with a spatial separation of the parts of a typical mechanism for regulating the width of the stroke for the wheel.

On Fig presents a simplified electro-hydraulic scheme.

On Fig presents a side view of a tractor with four-wheel drive Assembly.

The implementation of the invention

Figure 1 shows an agricultural tractor 10. The tractor 10 includes a frame 12, the nodes 14 of the front tyres and wheels, nodes 16 rear tires and wheels and the station 18 operator, made in the form of cabins. The hood 20 closes the engine 22.

Figure 2 and 3 shows the node 26 of the rear driving axle without suspension for a tractor 10. This site rear drive axle contains a crankcase 28 of the differential mounted on the crankcase 30 of the gearbox and located behind it. The crankcase 28 of the differential and the crankcase 30 of the gearbox are part of the transmission and is rigidly attached to the frame 12 of the tractor, so that they become part of this frame 12. Thus, the crankcase 28 of the differential is part of the design of the tractor. On the upper part 32 of the rear surface of the differential casing installed three scene the spacecraft (not shown), and on the lower part 34 of the rear surface has a crankcase PTO (not shown). Coming back shaft 36 causes the PTO in action.

The left and right housings 40, 42 bridge support shafts 44, 46, protruding to the left and to the right. Left crankcase 40 bridge is installed on the crankcase 28 of the differential by means of bolts 48. This crankcase 40 bridge bolted to the annular gear wheel 50 of the left built-in onboard planetary gear 52 (Fig 3). This side planetary gear 52 includes a slave sun gear 54, a set of gear wheels-satellites 56 and a fixed gear wheel 50, which forms a part of the crankcase 28 of the differential. Drove 172 satellites, shown in figure 10 and 11, support gear-pinions 56. Drove 172 planted through the tabs on the axle 44 to bring this axis 44 in motion when gears satellites run around the annular gear wheel 50. Site right onboard planetary gearbox contains the same components as the host left onboard planetary gear 52. From the structure of the right side of the gearbox shown only the ring gear 58.

Pendant

Suspension 60 according to the present invention are depicted in figure 4, where illustrated only the left side. On both the left and right sides of the x tractor 10 is provided, essentially, the same suspension 60. Site suspension 60 contains an internal crankcase 62 suspension bolted to the annular gear wheel 50 on-Board gear, and not to the crankcase 40 bridge, as in the case of the axle without suspension, shown in figure 2. Internal crankcase 62 suspension upper and lower control levers 64, 66 to provide movement of rotation relative to the upper and lower axes 68, 70 (Fig.7 and 8). Its outer ends of the upper and lower control levers 64, 66 support the crankcase 72 bridge through the upper and lower ball joints 74, 76. Articulation of the upper and lower regulatory levers 64, 66 with the inner crankcase suspension and Carter bridge details shown on Fig.7 and 8 and described with reference to these drawings.

The crankcase 28 of the differential ring gear 50, 58 final drive, and left and right housings 62 suspension form grantourismo body, also referred to as a Central crankcase in this description. This Central crankcase attached to the frame 12 of the tractor and is part of the design of the frame, onto which the other components of the vehicle, such as the cabin.

Shaft 80 rotatably supported by the crankcase 72 bridge and speaks of him in the transverse direction outside. Rear wheels and tires 16 of the tractor 10 is installed on the axle 80, the AK is described below.

Vertical loads are transmitted between the internal crankcase 62 suspension and Carter 72 bridge by front and rear hydraulic cylinders 82, 84. Each of these cylinders 82, 84 coupled to the inner housing 72 of the suspension through the fork 86, while each of the rods 88 of the cylinder coupled to the crankcase 72 of the axle through the fork 90. Plug 86, 90 can be made as a single unit with internal crankcase 62 suspension and Carter 72 bridge or as separate elements attached to the crankcase.

Figure 4 suspension 60 is shown in the rear and suspension components - nominal or centered position relative to the frame 12 of the tractor. Figure 5 suspension 60 is shown from the front, and the rod 88 of the cylinders 82, 84 is shown extended. This condition leads to finding the axis 80 in a lowered position relative to the chassis, and this situation could occur when the left tire fell into a groove or rut in the ground surface. The axle 80 is lower than the axis 170 drove 172 satellites. Upper and lower control levers 64, 66 tilted down as a universal joint 150.

Carter 72 bridge coupled to the distal ends of the upper and lower regulatory levers 64, 66 through the upper and lower ball joints 74, 76, respectively, as described in more detail below. These ball joints allow rotation otnositel is, basically, the vertical axis passing through the ball joints 74, 76. To prevent this turning movement and to keep the rear tyres are aligned with passing from front to back longitudinal axis of the tractor 10, with the inner crankcase 62 suspension and Carter 72 bridge on the front side of the suspension (figure 5 and 6) articulated connecting link 96 fixed length. It is the connecting link 96 prevents turning movement of the crankcase 72 of the axle about a vertical axis passing through the ball joints 74, 76.

The construction and mounting of the connecting link 96 is shown in Fig.6. The link 96 is composed of two halves 91, 92, which surround the front hydraulic cylinder 82. Half attached to the swivel balls 93 by bolts 94 to the shoulder. Swivel balls 93 fixed in the sockets, available in the installation pins 95. Stud 95 is screwed into the internal crankcase 62 suspension and Carter 72 bridge. Saragnese connections provide rotation of the connecting link relative to the interior of the crankcase 62 suspension and the housing 72 of the bridge, when the sump 72 of the axle moves up and down.

Now will be described more detailed description of the upper regulating lever 64 with reference to Fig.7. The inner end of the regulating lever 64 is bifurcated, forming a plug that surrounds the mounting lug 98 of the inner crankcase 62 of the suspension. The boss 98 supress the van pivot pin 100. The set of bearings 102 mounted in each prong plug which surrounds the aforementioned pivot pin 100. Each prong of the fork is made grooves 104 under circlips, and each of them made the snap ring for fixing the bearings 102. Pivot pin 100 determines the upper axis 68.

Upper and lower ball joints 74, 76 on the outer end of the regulatory levers 64, 66 shown in Fig.7, 8 and 9 and will be described with reference to these drawings. Ball joints 74, 76 contain the spherical socket 132 in the control levers 64, 66 at their distal ends. Ball stud 134 has a spherical ball portion 135 and passing in the opposite side of the stud 136, 137. Ball stud 134 is fixed in the socket 132 of the threaded washer 138, and this way of fixing the ball joint is known.

Ball studs 134 are attached to the crankcase 72 of the bridge by a pair of identical mounting blocks 140 (Fig.9). Each of the mounting units 140 has a cross hole 142 through which passes one stud ball stud 134. Each mounting block 140 has a slot 144, coming out from the hole 142. Pass-through holes that pass in a direction transverse relative to the intersecting holes 142 are bolts 146 that secure the mounting blocks 140 to the crankcase 72 bridge. The bolt 146 passing through the slot 144, Imam mounting block 140 stilettos, preventing rotation of the ball stud 134. Ball stud 134, together with the mounting blocks 140 and outer crankcase suspension has the ability to rotate within the slot 132 on the end of the regulating lever 64, 66. Internal channel 148 in a ball stud 134 provides lubrication of the ball joint. In the passage 148 to the end of the stud 136 is press-lubricator (not shown).

Now will be described more detailed description of the lower regulating lever 66 with links to Fig. The lower regulating lever 66 is made essentially Y-shaped, with the front and rear legs 112, 114, separately attached to the inner housing 62 of the suspension. Forepaw 112 is executed by the hole 115, which has a set of 116 dual tapered roller bearings and seal 117. Through a set of bearings 116 passes the installation finger 118 which is held in bearings flange 119 at one end of the finger 118 and nut 120, which is at the other end. The finger 118 is attached to the inner housing 62 of the suspension by a pair of bolts 121.

Rear paw 114 is bifurcated, forming a plug 122 which surrounds the mounting boss 123 internal crankcase 62 of the suspension. Pivot pin 124, the sleeve 126 and a set of needle bearings 127 installed in the hole 128, available in the above-mentioned lug, by means of a bolt 129. The end of the bolt is 129 threaded into one side of the plug 122. Both swivel joints of the lower regulating lever 66 with the inner housing 62 of the suspension determines the lower axis 70. The outer distal end of the lower regulating lever 66 carries the node ball joint 76, which is essentially identical to the above site, upper ball joint 74.

Now will be described more detailed description of the installation axis 80 in the crankcase 72 bridge with reference to figure 10. Carter 72 bridge has protruding into the Central hub 160, bearing inner and outer tapered roller bearings 162, 164. The axle 80 is supported for rotation in the casing 72 of the bridge by means of these bearings 162, 164. Seals 166, 168 seal bearings 162,164. The seal 168 is in contact with the ring 169 on axis 80.

The left and right sides of the suspension 60 is mechanically separated from each other, resulting in one side can move without causing mechanical transmission of motion to the other side. As described below, in a preferred specific embodiment, the hydraulic cylinders 82, 84 cross-connected from left to right such that movement on one side will affect the opposite direction. Optionally, you can separate the left and right cylinders 82, 84 from each other.

Universal joint

Power rotational motion is transmitted from the onboard planetary gear 52 n the shaft 80 through a universal joint 150 velocity (cardan). This hinge 150 is located between the upper and lower regulatory levers 64, 66, and between the front and rear hydraulic cylinders 82, 84. The hinge 150 is equal to the angular velocities of a detail shown in figure 10 and 11. Drove 172 coupled to the inner ferrule 174 hinge by means of the fixing disk 176 and bolt 178. The inner ferrule 174 also has an external plug 180, which is installed in the keyway 182 drove. The inner ferrule 174 supported in serving out the hub 184 of the inner crankcase 62 of the suspension through a set of 186 dual tapered roller bearings. The inner ferrule 174 protrudes radially outwards at the end of the hub 184 of the inner crankcase 62 suspension and forms a belt reverse bend, passing in the axial direction to the inside, forming a cuff 196, which surrounds the hub 184 of the inner crankcase 62 of the suspension. The sleeve 196 is held axially inward beyond the outer edge of the kit 186 bearings.

The axle 80 is fastened by means of pins with the outer shroud 190 and also recorded it with the locking disk 192 and bolt 194. Outer ring 190 also acts radially outwards, and then forms a belt reverse bend, passing radially outwards, forming a cuff 198, which surrounds the hub 160 Carter 72 bridge. Cuff 198 passes Vaseva outward beyond the bearing 162. Inner and outer ring 174, 190 in this specification, also referred to as the leading and the trailing clamps 174, 190, respectively.

The hinge 150 velocity is designed to position the outer ring 190 as close as possible to the inner ferrule 174 to minimize the axial length of the hinge 150 is equal to angular velocity. It provides a place in which you can install bearing support for the shafts 80, and ensures the close proximity of the site of the suspension 60 available in narrow space. Requirements for the bearings, put forward in implementing the bearing axis 80, and with the minimum stroke width, component 1524 mm (60 inches), lead to a small axial distance between the bearing 162 axis 80 and a set of 186 bearing inner race 174. Clip 174, 190 with cuffs, which are arranged around the hub of the inner crankcase 62 suspension and the housing 72 of the bridge, provide the arrangement of other components of the hinge 150 velocity in the radial direction from outside and output shafts. This differs from the typical dual universal (cardan) joint, in which the components in the axial direction are aligned leading and slave shafts. In a preferred specific embodiment, the outer surface 175 of the inner casing 174 is separated from the internal is poverhnosti 191 outer ring 190 is less than 2.54 cm (1 inch).

Cuff inner race 196 174 has two protruding radially outwards studs 200, located diametrically opposite each other. Studs 200 defining the first axis 202 of rotation of the hinge. Similarly, the sleeve 198 outer ring has two protruding radially outwards studs 204, located diametrically opposite each other and defining a third axis 206 of rotation of the hinge. Studs 200 and 204 and the axis 202 and 206 are parallel to each other.

The hinge 150 also includes inner and outer round "christofinia or ring elements 210, 212. These ring elements 210, 212 are used instead krestovinah of elements present in typical cardan universal joint. Ring or christofinia elements 210, 212 also referred to in this description by their generic purpose "Capgemini" elements 210, 212. Each of the ring elements 210, 212 consists of two elements halves, indicated by the position 210A, 210b and a, 212b. Elements 210A, 210b, a, 212b halves are fastened to each other in radial planes by means of bolts 214, only one set of which is shown in figure 11. When assembling the ring elements 210, 212 form a hole 220 that hold the outer rings of bearings 216. On the heels of 200 inner race 174 is a pair of outer rings bearings 216, while the pins 204 naru is Noah clip 190 is a pair of outer rings bearings 218, allowing rotation of the ring elements 210, 212 around the axis 202 and 206, respectively.

Two-element solenaya ferrule 222 has two half a, 222b. Both halves a, 222b are connected to each other in the axial plane by means of bolts 224. Solenaya ferrule 222 has four studs protruding radially inward, are two located inside from the axis (internal) pins 226 and two outside from the axis (outer) stud 228. Internal studs 226 define a second axis 232 of rotation of the hinge, while the outer studs 228 define a fourth axis 234 of rotation of the hinge. Internal studs 226 enclosed in the holes 238 formed by the inner annular element 210, while the outer studs 228 enclosed in the holes 240 formed by the outer ring element 212. On the inner and outer pins 226, 228, respectively, are the outer rings 242, 244 bearings. For each of the outer rings of bearings provided grease fittings 246.

The hinge 150 is a double cardan universal joint, in which the ring elements 210, 212 are connected solenaya clip 222. Control levers 64, 66 of the suspension regulate the movements of the crankcase 72 of the axle relative to the interior of the crankcase 62 suspension and support the axle axis 81 80 essentially parallel to the axis 170 of the inner casing 174. the fact supports the rotation angles of each of the ring elements 210, 212 equal to each other, resulting constant or nearly constant speed output.

Universal joint 150 is made compact in the axial direction due to the fact that christofinia elements made in the form of rings, thus providing the ability to move the ring elements 210, 212 and solenaya holder 222 in the radial direction outwards to the environment and output shafts. In this case, the bearing support for the shafts 80 is located inside the U-shaped connection, and in the axial direction between two annular elements 210, 212. It provides the hinge, which can absorb large torque, while minimizing the axial length of the hinge 150. The ability to withstand large torque is necessary because the hinge 150 is located in the kinematic chain on or after onboard planetary gear 52. This arrangement the U-shaped connection relative to the bearings and output shafts became possible due to the configuration of the clamps 174, 190, forming a cuff 196, 198, which surround the hub 160, 184, where the appropriate bearings.

The configuration of the universal joint 150 may also include trunnion elements made in the form of an annular elements 210, 212, and sochinyayuschy clip 222, finding the I in the radial direction from the inside of the inner and outer clamps 174, 190. And with this arrangement the bearings are between the axes of rotation of the hinge.

The first and second axis 202, 232 swivel lie in a common plane, which is arranged inside from the outer edge of the set of bearings 186. Similarly, the third and fourth axis 206, 234 swivel lie in a common plane, which is located outside from the inner edge of the bearing 162.

The rear wheels

On Fig shows an alternative specific embodiment of the invention. Above the connecting link 96 is replaced by a hydraulic cylinder 250, having a piston rod 252 of the cylinder. The cylinder 250 is in front of the cylinder 82 of the suspension, which is passed through the connecting link 96. The rod 252 may be extended or retracted to change the distance between the inner crankcase 62 suspension and Carter 72 bridge before the axle 80. This ensures that the rotation of the crankcase 62 suspension bridge around the vertical axis defined by upper and lower ball joints 74, 76. This rotation is transmitted to the rear wheels and tyres 16 that provides control of the rear wheels of the tractor 10.

Regulation of stroke width

Now, with links to pig, will be described the mechanism for regulating the width of the stroke of the wheels. The axle 80 serves to support a regulated node of a wheel that includes a hub 254. The hub 254 wheel has a tapering hole 256, d is fairly large, to fit the inner diameter of the shafts 80 and to round it was formed annular tapering of the hole, which could accommodate the upper and lower flanged sleeve 260, 262, providing a wedging effect inside tapering holes 256. Top tapering flanged sleeve 260 is held in the radial direction of the flange 264 Crescent-shaped and held in the axial direction portion 266 in the form of poluchasa. The lower tapering flanged sleeve 262 has the same configuration as the upper flange of the sleeve 260, and is held in the radial direction of the flange 268 in the form of a semicircle and passing in the axial direction portion 270 in the form of poluchasa. Part 266, 270 in the form of Polikarpov together form a mounting surface having the shape of a truncated cone, hub 254. Sleeve 260, 262 have an internal surface in the form of semi-cylinders, which when tightened in the desired position of the cover and clamp the axle 80.

On axis 80 between the hub 254 wheels and sleeves 260, 262 is slidable annular sleeve 272 to keep the wheel at the proper height and preventing scuffing after removing the sleeves 260, 262 of the tapering hole 256. On the hub 254 is made distant from each other at some angle screw holes 274 under the bolts. The holes 274 under the bolt R is sporogony bolts 276. Designed in the shape of semicircles flanges 264, 268 sleeves 260, 262 is equipped with a set of spaced from each other at some angle threaded holes 278 under the bolts. When screwing in the bolts 276 holes 274 in the hub 254 part 266, 270 in the form of Polikarpov involved in the tapering hole 256 and pressed to axis 80. Together with the axle 80, you can use any set of clamping structures known in the field of regulation of the width of the stroke of wheels and tyres for agricultural tractors.

The axle 80 is executed with the set of teeth forming a rack 280 on the surface of the axis 80. This toothed rack is used in conjunction with a cylindrical gear wheel, which is not shown, to move the hub 254 of the wheel along the length axis 80. The clamping mechanism shown in Fig, provides stepless adjustability along the axis 80.

Hydraulics pendants

On Fig shows a simplified diagram of the hydraulic suspension system. The electronic controller 306 adjusts the extension rod 88 of the cylinder. The controller 306 actuates the solenoids of the left and right hydraulic valves 308, 310, directing working fluid from the pump 312 in the cylinders 82, 84 and back to the tank. The extension rod 88 is measured by using the left and right rotary potentiometer 314, 316. These potentiometers are located on the pivot pin 00 at the junction of the upper regulating lever 64 with the inner housing 62 of the suspension. The potentiometer 314, 316 measured position when the rotation of the upper regulating lever 64, which is proportional to the extension rod. Valves 308, 310 are driven for extending or retracting the rod 88 to adjust the horizontal level of the vehicle based on the load experienced by the vehicle. Batteries 318, 320 pressure provide a hydropneumatic progressiruemoy system for the suspension 60. You can also use a variety of batteries with different capacities and pre-loads.

At the operator station 18 is a switch 322, which is driven by the operator when he is seated on the operator station 18. The switch 322 is triggered only when the tractor 10 is moving at relatively low speed, for example less than 2 or 3 km/h. The switch 322 is used when the tractor hitch 10 with an instrument, in particular a traction rod 324 of the tractor (figure 1). After ocalenia guns in the ground often set jacking support, reducing the height of the drawbar guns. The switch 322 is used for lowering the traction rod 324 to the position under the shaft of the gun, so the gun itself to raise is not necessary. After coupling with the instrument, the operator can raise the rear end of the tractor by means of switch 322 or, if such a switch is no is, system load leveling suspension will align the tractor 10 as soon as the tractor 10 will begin to move.

Tractors with 4-wheel drive

On Fig shown an agricultural tractor 290 with four driving wheels. This tractor 290 contains the front portion 292 having a front drive axle 296, and the posterior portion 294, having a rear axle 298. Front and rear 292, 294 are connected to each other by articulation 300 that provides a rotation around the vertical axis 302 to implement steering. This type of tractor with four-wheel drive are well known. The 290 tractor is a tractor 9000 series with four driving wheels supplied by the company John Deere.

The front and rear axles 296, 298 similar bridge, shown in figure 2, having a Central crankcase 28 of the differential, built-in planetary final drives 52 and the left and right housings 72 bridge, protruding in the transverse direction outward for supporting axes 44, 46. Both the leading axle - front 296 and rear 298 - can be equipped with a suspension of 60, according to the present invention. Acting in the transverse direction of Carter's bridge replaced the inner housings 62 of the suspension, according to the present invention. The suspension system includes upper and lower control levers 64, 66, and housings 72 bridges the mouth is Owlery on the inner housings 62 of the suspension, as explained above. Shafts 44, 46 are driven by the above-described universal joint 150. Bridges on suspension may improve operator comfort and increased speed. Furthermore, by providing the moving wheels up and down relative to the frame 12 of the tractor, you can simplify the coupling 300. This articulation no longer have to take the roll of the front and rear portions 292, 294 tractor 10 relative to each other.

In accordance with the present invention to the crankcase 28 of the differential gear are mounted the components of the suspension, and the suspension 60 includes left and right inner housings 62 suspension, rigidly coupled to the crankcase 28 of the differential. In conventional row-crop tractor sump 28 of the differential is part of the powertrain that includes an engine 22, the transmission 30 and the differential 28. These components are made with the possibility of installation on the construction of a frame 12, which then set the front axle and the station 18 operator, or may themselves form the design on the frame 12. Control levers 64, 66 and the hydraulic cylinders 82, 84 are designed to mount to the crankcase 28 of the differential, the inner housings 62 of the suspension, the Central sump or structure 12 of the supporting frame. The wording of the following claims are adapted to amihotornot.

Although the invention is described in the context of the tractor, the rear wheels with suspension can be provided on a crawler tractor, caterpillar which may have a friction drive or mechanical drive.

Suspension 60 drive axle according to the present invention, implements the design of the tractor 10, in which the leading axle suspension. Drive axle to the suspension can be used as a rear axle in row-crop tractor, corresponding to the characteristics of General-purpose tractor without suspension. In addition, the axle with suspension can be used either as a front or rear axle articulated tractor with 4-wheel drive.

The invention should not be considered limited to the above specific variant implementation, and limited only by the following claims.

1. Agricultural tractor containing a motor (22), box of 30) gear driven by the motor (22), drive axle (26), driven gear (30) transmission, and drive axle (26) has a Central crankcase (28)having output elements of the left and right motors, the left and right housings (72) bridge coupled with the ability to move with the Central casing (28), the left and right axle shafts (44, 46)mounted rotatably in the left and right AC is Terah (72) bridge, and left and right universal joints (150), socistudies with the possibility of transmission and output elements of the left and right actuators on the left and right half shafts (44, 46), respectively, and left and right nodes (16) tires and wheels, articulated left and right half shafts (44, 46), respectively, and left and right housings (72) bridge coupled to the Central housing (28) with possibility of vertical movement relative to it, wherein each of the said left and right housings (72) bridge coupled to the vertical move with the Central crankcase (28) of the bridge by means of respective upper and lower regulatory levers (64, 66) and at least one progressivism element passing between the frame (12) and Carter (72) bridge, for resilient transmission of loads from the frame (12) to the crankcase (72) of the bridge.

2. The tractor according to claim 1, characterized in that the Central crankcase (28) contains the left and right built-in side gears (52).

3. The tractor according to claim 2, characterized in that it further comprises left and right built-in side gears (52) in the Central Carter bridge, which provide the possibility of rotation of the output elements of the left and right gears at the same speed as the left and right axle shafts (44, 46), respectively.

4. The tractor according to claim 1, characterized in that upomenatite elements made in the form of led (172) satellites built final drive (52).

5. The tractor according to claim 1, characterized in that it further comprises means for infinitely adjusting the position of the nodes (16) wheels and tires along the left and right axle shafts (44, 46).

6. The tractor according to claim 1, characterized in that the left and right nodes (16) wheels and tires are located at a distance of the width of the stroke, component 1524 mm

7. The tractor according to claim 1, characterized in that the motor (22) has a nominal capacity of at least 75 kW (100 PS), preferably 124 kW (165 PS).

8. The tractor according to claim 1, characterized in that the Central casing (28) is part of the frame (12) agricultural tractor.

9. The tractor according to claim 1, characterized in that potresaiushii element made in the form of a hydraulic cylinder (82, 84), and the pull rod (88) articulated with the Central Carter and Carter (72) bridge, with the hydraulic cylinder (82, 84) connected in the hydraulic circuit, at least one accumulator pressure (318, 320).

10. The tractor according to claim 1, characterized in that it further comprises a rotary potentiometer (314, 316) for measuring the position of the rotation regulating levers (64, 66).

11. The tractor according to claim 1, characterized in that the control levers (64, 66) coupled to the casing (72) bridge through the upper and lower ball joints (74, 76), and the upper and lower ball joints (74, 76) define the vertical axis around which can chief is away Carter (72) bridge to rotate nodes (16) wheels and tires and additionally contain an element of variable length between the Central Carter and Carter (72) bridge to regulate the rotation of the housing (72) bridge mentioned around the vertical axis.

12. The tractor according to claim 11, characterized in that the element variable-length made in the form of a hydraulic cylinder (250).

13. The tractor according to claim 1, characterized in that the left and right housings (72) bridge mechanically separated from each other, resulting in one Carter (72) bridge configured to move without causing movement of the other of the housing (72) bridge mechanical articulation.

14. The tractor according to claim 1, characterized in that the universal joint (150) contains a lead clip (174) on the outer end of the output element (172) of the gearbox, and this lead holder (174) limits the outer surface (175), the first of zappoly element (210), articulated with the leading clip (174) to provide a movement of rotation around the first axis (202) of rotation of the hinge, passing transversely to the longitudinal axis (170) of the output element (172) of the gearbox, and this first axis (202) of rotation of the hinge is inside from the outer surface (175) leading carriers, sochinyayuschy clip (222)connected to the first capfasem element (210) to provide a movement of rotation around the second axis (232) of rotation of the hinge, passing transversely to the longitudinal axis of the output element (172) gearbox and transverse to the first axis (202) of rotation of the hinge, driven holder (190) on the inner end of the axis (80), and this led holder (190) defines an inner surface (191), the second is th zappoly element (212), articulated with the second clip (190) to provide a movement of rotation around the third axis (206) of rotation of the hinge, passing transversely to the longitudinal axis axis (80), and the third axis (206) of rotation of the hinge is on the outside from the inner surface (191) slave clip, and the second of zappoly element (212) is connected with solenaya clip (222) to provide a movement of rotation around the fourth axis (234) of rotation of the hinge, passing transversely to the longitudinal axis axis (80) and transverse to the third axis (206) of rotation of the hinge.

15. The tractor through 14, characterized in that the outer surface (175) leading clip (174) and inner surface (191) slave clip (190) in the axial direction are located next to each other and preferably are separated from each other less than 25.4 mm

16. The tractor through 14, characterized in that the first zappoly element (210) is annular element surrounding the hub (184) Central crankcase and/or second zappoly element (212) is made in the form of an annular element surrounding the hub (160) Carter (72) of the bridge.

17. The tractor through 14, characterized in that it further contains an internal bearings (186)installed on the hub (184) in the Central sump and employees of the supports placed in it the output element (172) gear, with internal bearings (186) extend axially outward beyond what erway and second axes (202, 232) of rotation of the hinge; and outer bearings (162)mounted on the hub (160) in the casing (72) bridge and employees of the supports placed in it axis (80)and outer bearing (162) extend axially inward beyond the third and fourth axes (206, 234) of rotation of the hinge.

18. The tractor according to claim 1, wherein the universal joint includes a lead clip (174) on the outer end of the output element (172) gear, driven ring (190) on the inner end of the axis (80), the inner and outer trunnion elements (210, 212), articulated to rotate with the leading and the trailing clips (174, 190), respectively, sochinyayuschy clip (222)coupled to rotate with both internal and external - Capgemini elements (210, 212), and the inner and outer trunnion elements (210, 212) and solenaya ferrule (222) are arranged in the radial direction outside from the leading carriers (174) and slave clip (190).

19. Tractor on p, characterized in that the Central sump is held in the axial direction of the carrier hub (184), which serves as the backbone of the output element (172) gearbox and internal zappoly element (210) surrounds the carrier hub (184) and/or Carter (72) of the bridge is held in the axial direction of the carrier hub (160), which serves as a support axis (80)and the outer zappoly element (212) surrounds the carrier hub (160).

20. The tract is R. according to claim 1, wherein the axle is made in the form node (26)driven by the box (30) transmission, the node (26) of the bridge contains a crankcase (28) differential having left and right planetary final drives (52), with final drives are output element (172), left and right inner housings (62) of the suspension is attached to the crankcase (28) differential, left and right upper and lower control levers (64, 66)coupled to rotate with the inner housings (62) suspension and passing outward to the distal ends of the left and right housings (72) bridge coupled to rotate with the distal ends of the regulatory levers (64, 66) to provide moving up and down Carter (72) of the bridge relative to the inner housing (62) suspension, left and right axle shafts (44, 46)mounted rotatably in the left and right crankcases (72) bridge, left and right universal joints (150), socistudies with the possibility of transmission output elements (172) of the left and right final drive (52) on the left and right half shafts (44, 46), respectively, and left and right potresaiuwie elements passing between the left and right inner housings (62) of the suspension and the left and right crankcases (72) for the elastic transmission of loads from the frame (12) to the crankcase (72) bridge, and the left and right nodes (16) wheels and tires, ochladenie with left and right axle shafts (44, 46), respectively.

21. The tractor according to claim 20, characterized in that the casing (28) of the differential and the left and right inner housings (62) is rigidly attached to the frame (12) and are its parts.

22. The tractor according to claim 20, characterized in that the control levers (64, 66) coupled to the inner housings (62) of the suspension through my fingers (100, 118, 124), which define the upper and lower axis (68, 70) of rotation, and Carter (72) bridge coupled to the distal ends of the regulatory levers (64, 66) through the upper ball joint (74) and the lower ball joint (76).

23. The tractor according to claim 20, characterized in that it further comprises left and right connecting links (96), passing between the left and right inner housings (62) of the suspension and the left and right crankcases (72) of the axle to prevent rotation of the left and right crankcases (72) bridge around the left and right vertical axes defined by the left and right upper and lower ball joints (74, 76).

24. The tractor according to claim 20, characterized in that it further comprises left and right variable-length elements passing between the left and right inner housings (62) and the left and right crankcases (72) bridge to regulate the rotation of the left and right crankcases (72) bridge around the left and right vertical axes through the left and right upper and lower ball joints (74, 76) for regulated is I turn left and right nodes (14, 16) wheels and tyres for steering the tractor (10).

25. The tractor according to claim 1, characterized in that the left and right potresaiuwie elements contain hydraulic cylinders (82, 84)connected in hydraulic circuit with one or more hydraulic accumulators (318, 320).

26. The tractor according to claim 1, characterized in that it contains the front part (292) with front axle (296), back (294) from rear axle (298), with the front and rear (292, 294) are connected to each other by an articulated joint (300), both host - front and rear axles (296, 298) have left and right nodes (14, 16) wheels and tires, and at least one of the front and rear axles (296, 298) has a Central crankcase having output elements (172) of the left and right motors, the left and right housings (72) bridge, coupled to the Central housing for vertical movement of the left and right crankcases (72) of the bridge relative to the Central crankcase, left and right axle shafts (44, 46)mounted rotatably in the left and right crankcases (72) bridge, and the left and right universal joints (150), socistudies with the possibility of transmission output elements (172) of the left and right gears on the left and right axes (44, 46), respectively, with the nodes (14, 16) wheels and tires drive axle (296, 298) installed on Lev and the right axis (44, 46).

27. The tractor according to claim 1, characterized in that it contains the platform (18) of the operator, the rear wheels (16), rear axle (26)carrying the rear wheels (16) and containing a system (60) of the suspension, sochinyayuschy rear wheel (16) to the frame (12) for vertical movement of the rear wheels (16) with respect to the frame (12), the system (60) of suspension contains hydropneumatic progressiruemoy system, which contains at least one hydraulic cylinder (82, 84) on each side of the tractor (10), when the extension rod (88) of the cylinder determines the position of the rear wheels relative to the frame (12), and switch (322) on the platform (18) operator, which is driven by the operator for raising and lowering the rear end of the tractor (10) by extending or retracting the rod (88) cylinder, available in each of the hydraulic cylinders (82, 84).

28. The tractor according to any one of claims 1 to 27, containing the universal joint according to any one of p-33.

29. The tractor according to any one of claims 1 to 27, containing live axle with suspension according to any one of p-39.

30. Tractor on p containing live axle with suspension according to any one of p-39.

31. Universal joint for power transmission of the rotational motion, the containing element (172) gear set rotatably in the first crankcase (184) through the first set (186) bearings for rotation around a first longitudinal axis (170); in domy element (80), mounted rotatably in the second casing (160) through the second set (162) bearings for rotation around a second longitudinal axis (81); leading the race (174)attached to the element (172) gearbox; first zappoly element (210), articulated with the leading clip (174) to provide a movement of rotation around the first axis (202) of rotation of the hinge, passing transversely to the longitudinal axis (170) of the element (172) gearbox; sochinyayuschy clip (222)connected to the first capfasem element (210) to provide a movement of rotation around the second axis (232) of rotation of the hinge, passing transversely to the longitudinal axis of a driving element (172), and the first axis (202) of rotation of the hinge and lying in the same plane as the first axis (202) of rotation of the hinge; the driven yoke (190), attached to the follower element (80); second zappoly element (212)is coupled with a driven sleeve (190) to provide a movement of rotation around the third axis (206) of rotation of the hinge, passing transversely to the longitudinal axis (81); and second zappoly element (212) is connected with solenaya clip (222) to provide a movement of rotation around the fourth axis (234) of rotation of the hinge, passing transversely to the longitudinal axis (81) and the third axis (206) of rotation of the hinge and lying in the same plane and the third axis (206) of rotation of the hinge; and at least a portion of the first and second sets (162, 186) is Tsyplakov located between the first plane and the second axis (202, 232) of rotation of the hinge and the plane of the third and fourth axes (206, 234) of rotation of the hinge, the first and second trunnion elements (210, 212) and solenaya ferrule (222) radially surround the driving and driven holder (174, 190).

32. Universal joint for p, wherein each of the first and second caplovic elements (210, 212) is made in the form of an element, consisting of two parts and these two parts (210A, 210b, 212a, 212b) of each trunnion element (210, 212) are connected to each other along planes passing in the radial direction.

33. Universal joint for p or 32, characterized in that solenaya ferrule (222) made in the form of an element, consisting of two parts (a, 222b), connected to each other along a plane passing in the axial direction.

34. Live axle with suspension for a tractor containing the crankcase (28) differential with left and right side planetary gear (52), each of the final drive has an output element (172); the left and right inner housings (62) of the suspension is attached to the crankcase (28) differential; left and right upper and lower control levers (64, 66)mounted to rotate on the inner housings (62) suspension and passing outward to distal ends; the left and right housings (72) bridge coupled with the possibility of rotation with the distal ends of the regulating R is cahow (64, 66) to provide moving up and down Carter (72) of the bridge relative to the inner housing (62) of the suspension; the left and right axle shafts (44, 46)mounted rotatably in the left and right crankcases (72) bridge; left and right universal joints (150), socistudies with the possibility of transmission output elements (172) of the left and right side gears with the left and right half shafts (44, 46), respectively, and left and right potresaiuwie elements passing between the left and right inner housings (62) suspension and the left and right crankcases (72) bridge for smooth transfer of loads between them, the left and right connecting links (96), passing between the left and right inner housings (62) of the suspension and the left and right crankcases (72) of the axle to prevent rotation of the left and right crankcases (72) bridge around the left and right vertical axes defined by the left and right upper and lower ball joints (74, 76), while Carter (72) bridge coupled to the remote ends of the regulatory levers (64, 66) by means of the upper and lower ball joints hinge (74, 76).

35. Leading bridge 34, characterized in that the control levers (64, 66) coupled to the inner housings (62) of the suspension through my fingers (100, 118, 124), which define the upper and lower axis (68, 70) of the rotation.

36. Live axle at 34 or 35, otlichayushiesya, what further comprises left and right variable-length elements passing between the left and right inner housings (62) and the left and right crankcases (72) bridge to regulate the rotation of the left and right crankcases (72) bridge around the left and right vertical axes through the left and right upper and lower ball joints (74, 76) to regulate rotation of the left and right nodes (14, 16) wheels and tyres for steering the tractor (10).

37. Live axle on p, characterized in that the element variable-length made in the form of a hydraulic cylinder (250).

38. Live axle at 34 or 35, characterized in that the left and right potresaiuwie elements contain hydraulic cylinders (82, 84), articulated in the hydraulic circuit with one or more hydraulic accumulators (318, 320).

39. Live axle at 34 or 35, characterized in that each universal joint (150) contains a lead clip (174) on the outer end of the output element (172) of the gearbox; the driven yoke (190) on the inner end of the axis (80), the inner and outer trunnion elements (210, 212), articulated to rotate with the leading and the trailing clips (174, 190), respectively, sochinyayuschy clip (222)coupled to rotate with both internal and external - Capgemini elements (210, 212), the inner and outer trunnion ELEH the coefficients (210, 212) and solenaya ferrule (222) are arranged in the radial direction outside from the leading carriers (174) and slave clip (190), and leading the race (174) and slave clip (190) is located axially next to each other.



 

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