Measuring touch sensor based on diffraction grids

FIELD: engineering of touch sensors.

SUBSTANCE: device has measuring diffraction grid, probe, two guides, two reading heads, substrate, engine, a group of magnets. First reading head is rigidly connected to body of indicator. Second reading head contains receiver of radiation, collimator, indicator diffraction grid, a matrix of photo-receivers. Group of bearings provides for movement of measuring diffraction grid along movement direction. Measuring diffraction grid and substrate are utilized as guides. One indicator diffraction grid is held in carriage. Carriage is connected to probe, which touches measured surface and moves relatively to same together with measuring diffraction grid. Measuring diffraction grid and substrate are connected to engine, and reading heads are connected to adders.

EFFECT: increased precision of touch coordinate detection at measured surface.

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The invention relates to measurement devices, more specifically to the field of determining the coordinates of the surface (the part being measured), and can be used in machinery, machine tools, optical-mechanical industry, as well as in all high-tech industries, science, technology etc.

Known measuring sensor touch (IDK) to determine the coordinates of the touch with the surface to be measured containing the node rigidly associated with the probe by means of two membranes (inner and outer) and the engine, allowing you to move and stop the probe at the moment of contact with the surface to be measured /1/.

The device works in the following way:

IDK moves through the engine in the direction of the measured surface along the coordinates, he must determine at the moment of touch. IDK contains a node that has as a target site probe. The probe associated with that node two membranes: outer and inner. The probe is centered in the specified node to align its axis with the direction of the axis along which will be measured coordinate of the surface. For this purpose, the basis IDK there is a spherical seat, which allows the configuration of the probe along the axes X and Y. After correct adjustment of the probe tightly tighten the four screws to hold it in this position. As the probe moves, Nagibin is consistent with the overrun angle of 28.5. grad. each time you touch, the setup operation of the probe needs to be repeated after a certain number of measurements to verify its position. Upon contact with the surface to be measured produces an electrical signal, which is supplied to the interface M17 that converts sensor signals into suitable for grinding machine or any other device that uses IDK form. This IDC has the opportunity to determine in a small range of movement of about 1 mm So when measuring surfaces of large parts of the given coordinate, IDK, usually used in conjunction with the second measuring sensor with large measuring range of the coordinates to meters and more because of what coordinate of the contact point IDK should relate or, in other words, to be compatible with the coordinate of the second measuring sensor or to be with her in the same scale, as well as with a common coordinate system (i.e. with the other sensors) of the machine (product), which is attached to the touch sensor and is registered in Grinding machine (product). Thus, the machine has one sensor that detects the coordinate (without share of period) measured workpiece surface within the flow of the machine and rigidly connected with it and the other IDK sensor with probe, carrying out mechanical contact with the measured surface is Yu details the coordinates of which are to be determined. The touch sensor (i.e IDK) complements measured by the first sensor value coordinates product on some low-end value, which in a certain way is the first, and only after that the TNC outputs the final value of the coordinates of the products Division of sensors on the two associated with the need to lighten the weight of the probe at the point of touch for a more precise determination of the coordinates of the touch point.

The touch sensor (IDK) at the moment of contact with the surface produces an electric signal which is supplied to the engine, installed at the second measuring sensor to stop it. As a measuring sensor, typically use a linear sensor bar (diffraction) scales. Such sensors have a higher accuracy /Annex II/ (Certification LGII, HeidenHain)than the load cell used in this device as IDK.

Repeatability in one direction is given IDK 1 micron.

IDK is limited in accuracy and resolution for the following reasons:

1. The signal obtained as a result of mechanical deformation of the probe and membranes, puts a constraint on the system response as the response time of the on-going contact and inertia of the ongoing changes in the structure of the substances themselves memb the Academy of Sciences and the probe touch sensor. This leads to a time delay produced by the pulse stops the first sensor and rigidly linked to membranes and, consequently, to a distortion of the measured coordinates.

2. Head touch sensor (load cell) contains two nodes, working on the curve: two metal membrane and the probe, resulting in repeated measurements, the gain of the nonlinear residual deformation (mechanical hysteresis), which places limitations on the accuracy, resolution and repeatability of the system.

3. Design features of the touch sensor, containing a large number of mechanical elements significantly increase its size (F mm, see Annex I), the weight, the number of interactions between them and increases its inertia.

4. Great strength of feeling (50, 75, and 150 grams) of the measuring head leads to deformation of the measured surface and reduce the accuracy of the measured coordinates, especially in the case of measurement of surfaces with low hardness.

5. This IDC has the opportunity to determine in a small range of movement of the order of 1 mm.

6. Various principles laid down in the two sensors (measuring and touch - as Vernier sensor), which operate independently and at the same time complementary, used to define the coordinates of the product of each the coordinate axes, require additional conditions for their compatibility (of relatedness to the standard length). Various principles of sensors lead them to different accuracy and licensing categories. Therefore, from theoretical and experimental considerations of the systems, the accuracy of any system is determined by the accuracy of the node with the lowest accuracy, in this case, the accuracy of the touch sensor, which in this case is similar to the load cell. The accuracy, resolution and repeatability of the load cell in the implementation in which the device uses analog, with great difficulty can be above one micron /1/(Annex I), while the accuracy of the measuring sensors on diffraction gratings, have already reached submicron accuracy (see Annex II).

7. The accuracy of the load cell will depend on the residual mechanical deformations its many sites. I.e. load cell accuracy, resolution and repeatability will deteriorate over time. This circumstance will require replacement of the membranes, which are included in the spare parts for this unit. Replacement membranes and re-calibration of the touch sensor, and configuring the axes of the measuring sensor and touch sensor, a highly complex task which can only to highly skilled metrologists, not to mention the fact that the final is on, after fixation axis touch sensor by pulling such a large number of bolts (four) heads, there is no assurance that the axis is preserved after tightening, each bolt has its own internal structure and mechanical stress, which can also act differently.

8. The complex design from a variety of materials with different coefficients of thermal expansion also leads to system errors.

All these drawbacks limit the scope of similar, if necessary, obtain a higher accuracy of measurement or measurement of surfaces with no high hardness.

The closest in technical essence is the measuring sensor touch (IDK) on the diffraction grating to determine the coordinates of the surface /2/. The measuring device comprises a diffraction grating, a probe, two guides rigidly connected with the measuring diffraction grating, the sensing head rigidly connected with the sensor housing and including a radiation source, the collimator, the indicator diffraction grating, a matrix of photodetectors, both guides are rigidly connected with the measuring diffraction grating, and a group of bearings rigidly mounted on the chassis and ensure that the movement of the measurement of the diffraction grating along e.g. the effect to move, IDK contains measuring cylindrical rod, ending with the probe. The rod has the ability to move relative to the bearing attached to the housing, and is made with flat longitudinal cut parallel to the axis of the rod, and through longitudinal groove, in which is rigidly mounted measuring diffraction grating so that its plane is parallel to the plane of the slice. Shear plane and the cylindrical surface of the rod serve as guides. There are support made in the form of two nodes located within the plane of shear, one of the nodes includes four bearings, two of which roll along the plane of the slice, and the other two on the cylindrical surface. The second node includes a mechanism with bearing. Which also rolls along the plane of shear, and two bearings on the cylindrical surface of the rod.

The device operates as follows.

IDK is a precision measuring device with digital output information, and the measuring element in the form of a linear diffraction grating. In IDK uses a pair of two diffraction gratings, one of which is measuring with the length equal to the measured length, and the other small, flat, part of the read head. When the illumination light flux from the radiation source on the output of p is setok appear interference moiré patterns, which arise due to the interference beams of different diffraction orders of the two gratings. Step and form moire fringes depends on the lattice parameters and mutual location of their strokes. Basically, moiré patterns are a family of straight lines. The measuring grid is connected with the ball by means of flexible strands, which allows measuring the lattice move and approach the surface of the measured object. In this device, IDK thread with ball replaces the engine and allows you to move the measuring grid without sending her beats and vibrations. Moving the measuring grating installed in the cylindrical rod (and hard with her bound probe)relative to the indicator installed in the reader head, causes simultaneous movement of the moire fringes in the case of the reverse (backward motion) - synchronized reverse. Large-scale (increased) conversion of small displacements of the measuring grid in much greater proportional to the movement of the moire fringes, made it possible to locate in the field moiré patterns matrix of photodetectors, rigidly mounted in the read head and having a substantially larger size than the produced displacement measuring lattice IDK. Moving moiré patterns is converted by the photodetector into an electrical signal is Aly, which are processed in the electronic logical block to be read in order to obtain digital information about the measured displacement. At the moment of contact of the measured surface, the coordinates of which must be measured, the probe is stopped and the counter coordinates displayed measured coordinate of the touch on the axis, which moves the probe.

Despite the high resolution, which can reach IDK when determining the coordinates of the touch, it has the following disadvantages:

1. great weight IDK due to the weight measurement of the diffraction grating and the node (rod with the probe), in which it is installed directly in contact with the surface to be measured, leads to deformation of this surface at the point of touch and thereby to inaccurate determination of the coordinates of the touch.

2. a lot of weight measurement of the lattice with the rod (i.e. the movable part IDK) increases the inertia of the system that does not allow you to use it at high speed, as a result, it is difficult to obtain a high accuracy of determining the coordinates of the touch;

3. it is very difficult to manufacture with high precision cylindrical guide rod long length (>200 mm), equal to the measured coordinate. And forming a cylinder must be parallel to the plane of the slice rod to save the values of accuracy for only the measuring range of the touch coordinates.

4. a small length of the moving rod (probe) leads to the fact that, if we are talking about using IDM on machines with guides in meter or more, for measuring large workpiece IDK device cannot be used alone but only in combination with other measuring sensor for full coverage values of the coordinates of the product. A second sensor for detecting touch coordinates a large value leads to the necessity of interfacing and compatibility of these two sensors, each of which has its own Autonomous measuring element. The pairing of the two devices requires that they be accurately set relative to each other. Inaccuracy in the setting, of course, reduces the accuracy of determination of coordinates in General. The error decreases when these two sensors are compatible with each other, i.e. the same type on the method of reading information in the measurement of displacement (for example, both have the same measuring elements).

The objective of the proposed invention is:

1. Increasing the accuracy of determining the coordinates of the touch with the surface to be measured.

The task is solved in that in the measuring sensor touch on diffraction gratings, comprising measuring a diffraction grating, a probe, two guides rigidly connected with Izmeritel the Noah diffraction grating, the sensing head rigidly connected with the sensor housing and including a radiation source, the collimator, the indicator diffraction grating, a matrix of photodetectors, and a group of bearings rigidly mounted on the housing, and ensure that the movement of the measurement of the diffraction grating along the direction of movement, the newly introduced magnets, motor, substrate, and measuring the diffraction grating is rigidly connected to the substrate, which is perpendicular to the plane of the stroke measuring a diffraction grating, and measuring the diffraction grating and the substrate serve as the guide, and added a second read head, which is fixed on the measuring diffraction grating after the first read head from the location of the probe and flat diffraction grating of the second read head is fixed in the carriage, which is supported by the magnets installed in both of the guides within the carriage, and the carriage is equipped with bearings that provide the possibility of its travel along the guides within the aperture indicator of the diffraction grating of the second read head along the direction of movement of the measurement of the diffraction grating, and the carriage is rigidly connected with the probe, and Izmeritel the Noah diffraction grating from the side of the probe made the bearing surface, and on the carriage with a flat diffraction grating opposite to and within the plane of support is rigidly fixed to the ball, and measuring the diffraction grating with the substrate connected to the engine, enabling them to move along the axis of the direction of movement of the measuring grid, and each read head is connected through the electronic logic blocks with the adder.

This structural embodiment of the device allows to determine the coordinate of the touch with the surface to be measured with higher accuracy and with a small deformation of the surface due to the use of two read heads located in the field touches one and the same measuring element measuring a diffraction grating, thus providing the same account with the same move that the diffraction grating, and also due to the small weight indicator of the diffraction grating and the second probe of the read head measuring touch sensor and by using the same guide for both read heads.

Figure 1 shows a concrete example of the constructive solutions of the inventive measuring device of a touch sensor (IDK) for measuring the coordinates at the moment of contact of the sensor with the surface to be measured. Figure 2 is given a view of the second read head and its mounting with respect to the direction of the Commissioner. Figure 3 Dan view of the second read head in the direction of arrow a (see figure 2). Figure 4 shows the scheme of an arrangement of magnets that secure the carriage to the second read head, and figure 5 given graph determine the magnitude of the touch coordinates in the result of joint actions of the first and second read heads measuring sensor touch before and after the moment of touch.

In accordance with the shapes of the touch sensor for measuring coordinates contains (1) node 1 and 2, as well as measuring diffraction grating Reese - 3, glued on a glass substrate 4. The drawing contains two read heads C1 - 5 and SG2 - 6. C1 - 5 rigidly connected with the casing 7. On the casing 7 is also fixed bearings - 8. SG2 - 6 is rigidly connected to the Reese - 3. Each read head includes a radiation source, the collimator, the indicator bars In (not shown in the figure), is rigidly connected to the C1 - 5 and, respectively, Ren - 9 (figure 2 and 3), part (SG2) - 6 and the matrix of photodetectors. The probe 10 is rigidly connected with Rin, 2 to 9, and provides contact with the surface to be measured 11. Rin 2 - 9 fixed to the carriage 12, to which is fixed bearings 13. Moreover, the bearings 8 mounted on the housing, can be used to navigate Reese - 3 and the substrate 4 relative to Rin enshrined in C1-5, and the bearings 13, rigidly connected with Ren - 9 interact Reese 3 and the substrate 4 with In - 9. Rin - 9 is rigidly connected to the ball 14, which before the beginning of measurements based on the bearing surface 15, which is rigidly attached to Reese - 3. Reese - 3 with the substrate connected to the engine 16, providing its motion along the axis of movement direction in the measuring plane of the Reese - 3.

Measuring plane measuring lattice Reese - 3 we will call such a plane, which is a track of the strokes of the measuring grid Reese - 3 throughout its length, and the track of the strokes (or its projection) indicator arrays In and Rin - 9 also on their entire length. The strokes of each pair of gratings of the two read heads do not change their location relative to each other (tilt) when the motion of one grating relative to the other and not out of the realm of mutual overlap.

Rin - 9 second read head SG2 - 6 free and relatively Reese - 3 and relatively SG2 - 6. It is held only by the magnets 17, as recorded in Reese - 3 and the substrate 4 (figure 2, 3 and 4). And each read head is connected through the logic blocks 18 and 19 to the adder C - 20.

The principle of operation of the device is as follows:

On the holographic diffraction measuring the lattice Reese - 3, glued to the substrate, there are two read / write heads 5 and 6. The read head SG1 - 5 is an electronic reading device to the first node and measuring touch sensor (figure 1). The read head SG2 - 6 is an electronic reading device to the second node 2 measuring sensor touch. The bars measuring 3 together with the substrate 4 can move forward and backward in the reader head SG1 - 5 on its indicator lattice Rin, and a relatively flat grid Rin - 9 second read head SG1-6. And IDK you use the same measuring grid Reese - 3, as seen in figure 1. Each read head IDK uses a pair of two diffraction gratings, one of which is measuring Reese - 3 with length equal to the measured length, and the other small, flat Run (figures not shown) and, accordingly, Ren - 9.

(Reese-3, Rin) and (Reese-3,In).

Bold letters marked movable grating relative to the body - 7.

When covering each pair of gratings (measuring and indicator) light flux from the radiation source, located in each read head, the output gratings appear interference moiré patterns, which arise due to the interference beams of different diffraction orders of these grills - Step and form moire fringes depends on the lattice parameters and mutual location of their strokes. Basically moiré patterns are a family of straight lines. Moving metering the positive grid is relatively flat in the first read head, as the second read head, but only after the touch, causes simultaneous movement of the moire fringes in the case of the reverse (backward move) - synchronized reverse. It is possible to evaluate the relationship between the movement of one grating relative to the other and moving moiré patterns, i.e. to determine the coefficient of optical reduction. Is the same process that is described in the prototype on page 6. This circumstance allows us to install in the field moiré patterns matrix of photodetectors in each of the read heads, as this field is significantly larger than produced by the movement of the measuring grid. Thus the amount of movement in the periods of strokes, identically equal to the movement in the period of the moire fringes. Thus is the same phenomenon as in the microscope, where a small object in front of the lens of the microscope is transformed identically, but with an increase of its output. The only difference is that in this microscope image is obtained using a complex optical system of the microscope, and then the image moiré patterns (and thereby their period) is increased compared with the strokes of the two gratings (period) only due to the fact that the use of two gratings with different frequency or with a slight slope strokes relative to each other. Moreover, when Dulevo is the slope of lines the period of moiré patterns infinitely large. This phenomenon was discovered by scientists Moire in the last century, but began to be used in measuring systems only in the sixties of our century. Moving moiré patterns is converted by the photodetector into electrical signals that are processed in a standard electronic logic blocks to receiving digital information about the measured displacement. In the beginning of the movement starts the motor 16, which starts moving Reese - 3. While SG1 starts to give a certain number of pulses n1i. At the beginning of the movement of the ball 14, based on hard bearing surface 15, allows soulimane account the second read head SG2 - 6 (n2i=0), which carries out its joint movement with Reese - 3 in the direction of the measured surface 11, as its satellite, since it is completely fixed with respect to the Reese - 3 because of their rigid mutual connection, as well as a still relatively Reese - 3 (just before touching) Ren - 9 and the probe 10, due to their rigid connection with the carriage 12, which are attached to the ball 14, rests on the pad 15 of the measuring grid Reese - 3. At the moment of contact of the probe 10, the surface 11 of the probe 10 and Rin - 9 stops from their joint motion with the measurement of the lattice Reese - 3 relative to the housing 7, and continuing East is to be fixed already measured relative to the surface 11. Reese - 3 at this time still continues movement toward the surface 11, by sliding bearings 13, the axis of which is rigidly fixed to the carriage 12. Since touch both the read head reads the pulses, because now each pair of arrays

(Reese-3, Rin) and (Reese-3, In)

one pound (Reese-3) is movable. Recall that earlier, before the touch, the second pair of gratings was mutually fixed. Due to the fact that the lattice Reese - 3-one and the same for both read heads, and it continues to move in the same direction and are identical to the two indicator bars In, and Ren - 9, passing through the same distance, then the electrical impulses from the two read heads POS and POS, after touch, equal and compatible with each other on the scale of the values. These electrical impulses are processed in the electronic logical blocks 18 and 19 with the aim of obtaining digital information about the measured moving N1i and N2iac that are then fed to the adder "With" - 20 (figure 1). As the digital value N1iac and N2iac on the adder "With" - 20 hit with the opposite sign, then the adder is subtraction and in the future, to stop the movement Reese - 3, the adder will produce the same amount of touch coordinates specified in the form of points on the axis Ni (figure 5). After the touch, SG2 - 6 develops rawsome pulse to the stop of the engine is 16 performing the movement Reese - 3 in the direction of the measured surface 11. To increase the accuracy of the touch sensor electrical path signals POS and POS must be equal.

Work IDK involves two objectives:

1 - register on the adder touch coordinates from the receipt of a zero difference between N1iac and N2iac after touch probe 10 of the measured surface 11 and to the stop Reese - 3;

2 - to develop after the touch control pulse to the stop of the engine 16, performing the movement Reese - 3.

After touching on the meter coordinate adder is given the true measured coordinate of the touch of N on the axis, which moves the probe.

Let us consider in more detail how to declare IDK registers the coordinate of the touch.

Prior to the measurement obnulyaetsya both the read head. C1 - 5 obnulyaetsya (i.e. N1i=0) as follows: Reese - 3 starts its movement in the direction of some basic surfaces, which will be determined by the full coordinate of the measured object (product). After the touch probe of this base surface is set to zero the accumulator. Rises Reese - 3 together with the probe above the surface, we need to measure. During this movement Rin - 9 goes down to touch the ball 14 plane bearing 15. At this point zanulyatsya automatic SG2 - 6, tket plane is 0 label" for the second read head (i.e. N1i=0). After soulimane SG2 - 6 we can start the measurement.

Reese - 3 together with the probe 10 starts its movement in the direction of the measured surface 11, while the C1 - 5 calculates the amount of movement and the adder - 20 enters the value N1i. Before touching the adder constantly determines the difference

N1i-N2i=N1isince N2i=0

At the moment of contact of the probe 10 with the surface 11 continues the account SG1 - 5, where it receives the pulses POS and number N1iac from block 18 to the adder 20. At the same time begins the movement Reese - 3 relative Ren - 9 and SG2-6 on block 19 begin to enter the measuring signals POS that converted this unit in magnitude N2iac, which then served to the adder 20. Before and after the moment of touch Reese - 3 continues the original motion. The adder compares data N1iac and N2iac. As after touch value moving from two heads are equal, but come with different sign to the adder, then touch the algebraic sum N1i-N2i practically zero.

Therefore, the adder will always give the coordinate of the touch point "O" - N10, until you stop the engine 16 Reese - 3, regardless of how much time has passed since the touch. This is a significant advantage of the inventive device prior known devices, which is toolicon touch coordinates is given more than once, and multiple times during a certain time interval after the moment of touch until stop Reese - 3 engine 16.

Moreover, the magnitude N1i received after touch can be mathematically processed in order to increase the accuracy of determining the coordinates of the touch.

It is convenient to explain work IDK with the help of figure 5, where the ordinate axis pending magnitude of movement coordinates received from the first reader head, i.e. N1iand the second cylinder, N2iand on the x-axis measurement time t. Suppose that at point a begins the movement Reese - 3. The adder will be displayed in the N1i. At the point O corresponding to the time tthe Okashappened to touch the probe with the surface to be measured and the adder outputs a value of N10. After the touch probe Reese - 3 continues to move in the same direction, and the first cylinder will give the magnitude of the move N1iac, the numerical values of which will be laid on a straight line S (they are conventionally denoted by circles)and numerical values move from the second head N2iac on direct OS (triangles). Then, the adder "With" - 20 will be reflected values Ni:

Ni=N10ac+Δi,

where Δi=N1iac-N2iac algebraic sum of the values from the two logical blocks since the touch until the engine stops. Moreover, the magnitude Ni touch coordinates can be matematic the ski treated with the to increase the accuracy of determining the coordinates of the touch.

As you can see, these values will be located on a horizontal line segment OD parallel to the x-axis. Moreover, if the measuring axis of the two read heads are parallel and if properly selected, the time delay of the signals from the two sensors, it Δi is close to zero and the points lie on a straight line OD, which will be parallel to the x-axis. The measuring axis of each pair of gratings easily and with high precision can be configured in parallel with respect to each other, the phase of the interference fringes, the more that the measuring grating is uniform and it moves straight forward and delay, you can choose equal to, using this graph and the flat reference surface. Due to the fact that the basis of this measuring sensor touch is the subtraction of the values of the coordinates obtained from the two read heads, it can be called differential measuring sensor touch.

Direct OD and represents a geometric axis, which will be the desired values of the coordinates of the touch, which can be read at any time after the touch.

This means that we should not catch an instant moment of touch, because the moment that may or may not reflect the correct value of the coordinates of the touch, say, at least because of the strike, when this moment occurs the elastic deformation of the probe and the surface. Thus the coordinate of the touch easily perceptible over the whole time interval OD before stopping the engine.

With the goal of preserving the parallelism of the axes of movement Rin-9 on Reese - 3 and the relative position of the strokes of the two gratings relative to each other in the specific example of implementation of this application, uses magnets 17, which allows the bearings 13 of the carriage 12, which is fixed In - 9 (see Fig.1, 2 and 3), to move along the guide rails Reese - 3 and substrate 4. For this purpose, two pair, 3 of a magnet fixed to the glass substrate Reese - 3 and the substrate 4 within the movement In relatively Reese - 3 (figure 4). The number of magnets and their location in each case may be different depending on the specific implementation of the device.

In this particular case IDK possessed the following characteristics:

length Rees-3, L, mm200,
frequency Reese-3, νlines/mm1000,
accuracy Reese-3, Q, mcm±0,05,
resolution, µmthe 0.01
the repeatability of the system, microns0,2.

Thus, in this particular implementation IDK objective is achieved by the fact that:

<> 1) are used:

- type read head (with the same indicator bars),

- single high-precision high-resolution measuring diffraction grating /3, 4/, (Annex III), C1 - 5 and SG2 - 6,

the same guides for C1 - 5 and SG2 - 6.

This initially makes them fully compatible on all parameters, including accuracy and resolution, without the use of additional methods for their compatibility and ratio scales;

In this particular case originally was solved and the task of creating your own precise guides using the concatenated gratings, which received the Patent of the Russian Federation /4/. The measuring sensor touch with a private guide is no longer dependent on the quality of the guides of the product in which it is embedded, such as lathe, machining center, measuring machine, etc. a prototype of such directing, made by special technology, showed the accuracy of the deviation from straightness of not more ±1.7 microns/meter;

2) created a unified system of high-precision linear differential measurement of the touch sensor to measure the full coordinates of the surface at the moment of contact with the surface, allowing to measure the coordinate of any size and with high precision;

3) the weight of the node touches the surface does not depend on the weight of the switchgear is agabaritic parts IDK as in the prototype, i.e. from Reese-3 and probe, and the weight of small parts - Ren - 9 and the probe, resulting in less deformation of the measured surface in the contact point due to the low power of feelings;

4) coordinate of touch with the surface to be measured is determined not only at the first moment of touch, and in the subsequent moments of time after the contact of the probe with the surface to be measured up to a complete stop measuring grid (see Fig.5). This circumstance makes it possible to more accurately determine the coordinate of the touch due to the possibility of mathematical processing of the obtained values of the coordinates of the touch at the same point but at different times (to a complete stop the engine measuring lattice) by averaging over many measurements, obtained considering the magnitude of the relaxation of all nodes, including the surface after deformation of the probe;

5) declare the touch sensor is contained as the element of touch (contact) miniature, low-inertia element - indicator diffraction grating rigidly connected with the probe, so the time response at the moment of touch is almost instant and is determined by the resolution of the measuring system of the two read heads, which is currently the same for them and reaches 0.01 µm. This enables to maintain high accuracy and when and what the measurements with high speeds;

6) in both reading heads are used items with the same coefficient of thermal expansion.

Due to the fact that after manufacture the part, it must obmeryat, in the world created and created a large number of accurate measuring machines containing contact with the measured item measuring sensor touch (IDK). This sensor must not compromise on the accuracy of different measurement units of these machines. At the same time, while very few firms (some)developing IDK. So naturally, there is a big competition for the accuracy IDK among firms, advanced in the field of high technology.

Sources of information

1. The measuring sensor touch MDE, Renishaw, Passport MDE - equivalent.

2. Turegano astray freight, Turegano N., The Yakutovych VN

Measuring micrometer head "TOBOR". RF patent №2032142, 19.03.92.- the prototype.

3. Gorelik VP, Nikolaev, S., Turegano BG, Turegano N.

A device for phase-in connection holographic diffraction gratings. RF patent №673018, prior, from 06.06.77.

4. B.G.Turukhano, V.P.Gorelik, N.Turukhano. Apparatus for synthesis of elongated holographic diffraction gratings. Patent UK 2195784. Filed 07.10.86. Patent France 2605419. Filed 17.10.86. Patent Switzerland 675493. Filed 21.10.87.

Measuring the touch sensor on the diffraction grating, comprising measuring a diffraction grating, a probe, two guides, read the second cylinder, rigidly connected with the sensor housing and including a radiation source, the collimator, the indicator diffraction grating, a matrix of photodetectors, and a group of bearings rigidly mounted on the housing, which moves the measuring diffraction grating along the direction of movement, characterized in that the newly introduced engine, substrate, and measuring the diffraction grating is rigidly connected to the substrate, which is perpendicular to the plane of the stroke measuring a diffraction grating, and the guides are measuring diffraction grating and the substrate, and further introduced the second read head, which is fixed on the measuring diffraction grating after the first read head from the location of the probe and before him, and indicator diffraction grating of the second read head is fixed in the carriage, which is supported by the magnets installed in both of the guides within the carriage, the carriage is equipped with bearings that provide the possibility of its travel along the guides within the aperture indicator of the diffraction grating of the second read head along the direction of movement of the measurement of the diffraction grating, the carriage is rigidly connected to the probe, and measuring on the fractional lattice from the probe made the bearing surface, and on the carriage opposite and within a plane of a support rigidly fixed to the ball, and measuring the diffraction grating with the substrate connected to the engine, enabling them to move along the axis of the direction of movement of the measuring grid, each read head is connected through the electronic logic blocks with the adder.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: determination of inner surface contour.

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1 dwg

FIELD: automatics, engineering of controlling devices.

SUBSTANCE: device has cylinder-shaped body with serially positioned lighting system, consisting of electronic lamp and toroidal lens, surveillance system, consisting of conic mirror for all-around observation, objective, light guide, scale mesh and ocular. Additionally inserted are second objective, positioned in front of input end of light guide and forming its image in plane of scale mesh, positioned in focal plane of ocular, optical axis of which coincides with axis of second objective micro-objective, positioned on optical axis, parallel to ocular axis and axis of second object respectively. Second objective and micro-objective are mounted with possible mutual displacement for serial mounting on optical axis of ocular, micro-objective is focused on output end of light guide and builds image of fragments of light section in plane of scale mesh, second objective, scale mesh, ocular and micro-objective are constructively combined in single block, mounted at output portion of light guide with possible movement in two orthogonal directions.

EFFECT: improved sensitivity of device, improved precision of defects dimensions estimation.

3 dwg

FIELD: measuring engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises light source and light receiver provided with means for processing information. The light source and receiver are made in block that is made of a tube. The scanning unit is provided with two channels optically connected with the tube and system of mirrors, which allow the light to pass from the tube to the outer or inner surface of the article through the channels. The scanning unit is optically connected with the tube so that the optical axis of one of the channels is in coincidence with the optical axis of the tube.

EFFECT: expanded functional capabilities.

8 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: measuring engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises receiving mirror and diffuse components of light radiation reflected from the surface, extracting pulses of the same duration from the components received, generating reference pulses by converting each pulse extracted from the mirror and diffusion components into photocurrents, and determining the quality of the surface from the photocurrents. Before being incident on the surface, the monochromatic beam is split into the mirror and diffusion pulses of the same duration. The reference pulses are generated by separating a part of the light flux from the extracted light pulses. The device comprises source of monochromatic light radiation, light-splitting plate, mirror made of a paraboloid of revolution, focusing system, first photodetector, unit for control and processing information, first obturator with a port and mirror zone on the surface of the rotatable disk, second obturator with a pair of same ports on the rotatable disk, and second photodetector.

EFFECT: enhanced accuracy and quality of determining.

5 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: optics.

SUBSTANCE: device has, serially placed at one optical axis, light source, collimator, ring optical mark forming means and multi-element photo-detector, connected to photo-detector signal processing block, as well as assembly for displacing part along axis. At optical axis before photo-detector ring mark projector is mounted with optical localizer of its position.

EFFECT: broader functional capabilities, higher speed and precision.

5 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: measurement of surface profiles.

SUBSTANCE: the method consists in obtaining of a set of interferograms of the surface under examination at scanning of it by a low-coherent radiation source and recreation of the original profile of the surface under examination with the aid of them. At obtaining of each main interferogram an additional interferogram is read off at a shift of the bearing surface by a fractional part of the wavelength, after that the signal of the additional interferogram is subtracted from the signal of the main interferogram and a differential interferogram is obtained, and the original profile of the surface under examination is recreated from the obtained differential interferograms.

EFFECT: enhanced quality of interferograms due to localization of the zone of interference on the surface under examination.

4 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: laser control technologies.

SUBSTANCE: method includes sweep of light beam to straight line with providing for projection of this beam on surface of rolled strip, video capture of projection area of current beam on portion of controlled surface and point of nearby edge of rolled strip, projection area is separated on given number of ranges and for each range received image is separated on components, forming respectively line of edge points of beam light projection, being portion of measurement area, line of brightest points inside light beam projection range and line of edge points of beam projection, quitting measurement area, to determine their coordinates along rolling strip surface, coordinates of lines of brightest points and edge points within light beam projection are straightened, and value of total coordinate is determined, from which with consideration of coordinates of points of lines of brightest points within light beam projection, by geometric interpretation, total parameter of rolled strip shape SARK(i,j) is determined.

EFFECT: higher trustworthiness and efficiency.

8 dwg

The invention relates to measuring technique and can be used in the manufacture of pumps, compressors and rotary shaft seals

The invention relates to measuring and fiber-optic technology and can be used in instrument, machine tools and machinery for precision measurement and control of linear and angular parameters of the surface of objects, including

FIELD: laser control technologies.

SUBSTANCE: method includes sweep of light beam to straight line with providing for projection of this beam on surface of rolled strip, video capture of projection area of current beam on portion of controlled surface and point of nearby edge of rolled strip, projection area is separated on given number of ranges and for each range received image is separated on components, forming respectively line of edge points of beam light projection, being portion of measurement area, line of brightest points inside light beam projection range and line of edge points of beam projection, quitting measurement area, to determine their coordinates along rolling strip surface, coordinates of lines of brightest points and edge points within light beam projection are straightened, and value of total coordinate is determined, from which with consideration of coordinates of points of lines of brightest points within light beam projection, by geometric interpretation, total parameter of rolled strip shape SARK(i,j) is determined.

EFFECT: higher trustworthiness and efficiency.

8 dwg

FIELD: measurement of surface profiles.

SUBSTANCE: the method consists in obtaining of a set of interferograms of the surface under examination at scanning of it by a low-coherent radiation source and recreation of the original profile of the surface under examination with the aid of them. At obtaining of each main interferogram an additional interferogram is read off at a shift of the bearing surface by a fractional part of the wavelength, after that the signal of the additional interferogram is subtracted from the signal of the main interferogram and a differential interferogram is obtained, and the original profile of the surface under examination is recreated from the obtained differential interferograms.

EFFECT: enhanced quality of interferograms due to localization of the zone of interference on the surface under examination.

4 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: optics.

SUBSTANCE: device has, serially placed at one optical axis, light source, collimator, ring optical mark forming means and multi-element photo-detector, connected to photo-detector signal processing block, as well as assembly for displacing part along axis. At optical axis before photo-detector ring mark projector is mounted with optical localizer of its position.

EFFECT: broader functional capabilities, higher speed and precision.

5 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: measuring engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises receiving mirror and diffuse components of light radiation reflected from the surface, extracting pulses of the same duration from the components received, generating reference pulses by converting each pulse extracted from the mirror and diffusion components into photocurrents, and determining the quality of the surface from the photocurrents. Before being incident on the surface, the monochromatic beam is split into the mirror and diffusion pulses of the same duration. The reference pulses are generated by separating a part of the light flux from the extracted light pulses. The device comprises source of monochromatic light radiation, light-splitting plate, mirror made of a paraboloid of revolution, focusing system, first photodetector, unit for control and processing information, first obturator with a port and mirror zone on the surface of the rotatable disk, second obturator with a pair of same ports on the rotatable disk, and second photodetector.

EFFECT: enhanced accuracy and quality of determining.

5 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: measuring engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises light source and light receiver provided with means for processing information. The light source and receiver are made in block that is made of a tube. The scanning unit is provided with two channels optically connected with the tube and system of mirrors, which allow the light to pass from the tube to the outer or inner surface of the article through the channels. The scanning unit is optically connected with the tube so that the optical axis of one of the channels is in coincidence with the optical axis of the tube.

EFFECT: expanded functional capabilities.

8 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: automatics, engineering of controlling devices.

SUBSTANCE: device has cylinder-shaped body with serially positioned lighting system, consisting of electronic lamp and toroidal lens, surveillance system, consisting of conic mirror for all-around observation, objective, light guide, scale mesh and ocular. Additionally inserted are second objective, positioned in front of input end of light guide and forming its image in plane of scale mesh, positioned in focal plane of ocular, optical axis of which coincides with axis of second objective micro-objective, positioned on optical axis, parallel to ocular axis and axis of second object respectively. Second objective and micro-objective are mounted with possible mutual displacement for serial mounting on optical axis of ocular, micro-objective is focused on output end of light guide and builds image of fragments of light section in plane of scale mesh, second objective, scale mesh, ocular and micro-objective are constructively combined in single block, mounted at output portion of light guide with possible movement in two orthogonal directions.

EFFECT: improved sensitivity of device, improved precision of defects dimensions estimation.

3 dwg

FIELD: determination of inner surface contour.

SUBSTANCE: the device has a laser, reflectors symmetrically installed on the scanner assembly provided with means for angular scanning of the reflectors relative to the axis of the mentioned assembly, and receiver of the laser beam reflected from the object surface. The scanner assembly is made in the form of a motor, whose shaft is coupled to the reflectors; the means for angular scanning relative to the axis of the scanner assembly are made in the form of a solenoid installed in the axis of the motor shaft, a laser beam splitter is positioned between the laser and deflectors.

EFFECT: enhanced accuracy and efficiency of contour measurement.

1 dwg

FIELD: engineering of touch sensors.

SUBSTANCE: device has measuring diffraction grid, probe, two guides, two reading heads, substrate, engine, a group of magnets. First reading head is rigidly connected to body of indicator. Second reading head contains receiver of radiation, collimator, indicator diffraction grid, a matrix of photo-receivers. Group of bearings provides for movement of measuring diffraction grid along movement direction. Measuring diffraction grid and substrate are utilized as guides. One indicator diffraction grid is held in carriage. Carriage is connected to probe, which touches measured surface and moves relatively to same together with measuring diffraction grid. Measuring diffraction grid and substrate are connected to engine, and reading heads are connected to adders.

EFFECT: increased precision of touch coordinate detection at measured surface.

5 dwg

FIELD: non-destructive inspection.

SUBSTANCE: device has standard side-view endoscope, which has system for illuminating object and system for observing object provided with measuring scale. Device is additionally provided with bushing having linear and angular scales, which bushing is capable of translation and rotation about axis of symmetry of flange fastened to input opening of cavity to be controlled. Tube with optical system for laser illumination of object is mounted inside bushing; tube has microscopic laser and mirror. Tube is mounted in bushing for linear movement relatively endoscope in parallel to its longitudinal axis. Precision of measurement of sizes of objects disposed at long distances to surfaces to be controlled is improved. Measurement of coordinates of defect location on surfaces of object can be made with higher precision.

EFFECT: improved precision of measurement.

3 dwg

FIELD: measuring technique.

SUBSTANCE: device has measuring unit which has prod, platform with through opening where measuring unit is installed. Prod is capable of touching surface to be measured and of moving at plane being perpendicular to measured surface and along direction of measurement. Platform is provided with three supports for installation. As measuring unit the linear shift detector is used, which detector has light source, illuminating two diffraction gratings. One of gratings is measuring, being tightly connected with prod, and the other one is additional grating. Detector also has photoreceivers. Supports are made of materials having low temperature expansion coefficient. Supports provide three-point installation of platform onto surface; they are disposed in vertexes of triangle in such a way that one catheter of triangle is parallel to one side of platform.

EFFECT: improved precision of measurement; reduced limitations in size of surface to be measured; accelerated measuring process; widened working temperature range.

4 dwg

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