Method for producing long-measuring composite wire based on high-temperature superconducting compounds

FIELD: production of long-measuring composite wires based on high-temperature superconducting compounds.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes formation of multiconductor billet by filling silver sheath with bismuth ceramic powder, deformation of multiconductor billet obtained to desired size by drawing without heating at deformation degree per pass ranging between 0.5 and 20%, cutting of deformed billet into metered sections, assembly of multiconductor billet by disposing desired number of metered parts of deformed multiconductor billet in sheath made of reinforced silver based alloy, extrusion of multiconductor billet at temperature ranging between 130 and 280 °C and drawing coefficient of 4 to 30, rolling in the open without heating at deformation ratio per pass between 1 and 50%, and thermomechanical treatment under preset conditions. Sequential compression of ceramic core raises density of critical current.

EFFECT: improved geometry of conductors, enhanced wire mechanical properties and resistance, reduced heat conduction of sheath.

1 cl

 

The invention relates to the technical field of superconductivity, in particular to a technology for long composite stranded wire-based high-temperature superconducting (HTS) of compounds designed to create electrical products.

It is known that the stranded wire-based HTSC compounds produced by the method of "powder-in-tube, including the filling of ceramic powder in a metal sheath, the deformation obtained monolignol billet to the desired size, cut-to-length parts, the Assembly of the multi-core preform by placing in a metal shell of the required quantity of these dimensional parts, the deformation of the multi-strand billet and heat treated in several stages with intermediate strain between them (thermomechanical processing) [1]. In the case of filling a metal sheath, for example, ceramic powders deformation is carried out to obtain the desired wire size and maximum possible compaction of the core before thermomechanical treatment (TMT), which is carried out with the aim of forming a ceramic core superconducting phase of the desired composition and structure. When using ceramic powders deformation is performed by drawing and rolling, which do not allow to achieve the required density ceramic watch is Russian to the core.

Also known methods for producing wire-based HTSC compounds by the method of "powder in tube" on the basis of metal powders, however, when using metal powders to obtain a wire with a critical current density higher than 500 A/cm2difficult [2].

Closest to the proposed technical solution is the method of getting stranded conductor [3] is a prototype, including the production of monolignol blanks by filling metal powder in a silver sheath, the extrusion obtained monolignol billet to the required size at a temperature of from 300 to 600°and the magnitude of the coefficient hoods up to 800, cutting the deformed billet-to-length parts, the Assembly of the multi-core preform by placing in a silver sheath stranded procurement quantity required dimensional parts deformed monolignol billet, extrusion of multi-strand billet at a temperature of from 300 to 600°and the magnitude of the coefficient hoods up to 800, rolling at a temperature of from 300 to 600°in a controlled atmosphere (argon), oxidation, thermo-mechanical processing.

In the deformation process extrusion is possible with the currently used main methods of deformation (drawing, rolling, extrusion) sealing the core of mono - and multi-core billet, one is about in the case of metal powders after deformation spend oxidation (translated metals in oxides), in which there is a softening of the core, and TMO (superconducting phase of the desired composition and structure form already in ceramic consisting of oxides of the core).

This method has a number of disadvantages:

the use of metal powders requires before TMO operations oxidation of these powders, and this greatly complicates the process introduces an additional operation in a controlled atmosphere - oxidation of core by oxygen diffusing through the Explorer shell, but when that happens and the softening of hearts); moreover, it is difficult to obtain in the core of stoichiometric superconducting compound, and if TMO is more difficult to obtain the desired structure of the core, which leads to a significant reduction of the critical current density;

- carrying out the extrusion at high temperature (300 to 600° (C) with a high elongation ratio up to 800 complicates the process; extrusion can be carried out in vertical and horizontal arrangement of the workpiece and the wire, in both cases, when the extrusion billets of large diameter with high elongation ratio is necessary to provide the snap-in to receive wires with high velocities, which are determined by the speeds of the press equipment is Finance,

- conducting warm rolling at a high temperature (300 to 600° (C) in a controlled atmosphere (argon) also complicates the process and reduces its security,

- use silver sheath stranded workpiece is not possible to increase the mechanical properties of the wires and the electrical resistance of the sheath stranded wires, which narrows the field of use of wires.

An object of the invention is to increase the critical current density due to sequential (from operation to operation) seal ceramic core and improve geometry lived, the enhancement of the mechanical properties of the wire and the electrical resistance of the membrane, the lower thermal conductivity of the shell and simplification of the method.

The problem is solved in that in the method prototype, including the filling of powder in a silver shell monolignol workpiece deformation obtained monolignol billet to the desired size, cut, deformed billet-to-length parts, the Assembly of the multi-core preform by placing the desired number of measuring parts deformed monolignol workpiece in a metal sheath multi-core billet, extrusion, rolling and TMO, features: shell monolignol billet sleep powder bismuth ceramics deform Manoilo the workpiece woloshen is eaten at room temperature, that is, without heating, with the degree of deformation during the passage from 0.5 to 20%, collect stranded the workpiece by placing the measuring parts deformed monolignol blanks in the shell, made of hardened alloy based on silver, the extrusion of the received multi-strand billet is carried out at a temperature in the range from 130 to 280°and with the size of the drawing ratio of from 4 to 30, the rolling is carried out at room temperature in air with a degree of deformation per pass from 1 to 50%, followed by thermomechanical processing, which includes several stages of heat treatment at a temperature of from 820 to 850°Since, over time, ensuring the formation of a ceramic core superconducting phase of the desired composition and structure, with the intermediate deformations between stages of heat treatment on the degree of deformation per pass from 5 to 30%.

During the above operations is consistent seal stranded long wires, improves the geometry of the veins, which ensures an increase of the critical current of the wire. The obtained wire also has improved mechanical properties and increased resistance of the shell.

Backfilling of the ceramic powder in the shell allows you to get at the core of the wire close to the superconducting chemical composition of the material from the e at the initial stage of obtaining wire. In the process of deformation (drawing, extrusion) and TMO gradual compaction of the ceramic core. In the case of metal powders in the core are going through similar processes, however, when oxidation is carried out with the aim of obtaining the core wire material close to the superconducting chemical composition, there is a significant softening of the core (obvious with the passage of oxygen into the core through the shell of the wire thickness of 0.4 to 0.5 mm). After oxidation seal already ceramic core occurs only when TMO, which includes, as a rule, only a few (2-3, and up to a maximum of 4 ) intermediate deformations, which is insufficient for the required sealing of the ceramic core, and increasing the number of intermediate deformations at TMO is impractical due to disruption of the structure, the texture of the ceramic core and the geometry of the wire. This is one of the main reasons small critical currents of the wires on the basis of metal powders.

The deformation obtained in the previous step monolignol blank by drawing at room temperature with the degree of deformation per pass from 0.5 to 20% provides reception moneilema wire densified ceramic core of the desired shape and size, which greatly simplifies the process, makes it more stable because of the absence of a significant temperature gradient and safe.

Use as the shell of a multi-strand billet hardened alloy based on silver provides improved mechanical properties of the wires and the electrical resistance of the membrane (in order to prevent leakage of current, leading to local overheating of the conductor and out of the superconducting state), and also reduces thermal conductivity of the shell. The latter is necessary to reduce heat gain to the zone helium temperatures (4.2 K) when using HTS materials as current working temperature gradient 4.2 K And 77 K.

The deformation of the multi-billet extrusion at a temperature of from 130 to 280°and the magnitude of the coefficient extraction from 4 to 30 simplifies the process, making it stable (significantly decreases the temperature gradient), safe and provides a multi-strand long wire with a ceramic core, similar in chemical composition to the superconducting material of the desired shape and size. In addition, when the deformation of multi-billet extrusion also there is a further compaction of the ceramic core. While carrying out the extrusion at a temperature of from 130 to 280°With, that is lower compared to PR what totype, allows you to receive wires of a multi-strand billet in the shell of hardened alloy based on silver, collected from manoil in the shell of silver.

When reducing the size of the drawing ratio from 800 to 4-30 sharply reduced the likelihood of the geometry lived, which is beneficial later on the increase of the critical current.

Rolling without heating the air and when the degree of deformation during the passage from 1 to 50% provides the receive wire of the desired shape and size (e.g., flat), mainly in thickness, with the required geometry of the core and greatly simplifies the process compared to rolling at a temperature of from 300 to 600°in a controlled atmosphere. In addition, when rolling is further seal the core.

TMO, including several stages of heat treatment at a temperature of from 820 to 850°With intermediate strain between them with a degree of deformation per pass from 5 to 30%, provides a further seal the core and forming in her superconducting phase of the desired composition and structure, which allows to obtain a superconducting wire with high current-carrying characteristics.

When deformation monolignol workpiece drawing with the degree of deformation per pass less than 0.5% is a violation of the geometric dimensions of the wires appears wolnoobraznam the ü the length of the wire, while drawing with the degree of deformation per pass more than 20% is a violation of the integrity of the shell, which is manifested in the formation of small cracks and their growth until the complete destruction of the membrane, which leads to rupture of the wire.

Carrying out the extrusion at a temperature below 130°when receiving wire from monolignol workpiece in a silver shell and a multi-strand billet in the shell of hardened alloy based on silver leads to cracking of the workpiece until the integrity of the ceramic lived due to the reduction of the ductility of the shell.

With increasing temperature extrusion above 280°violation occurs geometry ceramic lived due to the reduction of the strength characteristics of the material of the shell is thinning ceramic lived in some places along the length of the veins and thickening ceramic lived in other places along the length of the veins.

Carrying out the extrusion at the size of the drawing ratio is less than 4 is not enough and requires an increase in the number of operations of extrusion and, therefore, increase the total time warp strands billet to the desired size. Carrying out the extrusion at the magnitude of the coefficient hoods over 30 at the desired temperature leads to violation of the geometry of the ceramic lived-related difference in the mechanical properties of the extrudable m is materials, which has a significant influence on the deformation of materials at high degrees of deformation.

Conducting rolling with heating, i.e. at a temperature above room temperature, is impractical because the strain exposed material with a ceramic core, which is at this stage in the form of powder (in the prototype - core metal). In addition, on the one hand, when used degrees of deformation per pass (1 to 50%) there is no need to warp with heat to increase the plasticity of rolled materials (as in method-prototype), on the other hand, the temperature rise of the rolling can lead to increased plasticity only shell and the violation of the geometry of the ceramic lived due to the reduction of the strength characteristics of the material of the shell, this can lead to thinning ceramic lived in some places along the length of the veins and thickening of the ceramic lived in other places along the length of the veins that always leads to a decrease of the critical current.

When rolling with the degree of deformation per pass to less than 1% is a violation of the geometric dimensions of the wire, you receive the wave-like along the length of the wire, and when rolling with the degree of deformation per pass more than 50% rupture of membranes: from small cracks to its complete destruction, which leads to rupture of the wire.

The TM is at a temperature below 820° And above 850°and the degree of deformation per pass to less than 5% and more than 30% is not possible to form a ceramic core superconducting phase of the desired composition and structure, in particular when the degree of deformation per pass to less than 5% at the intermediate deformation does not occur laying crystallites that make up the ceramic core in the desired direction - the direction of primary current flow, and when the degree of deformation per pass more than 30% violation occurs geometry of the ceramic core. With decreasing temperature TMO below 820°does not occur With the formation of the superconducting phase in the ceramic core. With increasing temperature TMO above 850°With the formation of a large number of the liquid phase, which follows from the shell (for example, through the pores and cracks), which leads to disruption of the integrity of the shell, the violation of the stoichiometry of the ceramic core and a sharp deterioration of the critical characteristics of the superconductor.

The conduct of these operations in the described sequence and when these regimes have led to a new technical result is to increase the critical current density due to a consistent seal ceramic core, improve geometry lived, to improve the mechanical properties of the wire and the electrical resistance, the decrease in t is propranodol shell and simplification of the method.

The example implementation. Metallic silver capsules (pipes 1000 mm length, 10 mm in diameter with a wall thickness of 1 mm shell morozilnik blanks) was filled with powder of bismuth ceramics (Bi-2223) from the calculation of the final fill factor moneilema wires 25%. Next, the resulting monosilane billet deformed by drawing at room temperature with the degree of deformation per pass 10%, after which he formed a multi-core preform by placing the shells stranded pieces of hardened alloy Ag+1.1% weight. Sn dimensional parts deformed morozilnik blanks in the Ag shell. As shells stranded blanks used pipes made of hardened alloy Ag+1.1% weight. Sn (diameter 16 mm, wall thickness 1 mm, length 50 mm). In each of the shells stranded billet with a diameter of 16 mm of hardened alloy Ag+1.1% weight. Sn was placed on 217 dimensional parts deformed morozilnik blanks in a silver shell with a diameter of 0.82 mm stranded Next billet Ag (shell moogily) - Ag+1.1% weight. Sn (sheath stranded blanks) were subjected to the extrusion amount ratio of the hood 4 and 30 at temperatures of 130 and 280°C. Then all obtained after extrusion materials rolled without heating the air with the degree of deformation per pass 15%. Then all the wires held TMO in dostudio at temperatures of 820° C and 850°C for a total time of 200 hours with intermediate rolling with a degree of deformation per pass 12% to the final thickness of the wires on the basis (Bi-2223): 0,2-0,3 mm

The critical current in the wires was measured by standard four-point method on the criterion of 1 μv/see

All obtained by the proposed method the wires, the magnitude of the critical current density critical current is related to the square of the superconducting core) not less than 10 times higher than the best wires obtained with the use of metal powder, and not less than 5.5% higher than on the wires, obtained on the basis of ceramic powders without using an extrusion process that characterizes the advantage of the proposed method.

Sources of information

1. P.Haldar, L.Motovidlo. Processing High Critical Current Density of Bi-2223 Wires and Tapes. The Journal of The Minerals and Materials Society (JOM), vol.44, No. 10, October 1992, p.54-58.

2. W.Gao, S.-C.Li et al. Synthesis of Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu Oxide/Silver Superconducting microcomposites by Oxidation of Metallic Precursors, Physica C 161 (1989), 71-75.

3. C.L.H.Thieme, D.Daty et al. High Strain Warm Extrusion and Warm Rolling of Multiflamentary Bi-2223 Metallic Precursor Wire. Advances in Cryogenic Engineering (Materials), vol.44, Edited by Balachandran et al., Plenum Press, New York, 1998, pp. 533-540 prototype.

The method of obtaining long-length composite wire-based high-temperature superconducting compounds, including the formation of monolignol blanks by filling the powder in a silver sheath, in fact deformation is s to the required sizes and cut-to-length part, build a multi-strand billet obtained from dimensional parts by placing them in a metal shell, extrusion, rolling and thermomechanical processing, characterized in that the shell monolignol billet sleep powder bismuth ceramics, deformation monolignol procurement spend by drawing without heating with the degree of deformation per pass from 0.5 to 20%, as the material of the sheath stranded procurement use hardened alloy based on silver, the extrusion is carried out at a temperature of from 130 to 280°and with the size of the drawing ratio of from 4 to 30, the rolling is conducted without heating with the degree of deformation per pass 1 up to 50%, thermomechanical processing is carried out in several stages at a temperature of from 820 to 850°With intermediate deformation with deformation rate for a pass from 5 to 30%.



 

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