Method of removing radionuclides and heavy metals from soil

FIELD: disposal of solid waste.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises removing the contaminated layer of soil, separating the large impurities and biomass, grinding the contaminated layer by dispersing in water environment to produce pulp which is treated by ultrasound for disintegration of water-resistant agents, and supplying the pulp for separating the destructed agents into density and sizes of the particles by gravity to produce and separate the rectified coarse mineral and organo-mineral fraction, and draining contaminated fine dispersed mineral, organo-mineral, and organic fractions. The deposit containing radionuclides and heavy metals are separated, dried, and fed to the processing and burying. The purified water solution is returned for the repeatable use.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency and quality of cleaning.

22 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to methods of cleaning and soils of industrial areas, nuclear power plants, metallurgical and reprocessing plants or areas affected by contamination as a result of industrial accidents and disasters.

The results of investigations of contaminated areas and the experience of rehabilitation measures indicate that the soils and soil are the main reservoir of radionuclides and heavy metals deposited on the surface of the earth.

It is known that radioactive substances and heavy metals that fall on the surface of soil and vegetation after severe accidents at nuclear power plants, over time, undergo complex biochemical and physico-chemical soil environment. In the processes of mineralization of plant residues and chemical effects of soil humic substances on radioactive aerosol particles is the release of radionuclides from the aerosol composition of the matrix and their subsequent dissolution in soil solutions. The bulk of the radionuclides and heavy metals (up to 95%) is accumulated in the fine mineral, organo-mineral and organic fractions of the soil. The separation of these fine fractions from the main mass of the soil leads to clean it.

Modern technologies of cleaning soils based on the principles of gravity separation, is providing for the separate particle fractions, i.e. according to their size and density.

The known method of separation of fines from the clean large fractions of soils (EPO 0707900 In 09 With 1/02), including the preparation of the contaminated fraction for further processing and separating it from the pure fractions, which receive concentrated contaminated fraction and the bulk of the purified fractions. Metals, alloys and/or radioactive contaminants are removed from the purified fractions using either gravity separation, or multitudinous separation or centrifugation or magnetic or paramagnetic separation or superconducting separation. Then lead the preparation of the fine fractions to the separation of particles of a certain size and biomass and their removal from the soil. A complete cleanup of soil washing, counterflow centrifugation and separation of the fine fraction.

A method of processing radioactive contaminated soils (EPO 0978331 In 09 With 1/02) the removal of radioactive contaminants. The method includes the establishment of a water and soil suspension and direction of this suspension in the separator is permeable to particles of a certain size. Fine particles containing radioactive contaminants are separated and sent to storage of radioactive waste. Aqueous suspension containing coarse soil particles are directed to a separator for obasogie the Oia, after which the soil is placed on the conveyor in a layer of approximately uniform thickness and subjected to the test for radioactivity. Portions of the soil in which the detected radioactive particles return for reprocessing, and cleared the ground return on the sampling location for use without restrictions.

There is also known a method (EPO 0396322, G 21 F 9/06), in which part of the waste containing toxic or radioactive substances, subjected to separation with screening installation and device discovery of radioactivity removal and disposal of radioactive fractions, another part of the waste is passed through a fluidized bed apparatus, where the aqueous leach solution is in contact with contaminating material. The contaminated solution is sent to the settling tank, the solid waste is separated and the aqueous alkaline solution is passed through the ion exchange apparatus.

However, the application of such technologies for the decontamination of soils containing humus substances, not very effectively. Soil colloids present in macroaggregate soil particles contaminate the coarse fraction and do not provide a highly efficient cleaning. In addition, discharge takes up a large amount of mineral low fine fraction, which is part of microaggregates.

The challenge cat is Roy directed the present invention, is the achievement of the minimum specific activity of the soil after cleaning it from radionuclides and heavy metals, the ability to use it without limitations, including the return to the land, as well as the decline of secondary radioactive waste through the creation of a continuous closed loop.

To solve the problem applying the method of cleaning soils from radionuclides and heavy metals, according to which the removed contaminated soil and ground separate foreign large solids, biomass, ground contaminated layer to water stable aggregates by dispersing it in the aqueous medium receiving pulp which is subjected to ultrasonic processing for the destruction of water-stable aggregates and serves on the division of the destroyed units for density and particle size of the particles of the gravitational method for receiving and separating the purified coarse mineral and organic fractions, and plum containing the contaminated fine mineral, organo-mineral and organic fractions, discharge is directed to the deposition treatment flocculant based on aqueous solutions of cationic and anionic polyelectrolytes total concentration of 2,5-250.0 mg/l, which is in equimolar ratio, providing analyses of flocs, paramasivan who eat the precipitate containing the radionuclides and heavy metals, separated, dewatered and sent for recycling or disposal, and purified water solution return for reuse.

The pulp is subjected to ultrasound treatment apparatus of periodic action.

The pulp is subjected to ultrasound treatment apparatus of continuous operation.

As the gravitational method of separation of destroyed units for density and particle size of the particles using the method of multi-stage hydrocyclone separation.

As the gravitational method of separation of destroyed units for density and particle size of the particles used method of spiral classification.

As the gravitational method of separation of destroyed units for density and particle size of the particles used method aeroconversions separation.

As the gravitational method of separation of destroyed units for density and particle size of the particles used cone separation.

As the gravitational method of separation of destroyed units for density and particle size of the particles used method of centrifugal separation.

As the gravitational method of separation of destroyed units for density and particle size of the particles used method of coil separation.

As gravitationnal the method of separation of destroyed units for density and particle size of the particles use a combination of methods multi-stage hydrocyclone, aeroconversions, cone, centrifugal, screw separation, spiral classification.

As a flocculant, a mixture of an aqueous solution of anionic polyelectrolyte based on hydrolyzed polyacrylonitrile and an aqueous solution of cationic polyelectrolytes based on poly-N,N-diallyl-N,N-dimethylammonium chloride.

As the anionic polyelectrolyte use water-soluble polymeric carboxylic acids and their salts.

As water-soluble polymeric carboxylic acids and their salts using polyacrylic acid, or polymethacrylic acid, or copolymers with acrylamide or copolymers of maleic acid with styrene or ethylene, or propylene, or carboxymethylcellulose.

As the anionic polyelectrolyte use water-soluble polymeric sulfonic acids and their salts.

As water-soluble polymeric sulfonic acids and their salts use polystyrenesulfonate or lignosulfonate.

As the cationic polyelectrolyte used water-soluble polymeric amines and their salts.

As water-soluble polymeric amines and their salts use polyethyleneimine or poly-N,N-dimethyl-N-aminoacylation.

As a cationic polyelectrolyte use of polymeric Quaternary salt.

As polymeric Quaternary salts IP is result poly-N,N-diallyl-N,N-dimethylammonium halides or poly-N-alkyl-4 vinylpyridinium salt.

The deposition of discharge carried out by addition of an aqueous solution containing anionic and cationic polyelectrolytes and low molecular weight salt, and mixing it with the sink.

Deposition plum perform sequential addition of first aqueous solution of anionic polyelectrolyte, mixing it with the sink, then adding a cationic polyelectrolyte and again by stirring.

The precipitate is treated with a concentrated solution of low molecular weight salts or acids for the extraction of flocculant and return for reuse.

Processing the formed precipitate is carried out under the action of ultrasound.

The drawing shows a block diagram of the process of cleaning soils from radionuclides and heavy metals, which includes the following processing stages:

I - collection and delivery of contaminated soil;

II - preliminary soil preparation (homogenization);

III - the dispersion of soil in water, the formation of soil suspensions;

IV - disaggregation of the soil, the division of mineral, organo-mineral and organic fractions under the action of ultrasonic treatment;

V - selection of fine mineral and organic substances under the action of gravity separation;

VI - thickening fine plum organic and organo-mineral is wow substance of the soil, the conditioning of solid radioactive waste;

VII - Department of flocculant from the fine fraction extraction using water-salt solutions or acid solutions.

The whole scheme of the process provided by operations, prevent dusting.

The contaminated soil is fed to the treatment plant where the conduct of its pre-processing (stage I and II). Pre-processing consists in sifting the soil through sieves to separate large inclusions contained in the original soil (rocks, roots, branches, plants), and the selection of soil particle size more than 10 mm Larger particles are removed from the cycle, and they do not participate in further treatment, as they contain the minimum number of pollutants.

The next stage of purification is the dispersion of soil in water with the formation of soil suspension (stage III). Because the decontamination efficiency increases with increased allocation of fine fractions, stage IV provides additional disaggregation of soil suspensions by ultrasound.

After disaggregation of the soil suspension in the form of slurry is directed to the site of division of fractions, where the fractional separation of fine and coarse particles and phase separation of organic matter from the mineral (stage V). The separation of the particles at this stage, hold m is today hydroclassification, accepted in the processing technology of mineral processing (by means of multi-stage hydrocyclone separation method aeroconversions separation method conical or centrifugal separation method, a spiral separation).

Depending on the composition of decontaminated soils, their quantity, requirements, process performance, technical and financial capacity, technical equipment enrichment may be different. This hydrocyclones, concentration tables, spiral hydroclassification, jet and centrifugal concentrators.

Highly active fine plums, containing organic and organo-mineral matter of the soil, sent to concentration of flocculants, the compacting and disposal (stage VI), and the treated soil can be returned to the gathering place (stage V).

The flocculant may be returned for re-use after processing the formed precipitate concentrated solution of low molecular weight salts or acids (stage VII).

The most important characteristics defining the efficiency of the purification of the earth, are the following:

chemical and mineralogical composition of the soil;

- physico-chemical and mechanical composition of the soil;

- the nature of the radioactive contamination of soil, contamination, distribution of radionuclides heavy metals on fractions.

It is known that the dispersion of the soil in the aquatic environment are destroyed only the most tenuous connection, and sustainable water stable aggregates remain intact.

In order to obtain a suspension of elementary soil particles, it is necessary to apply more rigorous methods of disaggregation of the soil, leading to sever the ties of soil colloids with mineral soil particles and to the formation of fractions homogeneous by its physicochemical properties.

When ultrasonic processing of soil suspensions is a mechanical destruction due to soil colloids with mineral soil particles. Ultrasonic vibrations transmit mechanical pressure of a liquid medium on soil aggregates, which under the action of cavitation fluid dissolved, and emitted from this elementary soil particles become suspended state.

The effectiveness of ultrasonic treatment was manifested in the increase of the coefficient of decontamination of soils 3-10 times compared to traditional methods of dispersive soil suspensions.

The table presents the efficiency interpolyelectrolyte complexes on the basis of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes (IPEC) as flocculants dispersion of soils.

The text uses the following abbreviations:

The GIPAN - hydrolyzed p is lacrimonasal (the product is a copolymer of acrylamide and of ammonium acrylate), Na - Na salt of polyacrylic acid, Na - Na salt of polymethacrylic acid, Na CMC - Na salt of carboxymethyl cellulose, LS - sodium lignosulphonate, CCNa - polystyrenesulfonate sodium;

PDADMAC - poly-N,N-diallyl-N,N-dimethylammonium chloride, PAYS. HCl - hydrochloric acid polyethylenimine, PDMAEMA. HCl - hydrochloric acid poly-N,N-dimethylaminoethylmethacrylate, PMPB - poly-N-ethyl-4-vinylpyridinium bromide.

We investigated the effectiveness of IPAC as flocculants for aqueous dispersions of soil and sand and studied the dependence of the efficiency polycomplex flocculants from the following options: dose IPAC flocculant, the ratio of the components of polyelectrolytes, z=[polycation/polyanion], the sequence of addition of the polycation or polyanion to the dispersion, the concentration of the dispersion.

As can be seen from the table, IPAC are very effective flocculants for aqueous dispersions of soils. Indeed, the time of deposition of the dispersed particles is reduced from 24 hours (flocculant) to 1 minute and less.

Transparent supernatant were obtained only when the stoichiometric ratio of the components, z=1. When non-stoichiometric ratio IPAC components (z<1 and z>1) transparency mother solutions greatly fell.

It should mark the mounting, the concentration of the aqueous dispersion (slurry) affects the flocculation process. Thus, increasing the concentration of the dispersion is from 0.5 to 1.8 wt.% leads to the acceleration of the flocculation process.

For example, when the concentration of the initial dispersion of the soil from 0.5 to 1.8 wt.% the time of deposition of soil particles in the presence of IPAC (GIPAN-PDADMAC), z=1, with a concentration of 50 mg/l, decreases from 1 min to 20 seconds. However, further increase in the concentration of the dispersion of the soil up to 3.6 wt.% leads to a fall in the efficiency of flocculation.

The time of deposition of the particles increases and uterine fluids become less transparent.

Increase dose IPAC (GIPAN - PDADMAC), IPAC (Na CMC - PDADMAC) or (PA - PDADMAC) in excess of 200 mg/l resulted in a significant increase in turbidity stock solution.

Was evaluated the efficiency of flocculation of dispersions of soils depending on the pH of the solution, measured using 10 wt.% the solution of KOH and 5 wt.% solution of HNO3. The results obtained in the study of flocculation of a wide range of IPEC formed oppositely charged both synthetic and natural polyelectrolytes, testified that polyelectrolyte complexes are effective flocculants for aqueous dispersions of soils in a wide pH range.

An example of a specific implementation of the method.

Contaminated soil, have s the following characteristics:

bulk weight of from 1800 to 2500 kg/m3;

the size of the individual pieces of soil and turf should not exceed 10×10 cm;

the specific activity of soil - 1,7-70,0 Bq/g

in quantities of 1000 kg/hour is served in the inlet opening of the hopper supply. Bunker supply feeder is equipped with a device that prevents dusting. From the hopper feeding the soil in quantities of 1000 kg/hour is directed to dispersion in the scrubber-Butare, integrated with a roar of 2.0 mm head apparatus serves technical water for washing the biomass.

In the scrubber-Butare agglomerated pieces of ground breaking, biomass (roots, grass) are mostly separated from the mineral fraction (sand and clay). Then separate the coarse fraction is more than 2.0 mm with the following characteristics:

the product yield of 50 kg/h;

the humidity of the product about 10%;

bulk density from 1900 to 2500 kg/m3;

the size of the particles greater than 2.0 mm;

the specific activity should not exceed 1 Bq/g;

the product is a friable, easily behind the metal surfaces, contains a large percentage of the biomass in the process of squeezing the reduction ratio can be up to 5-10% of the total.

Faction unload and clean detachable product control radiometric devices. Purified fractions collected in containers with clean soil. Contaminated products stariway in containers for the solid radioactive waste. The slurry from the scrubber-Butare directed to ultrasonic installation.

Pulp has the following characteristics:

the output of the pulp 2500 kg/h;

T:W=1:1,6 (humidity 39%);

the specific weight of the pulp 1600 kg/m3;

the size of the solid particles of the pulp is less than 2.0 mm;

specific activity 6-30 Bq/g;

the pulp is thick, does not stick to metal surfaces.

In the sump of the power supply of the ultrasonic installation additionally served to 200 kg/h of process water. Next, a homogeneous mixture is fed to the first stage hydrocyclone site. The cyclone is a centrifugal classifier with gravity unloading sand fraction of the soil. The pulp is fed into the hydrocyclone tangentially under the pressure created by pulp pump.

In hydrocyclone node under the action of centrifugal forces is to divide the mixture into clarified liquid containing the fine solids and most of the liquid, and a thick slurry containing coarse particles larger than 100 microns, having low activity. Large gravel part of the soil is unloaded through the bottom drain of the hydrocyclone, and small - exits through the bottom outlet of the hydrocyclone. The nozzle on the sand pipe provides a reduced water content in the final product (T:W=2:1).

The pulp is fed to the hydrocyclone node has the following characteristics of the AMI:

slurry flow rate of 4200 kg/h;

T:W=1:4,;

the pulp density of approximately 1100 kg/m3;

the particle size is less than 2.0 mm;

the specific activity of the pulp does not exceed 1-2 Bq/year

In the first hydrocyclone stage following the separation of the threads.

2850 kg/HR slurry enriched in the fine fractions from the drain outlet of the first hydrocyclone stage (solid content 4,56%) served in the sump of the power of the third stage hydrocyclone for separation of coarse fractions. 1350 kg/h of a thickened suspension enriched in coarse fractions of the sand pipe of the first hydrocyclone stage after adding 2850 kg/h of water and active mixing in the sump of the power of the second hydrocyclone stage is fed to the second stage hydrocyclone for separation of fine fractions.

In the second hydrocyclone stage following the separation of the threads.

2900 kg/HR slurry enriched in the fine fraction from the drain pipe of the second hydrocyclone stage (solid content 2,44%) is directed into the sump of the power of the third stage hydrocyclone for separation of coarse fractions.

From sand pipe of the second hydrocyclone stage unload the treated sand fraction with the following characteristics:

the output of 1300 kg/h;

T:W=2:1;

density from 1.5 to 2.0 g/cm3;

the size of particles in suspension is above 0.1 mm;

the specific activity of suspension must not exceed 0,2-0,5 Bq/year

Purified fractions are collected in containers for collecting the purified soil volume of 5 m3. After passing the monitoring of the ground return to the place of seizure, and further material can be used without restriction.

United suspensions (with the first and second stage), enriched in the fine fraction, after intensive mixing in the sump of the power of the third hydrocyclone stage is directed to the third hydrocyclone stage for the final cleaning from coarse fractions.

In the third hydrocyclone stage following the separation of the threads.

The mineral fraction of the sand pipe hydrocyclone third stage of the return to the sump of the power of the second hydrocyclone stage. Clarified slurry coming out of the drain connection of the third hydrocyclone stage is directed to the node thickening.

Pulp has the following characteristics:

the output of 5700 kg/h;

the solids content 1,49%;

the density of 1020 to 1050 kg/m3;

the size of particles in suspension below 0.1 mm;

the specific activity of the suspension should not exceed 2-3 Bq/year

Site thickening is designed for purification of water and the discharge from her small fractions of the soil. Node thickening use flocculants based on IPEC to provide the recommended reading the fine fraction.

Node thickening spending allocation from the pulp of fine mineral and organic fractions that have the following characteristics:

the yield of 240 kg/h;

T:W=1:2;

the specific weight of the pulp from 1200 to 1500 g/cm3;

a particle size of from 5-10 up to 60-100 microns;

the specific activity of suspensions of more than 10-100 Bq/year

The resulting slurry having a high specific activity, is directed to the dewatering of fine high-level faction to the solid content of 95 wt.%. The process carried out at the plate of the filters.

The dehydrated product has the following characteristics:

yield 85 kg/h;

the solids content of 95% wt;

the specific weight of the product from 2200 to 2500 g/cm3;

a particle size of from 5-10 up to 60-100 microns;

the specific activity of the suspension over 40-300 Bq/year

The contaminated fraction arrive on site treatment and disposal of the products of the separation, which is designed for continuous unloading, packing cleaned of soil and removal for disposal or recycling of radioactive waste with the aim of better localization, or further decontamination of other methods.

Full-scale tests on contaminated soils showed high efficiency and competitiveness of the proposed method compared with other treatment technologies of the earth. Thus from soils and Grun the s can extract up to 95% of the radionuclides and heavy metals, concentrating them in a small volume of no more than 10-15% of the original volume of soil. The method makes it possible to perform cleaning of the soil directly in the contaminated areas on the mobile modular units. Residual contaminated soil after treatment decreased to 0.4-0.2 Bq/g, i.e. to such activity values at which the soil can be returned to the gathering place and use in business without restrictions.

The method can also be used to improve the recovery of valuable components from old dumps in the mining industry.

1. The method of cleaning soils from radionuclides and heavy metals, according to which the removed contaminated soil and ground separate foreign large solids, biomass, ground contaminated layer to water stable aggregates by dispersing it in the aqueous medium receiving pulp which is subjected to ultrasonic processing for the destruction of water-stable aggregates and serves on the division of the destroyed units for density and particle size of the particles of the gravitational method for receiving and separating the purified coarse mineral and organic fractions, and plum containing the contaminated fine mineral, organo-mineral and organic fractions, discharge is directed to the deposition treatment floculant the ohms on the basis of aqueous solutions of cationic and anionic polyelectrolytes total concentration of 2,5-250.0 mg/l, in equimolar ratio, providing analyses of flocs and stirring, the precipitate containing the radionuclides and heavy metals, separated, dewatered and sent for recycling or disposal, and purified water solution return for reuse.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the pulp is subjected to ultrasound treatment apparatus of periodic action.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the pulp is subjected to ultrasound treatment apparatus of continuous operation.

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that as the gravitational method of separation of destroyed units for density and particle size of the particles using the method of multi-stage hydrocyclone separation.

5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that as the gravitational method of separation of destroyed units for density and particle size of the particles used method of spiral classification.

6. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that as the gravitational method of separation of destroyed units for density and particle size of the particles used method aeroconversions separation.

7. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that as the gravitational method of separation of destroyed units for density and particle size of the particles used cone CE is arachi.

8. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that as the gravitational method of separation of destroyed units for density and particle size of the particles used method of centrifugal separation.

9. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that as the gravitational method of separation of destroyed units for density and particle size of the particles used method of coil separation.

10. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that as the gravitational method of separation of destroyed units for density and particle size of the particles use a combination of methods multi-stage hydrocyclone, aeroconversions, cone, centrifugal, screw separation, spiral classification.

11. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that as a flocculant, a mixture of salt aqueous solution of anionic polyelectrolyte based on hydrolyzed polyacrylonitrile and an aqueous solution of cationic polyelectrolytes based on poly-N,N-diallyl-N,N-dimethylammonium chloride.

12. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the anionic polyelectrolyte use water-soluble polymeric carboxylic acids and their salts.

13. The method according to item 12, characterized in that as the water-soluble polymeric carboxylic acids and their salts using polyacrylic acid, or polymethacrylic acid, or copolymers with acrylamide, or carbon is metilzellulozu.

14. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the anionic polyelectrolyte used vodorastvorimye polymeric sulfonic acids and their salts.

15. The method according to 14, characterized in that as the water-soluble polymeric sulfonic acids and their salts use polystyrenesulfonate or lignosulfonate.

16. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the cationic polyelectrolyte used water-soluble polymeric amines and their salts.

17. The method according to item 16, characterized in that as the water-soluble polymeric amines and their salts use polyethyleneimine or poly-N,N-dimethyl-N-aminoacylation.

18. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the cationic polyelectrolyte use of polymeric Quaternary salt.

19. The method according to p, characterized in that the polymeric Quaternary salts used poly-N,N-dimethyl-N,N-dimethylammonium halides or poly-N-alkyl-4-vinylpyridinium salt.

20. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the deposition of discharge carried out by addition of an aqueous solution containing anionic and cationic polyelectrolytes, and mixing it with the sink.

21. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the deposition of plum perform sequential addition of first aqueous solution of anionic polyelectrolyte, mixing it with the sink, then add vodno the solution of cationic polyelectrolyte and again by stirring.

22. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the precipitate is treated with a concentrated solution of low molecular weight salts or acids for the extraction of flocculant, which is returned for reuse.

23. The method according to claim 1, wherein processing the formed precipitate is carried out under the action of ultrasound.



 

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FIELD: environment protection.

SUBSTANCE: method involves introducing into soil contaminated with oil or oil products ameliorant, such as complex of aluminosilicate mineral and nitrogen-phosphate fertilizer; plowing soil to depth of at least 25-30 cm.

EFFECT: reduced soil recultivation time and decreased consumption nitrogen-phosphate additives.

2 ex

FIELD: electrodes made of low electric conductivity material, electric connection with such electrode, use of such electrodes at treating liquids for removing contamination matters and for regenerating contaminated soil in situ.

SUBSTANCE: electrode includes elongated, mainly hollow body made of porous material characterized by comparatively low electric conductivity, connector in the form of elongated electrically conducting member connected to power source. Connector passes along inner cavity of electrode body and it has contact with surface of inner wall of body in large number of places mutually spaced along length of body for distributing electric current supplied from power source practically uniformly along electrode.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of electrolytic treatment of liquid contaminated with sewage waste, infection and radioactive matters at minimum voltage along electrode length.

12 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: agriculture, microbiology.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agents used for recovery of soil rich and discloses a method for it preparing also. The biopreparation comprises a porous carrier based on glass-like meta-phosphates and physiologically active microorganisms immobilized into pores of carrier artificially. The biopreparation comprises foamed glass-like silicophosphates with transient composite and non-uniform structure as an active grain carrier with density 1.5-1.9 g/cm3 with communicating pores. As physiologically active microorganisms method involves using the following enumerated ones: proteolytic and amylolytic microorganisms - Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Micrococcus, Spirillum; actinomyces - Streptomyces, Streptoverticillium, Actinomadura, Nocardiopsis; nitrogen-fixing microorganisms - Azotobacter, Aerobacter, Achromobacter; cellulose-decomposing and humus-decomposing microorganisms - Trichoderma, Rhizoctonia, Cytophaga, Sporangium, Cellovibrio; denitrifiers - Aerobacter, Micrococcus. Method for preparing the biopreparation involves submerged culturing microorganisms in liquid nutrient medium, preparing a sterile carrier, surface culturing and impregnation form microorganisms in solution on a carrier.

EFFECT: improved preparing method, valuable properties of biopreparation.

3 cl, 5 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: biotechnology, in particular microbiological method for removing of nitroaromanic compounds consisting in solution or ground.

SUBSTANCE: strain of microorganism Penicillium sp. is disclosed to remove at least one nitroaromanic compound containing in solution or ground. Solution or ground are brought into contact with Penicillium sp. strain biomass under conditions sufficient to mineralize of nitroaromanic compound by Penicillium sp. strain in presence of carbon source for said strain. Method of present invention affords the ability to mineralize more than 70 % of nitroaromanic compound.

EFFECT: microbiological method of improved efficiency.

13 cl, 7 dwg, 2 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: methods for phytomediation (phytorecultivation) of soil contaminated with petroleum.

SUBSTANCE: method involves planting perennial grasses into soil contaminated with petroleum, said perennial grasses being preliminarily grown for at least one growing period in non-contaminated soil and then replanted in soil contaminated with petroleum with their rootstocks and/or stolons and/or seedlings. Phytocultivation method may be used at earlier stages of soil contamination with petroleum to allow recultivation time to be reduced.

EFFECT: increased survival rate and yield of plants and reduced recultivation time.

2 cl, 2 ex

FIELD: environmental pollution control.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to industrial process of detoxifying sea and lagoon sediments or grounds polluted by stable organic trace pollutants (e.g., dioxins and furans, polychlorobiphenyls, aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons) and inorganic trace pollutants (e.g., Hg, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Cd, etc.). Detoxification process comprises following stages: (i) thermal desorption of organic pollutants in trace amounts from mud or ground and removal of volatile metals from furnace operated at 300 to 700єC to form first gaseous stream containing removed organic pollutants and volatile metals and stream consisting of remaining solids; and (ii) extracting heavy metals from the stream of remaining solids with the aid of inorganic acids or chelating compounds, in one or more steps, to produce chemically dissolved above-indicated heavy metals and essentially detoxified mud or ground having characteristics allowing thus treated mud or ground to be returned to their original place.

EFFECT: achieved complete detoxification with minimum environmental harm.

16 cl, 1 dwg, 3 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: environmental pollution control.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to industrial process of detoxifying sea and lagoon sediments or grounds polluted by stable organic trace pollutants (e.g., dioxins and furans, polychlorobiphenyls, aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons) and inorganic trace pollutants (e.g., Hg, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Cd, etc.). Detoxification process comprises following stages: (i) thermal desorption of organic pollutants in trace amounts from mud or ground and removal of volatile metals from furnace operated at 300 to 700єC to form first gaseous stream containing removed organic pollutants and volatile metals and stream consisting of remaining solids; and (ii) extracting heavy metals from the stream of remaining solids with the aid of inorganic acids or chelating compounds, in one or more steps, to produce chemically dissolved above-indicated heavy metals and essentially detoxified mud or ground having characteristics allowing thus treated mud or ground to be returned to their original place.

EFFECT: achieved complete detoxification with minimum environmental harm.

16 cl, 1 dwg, 3 tbl, 2 ex

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