Device for detecting "red shift" resonance effect of electromagnetic waves in anisotropic environments

FIELD: optical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device has optically connected single-frequency continuous effect laser, photometric wedge, electro-optical polarization light modulator, first inclined semi-transparent reflector, second inclined semi-transparent reflector and heterodyne photo-receiving device, and also second inclined reflector in optical branch of heterodyne channel, high-frequency generator, connected electrically to electro-optical polarization modulator, direct current source, connected to electrodes of two-electrode vessel with anisotropic substance, and spectrum analyzer, connected to output of heterodyne photo-receiving device.

EFFECT: possible detection of "red shift" resonance effect of electromagnetic waves in anisotropic environments.

1 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of fundamental physics and can be used in the physical experiment to establish microparti electromagnetic radiation and to study the processes of secondary excitation of electromagnetic waves in anisotropic media in the processes of non-stationary interaction of electromagnetic waves with anisotropic media.

Known processes energy of interaction of electromagnetic waves, for example, a sufficiently powerful laser radiation with different environments in which these environments are electrically polarized (dc-effect), are magnetized (the inverse Faraday effect, [1]), emit secondary electromagnetic waves [2-4], etc. So experienced established and theoretically proved the law of conservation of polarization of electromagnetic waves (EMW) in anisotropic media, expressing a property of the electric wave to maintain its polarization unchanged in space and in time, until it is forced to change under the action of the patterns of motion of microparticles environment, acting in turn on this structure in the direction of the changing nature of the motion of its particles in a non-stationary exponentially fading process by which minimizes energy costs by EMW on the above changes in the structure of motion of microparticles environment, re is the query result which is the so-called "red shift" of the part incident on the anisotropic environment of the radiation of the electric wave, which is involved in the transient process of the above mentioned interaction of EMR with the environment, that is, there is a small reduction in the frequency of the incident on the radiation environment in the output stream EMW for some small period of time of the transition process of interaction.

The claimed technical solution is unique.

The aim of the invention is the ability to detect the resonance effect "red shift" of electromagnetic waves in anisotropic media.

The objective is achieved in a device containing a single-frequency laser and two-electrode cell with anisotropic substance is electrically connected with the DC source and the spectrum analyzer, and between single-frequency laser and two-electrode cuvette with anisotropic substance has been consistently found to United optical photometric wedge and electro-optical polarization light modulator, electrically associated with high-frequency generator, also containing heterodyne photodetector, optical input of which is connected with the optical output of the two-electrode cell with anisotropic substance, and the electrical output to the input of the spectrum analyzer, and two-electrode cell with anisotropic substance is installed in one of the optical branches of a two-beam interferometer and the two inclined semi-transparent reflectors, the first of which is installed between the electro-optical polarization light modulator and the two-electrode cell with anisotropic substance, and the second between the optical output of the last and heterodyne photodetection device, and from the first inclined reflector installed between the output electrode of the cell with anisotropic substance and the second inclined semi-transparent reflector, the other optical branch specified two-beam interferometer is formed by the first and second semi-transparent reflectors and the second sloped reflector established between them.

The detection of the resonance effect of "red shift" is achieved by setting the frequency in the high frequency generator to a value commensurate with the reciprocal of the time constant of the establishment of steady-state interaction of the polarization modulated light wave single-frequency laser with an anisotropic medium, the anisotropy parameters which are regulated by applying an electric field from a source of direct current, adjustable output voltage so that the polarization of the incident to the anisotropic medium and out of the waves of light coincided continuously in time. In addition, the use of the device photometric wedge-altering power flux-density laser radiation, act is it on anisotropic environment, to further explore the question of the number of microparticles environment of their total number in the differential volume anisotropic substance to which is applied an electromagnetic field of light single-frequency laser (continuous action)involved in the interaction of light waves with anisotropic substance.

Functional diagram of the inventive device shown in the drawing.

The device consists of sequentially optically enabled single-frequency laser 1, the photometric wedge 2, the electro-optic polarization light modulator 3, the first inclined semi-transparent reflector 4, two-electrode cell with anisotropic substance 5, the first inclined reflector 6, the second inclined semi-transparent reflector 7 and the optical input of the heterodyne photodetection device 8, and tunable high-frequency generator 9, is electrically connected to the electro-optical polarization light modulator, the DC source 10 with adjustable output voltage, electrically connected to the electrodes of the two-electrode cell with anisotropic substance, the second inclined reflector 11 in heterodyne branches of a two-beam interferometer (between the first and the second inclined semi-transparent reflectors) and Spectron is Isadora 12, electrically connected to the output of the heterodyne photodetection device.

Consider the action of the claimed device.

Preliminarily it should be noted that in accordance with the law of conservation of polarization of electromagnetic waves (SSPAM) any involuntary change of polarization of the electromagnetic wave during its transient interaction with the environment causes such a change in the patterns of motion of microparticles of this environment, which tends to reduce the depolarizing influence of the environment on the electromagnetic wave, and also to reduce the energy loss of the group of the wave field, which is involved in the process of unsteady interaction of the latter with the environment and is causing excitement in her secondary electromagnetic waves. Thus, in the known device [2] using high-power pulsed laser with short rise front of the power flux density (Poynting vector) of the light radiation passing through an anisotropic medium (for example, a cuvette containing chemically pure nitrobenzene, placed in a strong DC electric field), the microwave excitation of secondary waves is achieved in accordance with the spatial-temporal anisotropic magnetization reversal of the environment and the law of electromagnetic induction, as well as in the negotiation of the geometric parameters of the round waveguide for waves of the type TE 01with anisotropy parameters used in the environment in which the group velocity of the light wave in the medium is equal to the phase velocity of the generated microwave wave in the waveguide that provides a coherent accumulation of microwave energy at the output of the waveguide in the form of a short microwave pulse. Therefore, the radiation energy in the microwave path is obliged corresponding loss of energy for the light pulse over the front (and decline) of his action, which follows from the law of conservation of energy. It is important to note that if the anisotropic environment to influence light drop short in duration difference of light intensity, the microwave radiation still has the form of a short pulse and quickly disappears at a constant power flux density in the light radiation passing through an anisotropic medium. It is an experimental fact, which shows that microwave radiation, and hence the energy loss of the light wave ("redshift") are only in the process of unsteady interaction of EMR with the environment. The time constant of the nonstationarity of the process of mutual influence on each other (by analogy with Newton's third law for a system of interacting mechanical bodies) polarized electric wave and the patterns of motion of microparticles environment, which entails a stationary mode of interaction in which the "red shift" is missing, depends on the size of the medium and, possibly, the magnitude of the Poynting vector acting on the environment EMW.

It is important to note that the value "red shift" by the action of the anisotropic environment of the optical radiation in the form of a differential polarization, for example, when the difference from horizontal to vertical polarization, leads to the fact that in the environment there is a transition process, accompanied by changing patterns of motion of microparticles environment, within which there is a "red shift" of the incident radiation with an exponential decrease in the "red shift" from some of its values to zero. The characteristic of such an exponential change of the amount of "red shift" is the above time constant (constant exponent) non-stationary process of interaction of EMR with the environment. The more initial misalignment of the polarizations in the specified gradient, the higher the initial value of the "red shift". From this it follows that in the above device, the value of the "red shift" is exponentially decreasing over time action front (decline) of optical radiation, i.e. it has a wide range, which further complicates the registration of the "red shift".

Therefore, in the inventive device uses a single gas Vysokomol the chromatic a continuous wave laser, and the variation of the parameters of this radiation is continuous in time keeping mode of unsteady interaction of EMR with the environment, the structure of motion of microparticles which are arbitrary in relation to the time-varying vector of polarization, polarization is achieved by modulation of the laser radiation. This creates the conditions under which the unsteady interaction of EMR with the anisotropic medium becomes stationary, permanent in time, that is constantly calling the "red shift" of the polarization modulated light single-frequency laser.

To achieve stationary conditions of unsteady interaction of EMR with the anisotropic medium is necessary, as the analysis shows, to select a particular frequency polarization modulation in the high frequency generator, consistent with the physical properties of the anisotropic medium, i.e., with the time constant of the nonstationary process of interaction in assumption effect on the environment light differential polarization (for example, when the difference from vertical polarization to horizontal), in which respectively the initial and final values of the polarization in this difference changes the structure of the movement of microparticles environment, then the new structure of the movement remains fixed. Therefore, if the and anisotropic medium feeding radiation with uniformly changing polarization, for example, rotating flat or unidirectional polarization changing at a given speed polarization type vertical circular circular circular horizontal, etc."in the environment continuously and at a constant speed to change the structure of the motion of its particles in the respective sections (in the General case, in its differential volumes). The latter will be supported in time "red shift" laser frequency. However, in the General case, i.e. for an inconsistent set the frequency generator, which determines the rate of change of polarization incident on the anisotropic environment of the radiation, with the physical properties of the anisotropic environment, characterizing the rate of change of the patterns of motion of microparticles environment, the instantaneous value of the allocated frequency "red shift" output heterodyne photodetection device will vary in function of the magnitude of the error between the current polarization vector of the electric wave and current structure of motion of microparticles environment, seeking to "catch up" that her condition, which would be in equilibrium for a given current position of the polarization vector of the electric wave. From this it follows that with increasing frequency modulating the polarization of high-frequency oscillations of the generator will increase and the amount of "red offset the deposits" under the linear law. However, the growth of the "red shift" with increasing frequency in the high frequency generator will be limited when the specified current mismatch between the position of the polarization vector of the electric wave and the vector of the patterns of motion of microparticles environment", 90°. The concept of "vector patterns of motion of microparticles environment" is relative, and characterizes the position of the polarization vector of the electric wave, which would reach a balance between the polarization of the electric wave and the structure of the movement of microparticles environment. The major difference of the polarization vectors in the stationary nonequilibrium state is 90°as is the case for vectors of horizontal and vertical polarizations, circle right, circle and circle left circle and so on

Therefore, for a fixed value of the time constant of the corresponding non-stationary process of interaction of electromagnetic wave with a given anisotropic medium the choice of the maximum value of the modulating oscillations in the high frequency generator should be based on this value of the time constant. A further increase of this frequency will decrease the value of "red shift" and to the emergence of parasitic frequency modulation "red shift", i.e. the broadening of the spectrum and the decrease of the spectral density in response heterodyne photodetector us the device.

In this sense, this detection scheme "red shift" has resonant properties as the maximum "red shift" is achieved by selecting a certain frequency modulating the polarization of the laser radiation of high-frequency oscillations in the generator, which is reflected in the name of the device.

As you know, the greatest efficiency of photomachine in heterodyne photodetection device is achieved in the case of an equality signal and heterodyne mixed polarizations of optical radiation. Heterodyne in this device is the optical branch of a two-beam interferometer (Gamana)that includes first and second inclined reflectors and the second inclined reflector. The signal is the branch that includes a two-electrode cell with an anisotropic environment. The optical lengths of these branches selected for the observance of high mutual coherence of the signal and heterodyne optical components falling collinear in the plane of the photocathode heterodyne photodetection device. In the result of photomachine the output of the last formed the differential oscillation frequency that lies in the radio frequency spectrum, which can easily be seen by sensitive spectrum analyzer.

To perform the conditions of equality of polarizations for the signal and heterodyne optical whom ANENT you must choose the angular RAID polarization in anisotropic medium, equal to the whole number of cycles of polarization reversal. This is achieved with the given geometry of the cell and the known properties of the anisotropy of the medium by selecting a particular bias voltage from the DC source.

Since the frequency of the vibrations in the high frequency generator that specifies the rate of change of the polarization vector in the current in the anisotropic environment of the radiation by several orders of magnitude lower frequency light fluctuations of single-frequency laser (for example, the range of visible or infrared frequencies), the spectrum of the polarization-modulated light waves at the output of the electro-optic polarization light modulator is substantially narrowband and is practically only three lines of the spectrum Central frequency of the laser radiation) and two lateral (with frequencies respectively equal to the sum and difference frequencies of laser radiation and high-frequency generator). Therefore, photomachine in heterodyne photodetection device component trilineata spectrum signal and heterodyne beams will give the same result for the frequency of "red shift": all three combined components will have the same differential frequency "red shift", and an extremely small parasitic amplitude modulation component of the "red shift" at the input of the spectrum analyzer can easily is t to be filtered barrier filter in the structure of the spectrum analyzer, tuned to the oscillation frequency of the high-frequency generator. Coherence put three pairs of component at the output of heterodyne photodetection device is also due to the small size of dispersion is anisotropic medium for the optical components of the resulting spectrum given its narrow due to the large differences in the frequencies of optical radiation and a high-frequency generator.

Thus, with proper selection of the frequency generator that specifies the required rate of change of polarization incident on the anisotropic environment of continuous radiation, consistent with rate possible for a given environment changes in the structure of the motion of its particles, the conditions of stationary unsteady interaction of EMR with the environment, which can be registered is constant in time, "red shift" in the radiation of the electric wave. Selection of the anisotropy of the medium by adjusting the current to an electric field (Kerr effects, Pockels and others) from the constant current source allows you to maximize the amplitude of the emitted vibrations with a frequency of "red shift".

Studies using the proposed device, in addition to direct evidence of the validity of the assumptions associated with SSPING, allow for evaluation of physical parameters of anisotrop what's environments according to the degree of performance of transient phenomena in such environments under the action of radiation in various optical and not only the optical spectrum EMW, that may find application in the technique of spectroscopy. The arrangement of these experiments will allow us to justify what is happening in the Universe processes "red shift" in the emission of extragalactic nebulae, in a new way to explain astronomical observations on the "red shift" is not in accordance with the current concept of "scattering of Galaxies" (on theory of Friedman).

It is of interest to consider whether all of the microparticles of this differential volume anisotropic environment take part in changing the patterns of their movement under the action of electromagnetic wave with time-varying polarization as a function of magnitude of the density of energy flow EMW (in function of the Poynting vector). This fact is important to find out in connection with the approval of the author SSPAM about the lack of physics dualism on the issue quantized or aquantance wave field. It is known that the electromagnetic field is phenomenologically manifest as a wave and corpuscular properties. Thus, the phenomena of interference, diffraction, dispersion, Doppler effect, and many others show that the electromagnetic field is a wave energy transmission. A number of other phenomena (the Compton effect, the pressure of light, photoelectric effect, and others), in contrast, indicate apparent corpuscularity this field. In particular, by albert Einstein in 1905 introduced the concept of photons to explain the external photoelectric effect, in relation to which the kinetic energy of the photoelectrons is not a function of the intensity incident on photomixing light, and is only a function of its frequency, and in this case the atom absorbs the photon as a whole. This introduction of photons, i.e. the quantization of the electromagnetic field energy, has led to the emergence of a powerful mathematical apparatus of quantum mechanics, and subsequently to relativistic quantum field theory. Basic physical constant in today adopted Planck's constant, which determines the energy of a photon through its frequency. Other important constant in physics are electrodynamic constant (speed of light in vacuum) and the gravitational constant is determined from the law of universal gravitation of Newton. Through these three constants can be expressed in dimensions of all known physical quantities, which makes these universal constant. All of them are confirmed by experimental evidence, therefore, does not cause doubts as to the legitimacy of their application in theoretical and experimental physics.

However, the explanation of the photoelectric effect was possible from a position of pure wave theory (like all other phenomena and effects, demanding the quantization of the electromagnetic field introduced by the author of the so-called calibration relations between the Planck constant reffering to the torus Poynting, the time of interaction of electromagnetic waves with matter atom in the processes of excitation radiation of a certain portion of energy proportional to the frequency of the electromagnetic wave, and properties of matter [4]. This calibration ratio indicates that no electromagnetic field in the medium is quantized and the atom of the medium is excited by absorbing a photon of energy, and emits a photon of energy going into the ground state, and the property of quantization of energy has in relation to the electromagnetic wave of the substance itself, its atoms and molecules absorb and emit only quantized portion of energy from EMW. And changes for different values of the Poynting vector in this differential volume only time during which the atom or molecule absorbs or emits a given amount of energy of the electric wave, is proportional to the product of the Planck constant to the frequency of EMW. In other words, the higher the intensity of the electric wave, the faster the process of excitation of atoms or molecules, and taken from EMW energy remains constant, equal to the energy of a photon in the quantum mechanical view.

Check this interpretation, excluding the existing dualism in physics at the question of interpretation of the electromagnetic field as a wave, or particulate, is a fundamental physical problem is.

Similar concept to eliminate this dualism based on the use of calibration ratios it should be assumed that the change of the radiation intensity (change of the Poynting vector in this differential volume environment) can lead to a change in the time constant of the nonstationary process of interaction of EMR with an anisotropic environment, or to change the number of microparticles environment, taking part in changing the patterns of their movement out of the total number of these particles, but without changing the specified value of the time constant. Figuring out how the system will behave depending on the change of the Poynting vector EMW is an important physical result.

Therefore, the introduction in the inventive device photometric wedge, allowing sufficient limits to change the magnitude of the Poynting vector in electromagnetic wave passing through an anisotropic environment, can and should shed light on the resolution of the question of whether all, or not all of the microparticles of this differential volume anisotropic environment participate in the restructuring of the pattern of its movement under the action of changing the polarization of the electromagnetic wave as a function of magnitude of the Poynting vector. If all that works "calibration value", and in function of the magnitude of the Poynting vector should change the time constant setting mode is, therefore, violated resonance "red shift" at a constant value of the frequency generator. If not, then the value of the "red shift" will not change with the growth of the Poynting vector within some threshold, after which (when all particles will take part in changing the patterns of their movement) again there are conditions violations resonance "red shift" due to the changes specified time constant in accordance with the calibration ratio for the system.

The proposed device can be used when conducting physical studies of electromagnetic fields and patterns of its interaction with different environments - isotropic, anisotropic, turbulent, and other optically active. The device is simple enough in execution to a specialized laboratory, associated with the quantum devices and photodetector technology.

Sources of information

1. Person, van der CIL, Malmstrom. "The inverse Faraday effect," paper presented at the IV International conference on quantum electronics in Puerto Rico, 28-30 June 1965, publ. Phys, 88, No. 1, 177, 1965

Offensi. Light-magnetic effect. Application for the opening of No. 32-FROM-4540 from 30.06.1965, Moscow, Russia.

2. Offensi. Method of generating electrical oscillations. Author's certificate. The SSR No. 1380476, publ. the Bulletin "Inventions. Useful model № 12 from 24.04.2004,

3. Offensi. Generating microwaves in anisotropic media by the optical action of the shock wave, the report on the V all-Union workshop on optoelectronics, Institute of control Sciences of the USSR, Moscow, 22.04.1975,

4. Offensi. The law of conservation of polarization of electromagnetic waves. Application for discovery # BB-155 from 17.10.2003, (with applications), Moscow, MAANO RANS.

Device for the detection of resonance effect "red shift" of electromagnetic waves in anisotropic media containing single-frequency laser and two-electrode cell with anisotropic substance is electrically connected with the DC source and the spectrum analyzer, and between single-frequency laser and two-electrode cuvette with anisotropic substance has been consistently found to United optical photometric wedge and electro-optical polarization light modulator, electrically associated with high-frequency generator, also containing heterodyne photodetector, optical input of which is connected with the optical output of the two-electrode cell with anisotropic substance, and the electrical output to the input of the spectrum analyzer, and two-electrode cell with anisotropic substance is installed in one from the optical branches of the two-beam inter is pyometra of the two inclined semi-transparent reflectors, the first of which is installed between the electro-optical polarization light modulator and the two-electrode cell with anisotropic substance, and the second between the optical output of the last and heterodyne photodetection device, and from the first inclined reflector installed between the output electrode of the cell with anisotropic substance and the second inclined semi-transparent reflector, the other optical branch specified two-beam interferometer is formed by the first and second semi-transparent reflectors and the second sloped reflector established between them.



 

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EFFECT: improved efficiency of operation.

48 cl, 10 dwg

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