Combination type head for turning outer spherical surfaces

FIELD: working materials by cutting, cutting tools.

SUBSTANCE: head includes two cutter heads kinematically connected one with other and having at least two similar cutters. One cutter head is adjusted for preliminary rough working and other cutter head is adjusted for finish working at axial feed. Cutter heads are arranged one opposite to other by inclination angle (determined according to given formula) relative to plane normal to blank axis and passing through center of worked spherical surface. Paths of rotation of head cutter apexes have common point arranged in lengthwise axis of blank. Heads may be rotated from one drive unit at the same revolution number for timing motion of cutters due to successive alternative passing of said common point by cutters of rough and finish heads.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of turning high quality and high accuracy spherical surfaces.

2 dwg

 

The invention relates to the treatment of materials by cutting and can be used when machining the outer spherical surfaces.

A disadvantage of the known devices is the poor performance due to the serial execution roughing and finishing of transitions with the same cutter, which increases the computing time processing, and a large expenditure of time at idle passages and feed switching.

The objective of the invention is the processing capacity of the outer spherical surfaces by applying mnogoreztsovyh processing with simultaneous implementation of roughing and finishing of transitions, as well as improving the accuracy of processing generated by the rotation of the tool, where the accuracy of forming the spherical surface is determined not by the profile tool and precision rotary devices, and the accuracy of the trajectory of movement of the workpiece and the tool, i.e. the kinematics of the process that allows to obtain a spherical surface of high quality and precision.

The problem is solved using the proposed combination head for turning the outer spherical surfaces, consisting of two kinematically connected between a cutting head having at least two identical cutters, and cutting heads, of which one head is configured on the seat reservation rough handling, and the other on the final finish machining due to axial, are against each other at an angle β to the plane perpendicular to the axis of the workpiece and passing through the centre line of the spherical surface, with the path of rotation of the tops of the cutters heads have a common point located on the longitudinal axis of the workpiece, and the heads are rotating from one drive with the same frequency for synchronizing the movement of the cutters, which consists in the successive passage of the mentioned common point turn cutters roughing and finishing heads, the angle β defined by the formula

β=arc sin (h/RSF),

where h is the magnitude of the displacement plane of rotation of the tops of the cutters of the heads relative to the centre line of the spherical surface, depending on the design parameters of the workpiece, mm;

RSFis the radius of the machined spherical surface, mm

Design features and operation of the proposed combination heads are illustrated by the drawings.

Figure 1 presents the scheme of turning the outer spherical surfaces using the proposed combination of a head comprising two synchronously operating cutting heads; figure 2 is a stepped cross-section a-a in figure 1.

The proposed combined head is designed for high-performance precision the Oia outer spherical surfaces of the multiple blade cutting tools cutters and consists of two synchronously operating cutting heads HR and GR.

Cutting heads HR and GR are composed of the same number, but not less than two incisors. Knife head GR has cutters 1 and 2 in contact with the machined workpiece 5 at the points b and C. Cutting head GR has the cutters 3 and 4 in contact with the machined workpiece 5 in the other diametrically opposite points.

Knife head HR is rough and is configured for pre-processing, cutting head GR finishing and configured to final processing. Configuring heads HR and GR on the desired depth of cut is due to the axial feed, respectively, S1and S2.

Cutting heads are placed against each other so that their longitudinal axes of rotation are at an angle β to the plane perpendicular to the axis of the workpiece 5, and pass through the center of the spherical surface, with the path of rotation of VS and VD vertices respectively 1, 2 and 3, 4 cutters heads respectively GR and GR touch point In a spherical surface located on the longitudinal axis of the workpiece.

To synchronize the movement of the cutters, which consists in a strict sequence passing through the point (located on the longitudinal axis of the workpiece) of the spherical surface, for example, cutter 1 th rough ovci GR then the cutter 3 finishing head HR, then the cutter 2 roughing head HR, then the cutter 4 finishing head HR and so forth, the rotation of the heads is provided from one drive (not shown), and the frequency of rotation is equal to V2=V3and kinematically linked. Part of the actuator includes a motor and appropriate gear-box (not shown)for transmitting rotation with velocity V1the Central gear Z1. Knife head GR kinematically connected with a drive through gears Z2included in mesh with the Central gear Z1.

Knife head GR kinematically connected with a drive through gears Z5included in engagement with the ring gear Z4block Z3/Z4that his ring gear Z3is engaged with the Central gear Z1. Gears Z2and Z5installed on its splined shafts with spline mobile connections, by which cutting heads HR and GR have the opportunity axial movements of the S1and S2.

Angle β the longitudinal axes of the heads HR and GR to the plane perpendicular to the axis of the workpiece 5 and passing through the center of the sphere, defined by the formula

β=arc sin (h/RSF),

where h is the magnitude of the displacement plane of rotation of the tops of the cutters heads otnositelno center machined spherical surface, depending on the design parameters of the workpiece, mm;

RSFis the radius of the machined spherical surface of the workpiece, mm

The work of the proposed combination of the head based on the property of a spherical surface, which consists in the fact that its any section plane including the plane that is offset from the center of the spherical surface, gives a circle. This allows to represent the process of forming partial spherical surface by the method of turning movement of the generatrix line of the circle described by the cutting elements, the plane which is offset from the center of the spherical surface on the guide lines of the circle obtained by rotating the workpiece. Thus, the accuracy of forming the spherical surface is determined not by the profile tool and the accuracy of the trajectory of these movements, i.e. the kinematics of the process that allows to obtain a spherical surface with high precision.

Turning the outer spherical surfaces offer head is performed in the following sequence. Head mounted on the carriage of a lathe, for example, mod. C. Blank-stamping 5 with a pre-prepared surface for placing and fixing (for example, a conical shape and a threaded shank procurement and, shown in figure 1) is fixed in a special device 6 mounted on the spindle of a lathe.

Combined head installed on the carriage of a lathe, comprising two cutting heads with cutters, down to the workpiece so that the point of intersection of the longitudinal axes of the heads coincided with the center of the spherical surface of the workpiece. When this head is maximally diluted, i.e. radially removed from the center of the spherical surface of the workpiece. Further include a rotational drive tools and heads reported rotational motion around its own axis with velocity V2=V3depending on the brand of material cutters and material properties of the workpiece and determined by known methods. Then carry radial, axial flow, making trial of the incision (e.g., manually, using the limb (not shown), first draft head S1and then finishing head S2and the workpiece is stationary.

After installing cutters and heads to the desired cutting depth include the spindle with the workpiece, which reported rotational motion with velocity Vzagaround its own axis.

The proposed combined cylinder and expanding technological capabilities for the processing of spherical surfaces and allows you to handle spherical surface due to the built in two planes VS and VD, angled β to the axis of the workpiece.

The work heads HR and GR can be carried out with two, and with a large number of cutters, which at the time of processing pass through a common point In the two trajectories in the following order 1-3-2-4.

Simultaneous operation of two heads HR and HR allows you to balance the system, and the location of the pairs of incisors in mutually intersecting planes to improve the uniformity, stability of the cutting process and significantly reduce the degree of vibration of the technical system.

Combined head allows you to reduce the computing time thanks

- simultaneous conduction of roughing and finishing processing multi-instrumental spherical surface;

- turning spherical surface with two opposite sides;

- reducing the number of revolutions of the workpiece required for complete processing.

For a full treatment of the spherical surface enough 0.75 turnover of the workpiece.

Combined head allows for the processing of a spherical surface alternately, first a rough head, and then finishing head. This will increase the tool life by reducing thermal processing mode when the redistribution allowance between the heads and cutters, with appropriate settings of the heads.

The proposed combined the head can increase the degree of geometrical precision spherical surface due to the kinematics of the process and refusal method copy.

Combined head allows you to upgrade the roughness of machined spherical surface due to the presence of the angle of intersection of trajectories of the cutters heads, causing the grid traces and the nature of the microgeometry as when applying vibrations.

In the treatment area in the districts of points C and D observed a decrease in the cutting layer that the processing of one cutter leads to a distortion of the geometry of the workpiece and, in addition, the allowance on a spherical surface uneven (blank produced, for example, the landing, is offset from the connector stamps, and nepostanovocnyje items allowance etc), which leads to the copying process of heredity. Processing roughing and finishing rescueme heads can dramatically reduce the amount of technological inheritance and to improve the geometrical accuracy of the machined surface.

During manufacturing test, installed in a special electro-mechanical device in front spindle headstock lathe mod. CF the workpiece-pressing finger ball top 2101-2904187, made of steel 20 GOST 1050-74 diameter of the spherical surface of the workpiece 40 mm, handle spherical surface diameter 32,7±0,1; source parameter roughness of the workpiece Ra=80 μm, made-Ra=3.2 mm; the combined head in the form of two cutting heads with two blades each, the amount of displacement of the rotation plane of the tops of the cutters of the heads relative to the centre line of the spherical surface h = 5 mm; the angle at which the longitudinal axes of the heads β=17°50' to the plane perpendicular to the axis of the workpiece and passing through the center of the spherical surface. The treatment was carried out in the following modes: draft head is configured for pre-processing - cutting depth at 3.35 mm, the cutting speed of 106 m/min, flow ramping S1and S2- manual speed presets 1.06 m/min; the finishing head is configured to final processing of the depth of cut of 0.3 mm, the Required surface roughness and accuracy of the spherical surface were achieved through the Tm=0,2 min (against Tmdatabases=min 2,75 in the baseline case of traditional processing on the copier Orlovsky steel rolling plant ospas). This was the indicator clip indicator ICH 10 B CL 1 GOST 577-68 and monitor modes. 283 type AII GOST 19300-86. In the processed lot (100 pieces) the defective parts are not detected. The deviation of the machined surface from sphericity was not more than 0.08 mm, which is THE valid.

The comparison of the obtained results with the data processing produced by known methods, showed higher p is poizvoditelnosti, shape accuracy and dimensional accuracy of processing 2.5 times, as well as reducing the cost of manufacture.

The source of information

1 A.S. 1340907 MKI423 In 1/00. The method for turning the outer spherical surfaces. Lmmfao, Mdedical. Application No. 4067952/25-08, Appl. 19.05.86; publ. 30.09.87. Bull. No. 36 - a prototype.

The combined cylinder for turning the outer spherical surfaces, consisting of two kinematically connected between a cutting head having at least two identical cutters, and cutting heads, of which one head is configured on the preliminary draft processing, and the other on the final finish machining due to axial, are against each other at an angle β to the plane perpendicular to the axis of the workpiece and passing through the centre line of the spherical surface, with the path of rotation of the tops of the cutters heads have a common point located on the longitudinal axis of the workpiece, and the heads are rotating from one drive with the same frequency for synchronizing the movement of the cutters, which consists in the successive passage of the mentioned common point turn cutters roughing and finishing heads, the angle β defined by the formula

β=arc sin (h/RSF),

where h is the magnitude of the displacement of the plane of rotation of cage the incisors of the heads relative to the centre line of the spherical surface, depending on the design parameters of the workpiece, mm;

RSFis the radius of the machined spherical surface, mm



 

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