Fuel-combustion catalyst preparation method (options)

FIELD: catalyst preparation methods.

SUBSTANCE: method involves preparing porous carrier and forming catalyst layer by impregnation of carrier with aqueous solution of transition group metal salts followed by drying and calcination. Porous catalyst carrier is a porous substrate of organic polymer material: polyurethane or polypropylene, which is dipped into aqueous suspension of powdered metal selected from metals having magnetic susceptibility χ from 3.6·106 to 150·106 Gs·e/g: iron, cobalt, chromium, nickel, or alloys thereof, or vanadium and polyvinylacetate glue as binder until leaving of air from substrate is completed, after which carrier blank is dried at ambient temperature and then fired at 750°C in vacuum oven and caked at 900-1300°C. Caked blank is molded and then subjected to rolling of outside surface to produce carrier having variable-density structure with density maximum located on emitting area. Formation of catalyst layer is achieved by multiple impregnations of the carrier with aqueous solution of acetates or sulfates of transition group metals: iron, cobalt, chromium, nickel, or alloys thereof in alternative order with dryings at ambient temperature and calcinations to produced catalyst bed 50-80 μm in thickness. In another embodiment of invention, formation of catalyst layer on carrier is accomplished by placing carrier in oven followed by forcing transition group metal carbonate vapors into oven for 60-120 min while gradually raising oven temperature to 850°C until layer of catalyst is grown up to its thickness 50-80 μm.

EFFECT: improved quality of catalyst and reduced its hydrodynamic resistance.

8 cl, 1 tbl, 3 ex

 

The invention relates to the field of catalytic combustion, and in particular to methods of preparing catalysts for use in catalytic heat sources (heaters), gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel, liquefied gas, necessary for a number of industries, as well as in everyday life.

Known are various catalysts cellular and fibrous structure of diamagnetic materials with low or negative magnetic susceptibility, which receive the high-temperature solid-phase synthesis of the corresponding oxides or low-temperature liquid-phase deposition of oxides or nitrates of the metals of transition groups on a diamagnetic medium, followed by drying and high-temperature calcining.

There is a method of preparation of the catalyst for combustion of fuel containing oxides of iron and aluminum, comprising a mixture of catalytically active metal oxides with inorganic binders, grinding to obtain a homogeneous mixture, shaping the workpiece to the desired shape and annealing. As catalytically active components used slurry of iron-containing waste electroplating, and as a binder a mixture of natural materials containing aluminum oxide: clay, kaolin, and Neorganicheskie the ingredients: talc, the wollastonite or tremolite and a pore-forming additive - charcoal (patent RU №2058190, 01 J 23/745, 1996). There is a method allows the use of recyclable oxide materials for micaceous iron catalyst.

The disadvantage of this method is the low power density of the radiation-convection heat dissipation catalyst: no more than 3-5 kW/m2incineration, for example, propane-butane gas mixture, as well as partial catalytic oxidation, accompanied by increased emissions in flue gases toxic oxides of carbon and nitrogen in excess of their maximum permissible concentration (MPC). In addition, this catalyst has a high (more than 10 mm of water. column) gas-dynamic resistance, requiring considerable energy to drive the compressor circulation of air flows. These drawbacks are due to the properties of the medium, its microstructure and physico-chemical composition.

Known method of preparing catalysts for deep oxidation of hydrocarbons, including the formation of the carrier - silica fiber getparametervalues site and securing it through the grid, the impregnation of the carrier by immersing the carrier in an aqueous solution of initial components to the complete impregnation of the carrier, the carrying out drying of the radiant heat flux from catalic the ical heaters and calcination running flame gas supplied to the node, to a natural transition to the flameless catalytic combustion (patent RU №2053019, 01 J 37/02, 1996). The known method provides a longer service life of the catalyst by increasing its strength: place the carrier on getparametervalues site and then put it in a metal grid. In addition, there is a method allows to reduce the duration of the technological process of preparation of the catalyst relative to methods that use convective heat.

The disadvantages of this method is the high cost and complexity in technical execution, as for drying and calcination, you must use the installation in which heat is generated by two catalytic heating elements, between which place prepared the catalyst, and used for preparation of media, special design metal getparametervalue node as an intermediate substrate.

The closest technical solution of the present invention is a method for preparing catalysts for the combustion of fuel, including the manufacture of porous media, the formation of the catalyst by impregnation of the carrier with an aqueous solution of salts of metals of transition groups, followed by drying and calcination (patent RU №2039601, 01 J 37/02, 195 BC). As salts of transition metals are using nitrates of metals which are selected from the group including cobalt, Nickel, chromium, iron, and as the carrier of the use of inorganic fibrous material, for example, quartz, silica, kaolin or basalt fiber. The impregnation of the carrier are in an aqueous solution of salts of nitrates of transition metals with the addition of urea and water-soluble polyhydric alcohol or carbohydrate in the amount of 0.25 to 1.5 wt.%. The resulting preform is dried in a stream of air at a temperature not higher than 90-100°C to a residual moisture content of 5-10%, and then calcined running heat wave with temperatures of 500-600°using the exothermic heat of reaction. The annealing of the workpiece is ensured by its own heat exothermic reaction between urea to nitrate-ions and combustion introduced organic matter (polyhydric alcohol or carbohydrate), the presence of which ensures the continuity and stability of motion of a thermal wave. The speed of the wave is governed by the residual humidity of the workpiece. The process of sameprocedure preparation of catalyst helps to prevent mechanical destruction of the catalyst and, consequently, to improve the quality of the catalyst and increase its service life.

However, it should be noted that vishey the above methods of preparation of the catalyst for combustion of fuel have common shortcomings.

Common shortcomings of the above known methods of preparation of the catalyst for combustion of fuel due to the use as a carrier material with diamagnetic properties, having a low magnetic susceptibility χ less than 4·106GS·e/, Low or negative diamagnetic susceptibility of the catalyst is accompanied by the absence of magnetoresisitive involving magnetic molecules of oxygen O2(the only magnetic gas atmosphere with unique high magnetic susceptibility χ=103·106GS·e/g) in the catalytic oxidation of gaseous fuel. The result is a low specific radiation-convective heat capacity of the catalysts with diamagnetic medium. Another common disadvantage of the known catalysts with diamagnetic media is also low getselectednode removal of micro-watersheds (clusters) catalytic reaction of diamagnetic products of combustion: water vapor, molecules of carbon dioxide CO2and neutral nitrogen N. the Result of this process, in addition to low radiation and convective heat capacity is the high level of emissions of oxides of carbon and nitrogen NOxand other toxic substances in the flue gas.

An object of the invention is to improve the quality of catalysis of the ora and reduce its gas-dynamic resistance.

The technical result of the invention is to reduce the size of the catalytic heating element, the improvement of ecological purity of the catalytic combustion of the fuel by reducing the emission of oxides of nitrogen and carbon, as well as increasing the temperature range of the heat.

This technical result in the production method of the catalyst for combustion of fuel in the first embodiment, including the manufacture of porous media, the formation of the catalyst layer by impregnation of the carrier with an aqueous solution of salts of metals of transition groups, followed by drying and calcination, is achieved by the fact that in the manufacture of the carrier optionally use a substrate of porous polymeric organic material: polyurethane or polypropylene, which are immersed in aqueous suspension of a powder metal selected from metals with magnetic susceptibility χ 3,6·106up to 150·106GS·e/g: iron, cobalt, chromium, Nickel or their alloys, or vanadium and organic glue PVA as a binder to the air of a substrate, followed by drying of the workpiece carrier at room temperature, burns substrate at a temperature of 750°in a vacuum furnace and carry out the sintering at a temperature of from 900 to 1300°C, after which the molded workpiece and carry out the rolling of the outer surface of the carrier to receive the variable density patterns of media with high density on the emitting surface of the carrier, when forming the catalyst layer is carried out by multiple impregnation of the carrier with an aqueous solution of acetates or sulfates of metals of transition groups: cobalt, chromium, vanadium, iron, Nickel or their alloys, alternating with drying at room temperature and annealing to obtain a catalyst layer of a thickness of 50-80 microns.

In addition, in the invention according to the first embodiment, the annealing for the formation of a catalyst layer is implemented by one or multiple heating at a temperature of from 400 to 1100°in the air within 30-120 min with the addition of vapor oxidation activators or without them.

In addition, in the invention according to the first embodiment, the annealing for the formation of a catalyst layer is implemented by one or multiple heating at a temperature of 750°in an inert environment within 30-90 minutes

In addition, in the invention according to the first variant variable density patterns of media produced by surface compression to a depth of 1-3 mm by rolling of the roller.

In addition, in the invention according to the first embodiment for manufacturing metalloboranes patterns of media use a substrate made of a porous organic polymer material with a cell size of 0.4-1 mm in the volumetric porosity of 95-97%.

This technical result in the production method of catalyst d is I the combustion of fuel according to the second variant, includes the manufacture of porous media, the formation of a catalyst layer, followed by annealing, is achieved by the fact that for the production media use a substrate of porous polymeric organic material: polyurethane or polypropylene, which are immersed in aqueous suspension of a powder metal selected from metals with magnetic susceptibility χ 3,6·106up to 150·106GS·e/g: iron, cobalt, chromium, Nickel or their alloys, or vanadium and organic glue PVA as a binder to the air of a substrate, followed by drying of the workpiece carrier at room temperature, burns substrate at a temperature of 750°in a vacuum furnace and carry out the sintering at a temperature of 900-1300°C, after which the molded workpiece and are rolling the outer surface of the workpiece carrier for receiving a variable density patterns of media with high density on the emitting surface, thus forming a catalyst layer perform by placing the media in a furnace with subsequent discharge into the furnace chamber within 60-120 min vapor carbonates of metals of transition groups with gradual increase of temperature in the furnace to 850°to increase catalyst layer with a thickness of 50-80 microns.

In addition, according to the proposed invention, in the second is the version variable density patterns of media produced by surface compression to a depth of 1-3 mm by rolling of the roller.

In addition, according to the proposed invention according to the second variant in the manufacture metalloprotein structure of the workpiece carrier using a substrate of a porous polymeric material with a cell size of 0.4-1 mm in the volumetric porosity of 95-97%.

The method of preparation of the catalyst for combustion of the fuel is as follows.

For the method of obtaining the catalyst in the first embodiment, the process begins with fabrication of highly porous media with predetermined magnetic properties magnetic susceptibility χ=3,6·106- 150·106GS·e/g, using a temporary (deleted) a substrate of otkryitogo organic polymer material: porous polyurethane or polypropylene(foam) with a cell size of 0.4 to 1 mm and a volume of pores of 95-97%, which is placed in an aqueous suspension of a powder metal selected from the group of transition metals: iron, cobalt, chromium, Nickel or their alloys, or vanadium and organic glue as a binder to full impregnation of the substrate, i.e. the exit of air bubbles. The ratio of the mass of powder and liquid in suspension pick up so soaked after squeezing the workpiece carrier had given density. Pressed workpiece carrier air-dried by known techniques, then remove the temporary substrate by you is iguania it in the oven, for example, muffle in a vacuum at a temperature of 750°C, followed by a sintering process at a temperature of 900-1300°C.

To improve the efficiency of the catalyst for creating a variable density of the porous structure of the carrier with the maximum density on the outside (one) side of the media roll. The rolling process is carried out using known hardware, such as rolling roller to a depth of 1-3 mm, Then the process of education on the media catalyst layer with a thickness of 50-80 μm in the form of oxides or spinels. The specified thickness of the catalyst layer is defined in the course of the experiment. The choice of thickness of the layer of the catalyst is carried out on the basis of the properties of the selected active salts of metals of transition groups.

To obtain a catalyst layer of a given thickness, the carrier is dipped in an aqueous solution of acetates or sulfates of metals of transition groups: cobalt, chromium, vanadium, iron, Nickel or their alloys, alternating with drying at room temperature and annealing in a furnace to obtain a catalyst layer 50-80 μm. When the calcination is carried out by single or multiple heating at a temperature of from 400 to 1100°in the air within 30-120 min with the addition of activators or without them. As activators use salts of lanthanum, La2(SO4)3, LaF3, LaCl3. ProKLIMA is s also possible to carry out by heating at a temperature of 750° With in an inert atmosphere, such as argon within 30-90 minutes Using inert atmosphere prevents okalinoobrazovanie and the destruction of the layer structure of the catalyst.

The method of preparation of the catalyst according to the second variant includes the process of manufacturing porous media, similar to the manufacturing process of the carrier described in the first embodiment, namely, the use of a substrate of otkryitogo polymer organic material, a porous polyurethane or polypropylene with a cell size of 0.4-1 mm in the volumetric porosity 95-97%, which is placed in aqueous suspension of metal powder selected from the group of transition metals: iron, cobalt, chromium, Nickel or their alloys, or vanadium with the addition of the organic binder PVA glue to complete impregnation of the substrate, i.e. the exit of air bubbles. As mentioned above, the ratio of the mass of powder and liquid in suspension pick up so soaked after squeezing the workpiece carrier had given density. Preparation air-dried, then remove the temporary substrate by burning it in a furnace under vacuum at a temperature of 750°C, followed by sintering at a temperature of 900-1300°C. Then carry out the rolling process (compression) outer side of the carrier to a depth of 1-3 mm with known technical means, the example of the rolling roller to create a variable density metalloboranes patterns of media with high density on the outer side of the carrier. Followed by the formation of the microlayer catalyst thickness of 50-80 μm in the form of oxides. In this embodiment of the method of preparation of the catalyst - gas-phase produced media placed inside the furnace, where the pump within 60-120 min pair of carbonate of a metal selected from the group of transition metals with simultaneous annealing which is carried out by gradually raising the temperature in the furnace from room temperature up to 850°C. the Process is carried out to increase catalyst layer with a thickness of 50-80 microns.

It should be noted that the microlayer of catalyst required thickness can be obtained and by repeated heating (calcination) of the medium at a temperature of 400-1100°in the air at the expense of the oxygen of the air (in the open furnace) for 30-120 min with the addition of activators - salts of lanthanum, La2(SO4)3, LaF3, LaCl3or without them. This version of the microlayer forming catalyst can significantly reduce the financial costs in the implementation process by reducing the number of expensive equipment.

Evaluation of catalytic activity obtained according to the present invention catalysts was conducted on a laboratory bench that simulates the catalytic heater. The cost of natural gas in mixture with air at 50 and 500 l/h according to the government. Through the sampler installed at a height of 5 mm above the surface of the heater, the oxidation products were applied to the detector TESTO, which determined the content of NO, NOxand CO in the exhaust gas.

The table shows the results of the tests. As can be seen from the data given in the table, obtaining highly porous catalyst according to the invention relative to the prototype allows to significantly reduce the output quantity of the oxides of carbon and nitrogen increased temperature range and to increase the radiative-convective capacity of the catalyst.

Example 1. To obtain a catalyst for combustion of fuel according to the first embodiment of the workpiece metalloprotease magnetic media from cobalt, performed in plate size 250×125×12 mm with a volume porosity of 95%, is produced on a substrate made of porous polyurethane foam (foam rubber) in the form of a plate above the size of a mesh size of 0.9 mm, which is at room temperature, immersed in an aqueous solution of cobalt metal powder with a particle size of 1-7 μm of the following composition, wt.%:

Cobalt PC-1 GOST 912-7930÷45
Adhesive organic PVA0,5÷3,5
Distilled waterelse./td>

PVA glue is used to cook creamy aqueous suspension of the composition as a binder. For this purpose it is dissolved in water at room temperature. Impregnated plate workpiece carrier in press rollers and dried in air at room temperature to a residual moisture content of 2%. The dried plate is placed in a vacuum oven to remove (burning) of the substrate, which is carried out at a temperature of 750°C for 15 minutes Then for 30-55 minutes raise the temperature in the furnace up to 1150°and carry out the sintering metalloprotein structure of the workpiece carrier. Received the workpiece carrier 12 mm thick molded molded to a thickness of 6 mm, and then using a rolling roller with a diameter of 10 mm on the magnetic table, get anisotropic structure at depth 1÷3 mm, i.e. the structure of the medium with variable density across the thickness, and the plate thickness is reduced to 5 mm.

For microlayer formation of an active catalyst on the carrier are impregnated plate for 30 minutes in an aqueous solution of metal salts of the following composition, wt.%:

Acetate tetrahydrate cobalt (CH3Soo)2With·4H2O2-2,5
Acetate monohydrate, chromium (CH3Soo)2 Cr·N2About1-2
Distilled waterthe rest of it.

Followed by drying in air at room temperature to a residual moisture content of 5%, followed by annealing for 90 min at a temperature of 750°With argon. Heating of the catalyst is carried out in a special container or in a muffle furnace, which serves argon. The process is repeated until the formation of the microlayer catalyst thickness of 60 microns.

Example 2. To obtain a catalyst for combustion of fuel according to the second variant of the workpiece metalloprotease magnetic media of chromium, followed by molding in the form of a plate size 250×125×5 mm with the required volumetric porosity and anisotropic, i.e. variable density patterns across the thickness of the media, get analogously to example 1, using aqueous suspension of chromium powder with a particle size of 1 to 7 μm in the following ratio, wt.%:

Chrome PHS-130-45
Adhesive organic PVAof 0.5-3.5
Distilled waterthe rest of it.

Getting microlayer catalytically active chromium oxide Cr2About3a thickness of 70 μm on metalloboranes the object structure is implemented by annealing in mutilin the th furnace for 150 min with a gradual rise in temperature from room temperature up to 850° C in air atmosphere with increasing vapor carbonate cobalt Coco3at a concentration of 10-2-10-3%. The process of forming a catalyst on the carrier lead to the formation of the active layer of chromium oxide thickness of 70 microns.

Example 3. Preparation of metalloprotease heat the magnetic media of cobaltchromium alloy in the form of a plate size 250×250×12 mm with a volume porosity since 95% are made on time (burnt later) substrate, made of foam rubber, analogously to example 1 using an aqueous mixture of metal powders with a particle size of from 1 to 7 μm (for education creamy suspension) in the following ratio, wt.%:

Cobalt PC-1 GOST 912-7957-60
Chrome PHS-127
Vanadium PV-113
PVA glue0.5 to 3
Distilled waterthe rest of it.

Soaked in the specified aqueous solution of a suspension of metallic powders of cobalt, chromium and vanadium substrate in press rollers and dried in air at room temperature to a residual moisture content of 2%, then carry out the removal process (burning) of the substrate in a vacuum furnace at a temperature of 750°C for 15 min, after h is th carry out the sintering metalloboranes patterns billet at a temperature of 1150° C. the resulting workpiece carrier is formed into and carry out rolling the outer surface to obtain anisotropic structures at a depth of 1-3 mm

For the formation of the microlayer catalyst V2O5on the media carry out multiple impregnation plate carrier, followed by drying in air to a residual moisture content of 5% and annealing in an aqueous solution of sulfate vanadium of the following composition, wt.%:

Sulfate vanadium VSO4·7(H2Oh)26
Distilled water74.

The calcination is carried out at a temperature of 900°C in air for 60 min with the addition of vapor oxidation activators: La2(SO4)3, LaF3, LaCl3. The process is carried out to obtain a catalyst layer thickness of 80 μm. Similarly, the proposed method of preparation of the catalyst for combustion of fuel can be made of plates of iron, Nickel or their alloys, for example, gromala, fehrle and others.

The advantages of the proposed method of preparation of the catalyst for combustion of fuel due to the use as a carrier material with magnetic properties, having a high magnetic susceptibility from χ=4·106GS·e/g to 150뜐 6GS·e/, the High magnetic susceptibility of the catalyst is accompanied by the effect magnetoresisitive involving magnetic molecules of oxygen O2(the only magnetic gas atmosphere with unique high magnetic susceptibility χ=103·106GS·e/g) in the catalytic oxidation of gaseous fuel. The result is a correspondingly high specific radiation-convective heat capacity of the catalysts with magnetic media up to over 600 kW/m2. It is more than 2 orders of magnitude higher than achieved radiative-convective power for catalysts obtained by known methods. Accordingly, decrease in dimensions, material and price of the catalytic heater.

Another advantage of the catalysts with a magnetic carrier obtained in accordance with the invention, is also high getselectednode removal of micro-watersheds (clusters) catalytic oxidation of diamagnetic products of combustion: water vapor, molecules of carbon dioxide CO2and neutral nitrogen N. the Result of this process, in addition to the high radiation and convective heat capacity, ensures low emissions of oxides of carbon and nitrogen NOxand other toxic substances in the flue gas is less than 4 ppm. It has neither the e in comparison with catalysts, obtained by known methods, resulting in improved environmental cleanliness of the process of catalytic combustion.

1. The method of preparation of the catalyst for combustion of fuel, including the manufacture of porous media, the formation of the catalyst layer by impregnation of the carrier with an aqueous solution of salts of metals of transition groups, followed by drying and calcination, characterized in that for the production media use a substrate of porous polymeric organic material: polyurethane or polypropylene, which are immersed in aqueous suspension of a powder metal selected from metals with magnetic susceptibility χ 3,6·106GS·e/g to 150·106GS·e/g: iron, cobalt, chromium, Nickel or their alloys, or vanadium and organic glue PVA as a binder, to the air of a substrate, followed by drying of the workpiece carrier at room temperature, burns substrate at a temperature of 750°in a vacuum furnace and carry out the sintering at a temperature of from 900 to 1300°C, after which the molded workpiece and are rolling the outer surface of the workpiece carrier for receiving a variable density patterns of media with high density on the radiating surface, while the formation of the catalyst layer is performed by multiple prop the TCA carrier with an aqueous solution of acetates or sulfates of metals of transition groups: cobalt, chromium, vanadium, iron, Nickel or their alloys, alternating with drying at room temperature and annealing to obtain a catalyst layer of a thickness of 50-80 microns.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the annealing for the formation of a catalyst layer is implemented by one or multiple heating at a temperature of from 400 to 1100°in the air within 30-120 min with the addition of vapor oxidation activators or without them.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the annealing for the formation of a catalyst layer is implemented by one or multiple heating at a temperature of 750°in an inert environment within 30-90 minutes

4. The method according to claim 1, wherein the variable density patterns of media produced by surface compression to a depth of 1-3 mm by rolling of the roller.

5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that for the manufacture of metalloboranes patterns of media use a substrate made of a porous organic polymer material with a cell size of 0.4-1 mm in the volumetric porosity of 95-97%.

6. The method of preparation of the catalyst for combustion of fuel, including the manufacture of porous media, the formation of a catalyst layer, followed by annealing, characterized in that for obtaining media use a substrate of porous polymeric organic material is: polyurethane or polypropylene, which is dipped in an aqueous suspension of a powder metal selected from metals with magnetic permeability χ 3,6·106GS·e/g to 150·106GS·e/g: iron, cobalt, chromium, Nickel or their alloys, or vanadium and organic glue PVA as a binder to the air of a substrate, followed by drying of the workpiece carrier at room temperature, burns substrate at a temperature of 750°in a vacuum furnace and carry out the sintering at a temperature of 900-1300°C, after which the molded workpiece and are rolling the outer surface of the carrier to receive the variable density patterns of media with high density on the outer surface, thus forming a catalyst layer on the carrier carried out by placing the media in a furnace with subsequent discharge into the furnace chamber within 60-120 min vapor carbonates of metals of transition groups with a gradual rise of temperature in the furnace to 850°to increase catalyst layer with a thickness of 50-80 microns.

7. The method according to claim 6, wherein the variable density patterns of media produced by surface compression to a depth of 1÷3 mm by a rolling roller.

8. The method according to claim 6, characterized in that for the manufacture of metalloboranes patterns of media use a substrate made of a porous who alimango organic material with a cell size of 0.4÷ 1 mm at a volume porosity of 95-97%.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: catalyst manufacture processes.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to manufacture of catalysts useful in various chemical and petrochemical areas and provides catalyst carrier comprising alumina and aluminum wherein fraction of pores above 0.1 μm in size constitutes 10.0-88.5% based on the total volume of pores constituting 0.10 to 0.88 cm3 per 1 g carrier. Preparation of carrier comprises molding blanc from aluminum powder and inorganic additive, oxidation, and caking, said inorganic additive being product of thermochemical activation of amorphous hydrargillite Al2O3·nH2O.

EFFECT: optimized specific surface, mechanical strength, and apparent density of carrier.

2 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl, 9 ex

The invention relates to the refining and petrochemical industries and is dedicated to the creation of the catalysts used in the processing of aliphatic hydrocarbons in the concentrate of aromatic hydrocarbons or high-octane component of gasoline

The invention relates to a method for selective receipt of paraxylene, which includes the interaction of toluene with methanol in the presence of a catalyst containing a porous crystalline aluminosilicate zeolite having a diffusion parameter for 2,2-Dimethylbutane about 0.1-15 sec-1measured at a temperature of 120oC and a pressure of 2.2-Dimethylbutane (8 kPa)
The invention relates to the preparation of catalysts for the dehydrogenation of olefins, alkylaromatic and alkylpyridinium hydrocarbons, in particular, to the activation of the catalyst based on iron oxide promoted with various additives

The invention relates to catalytic processes in the petrochemical industry and can be used in the petrochemical industry for obtaining aromatic hydrocarbons, specifically to methods for increasing the catalytic activity of zeolite catalysts

FIELD: catalyst preparation methods.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to alumina-supported catalyst preparation method and employment thereof in reactions of nucleophilic substitution of aromatic halides containing electron-accepting group. In particular, alumina support impregnated with alkali selected from alkali metal hydroxides is prepared by treating alkali metal hydroxide aqueous solution with aluminum oxide in organic solvent followed by drying thus obtained catalyst mixture at temperature not lower than 150°C. Catalyst is, in particular, used to introduce electron-accepting protective groups into organic compounds comprising at least one of -OH, -SH, and -NH, as well as in reaction of substituting amino, thio, or ether group for halogen in a haloarene and in preparation of 2-puperidinobenzonitrile.

EFFECT: simplified preparation of catalyst and regeneration of spent catalyst, and avoided involvement of dangerous reactants.

11 cl, 20 ex

FIELD: catalyst preparation methods.

SUBSTANCE: catalyst containing crystalline anatase phase in amount at least 30% and nickel in amount 0.5 to 2% has porous structure with mean pore diameter 2 to 16 nm and specific surface at least 70 m2/g. When used to catalyze photochemical reaction of isolation of hydrogen from water-alcohol mixtures, it provides quantum yield of reaction 0.09-0.13. Preparation of titanium dioxide-based mesoporous material comprises adding titanium tetraalkoxide precursor and organic-nature template to aqueous-organic solvent, ageing reaction mixture to complete formation of spatial structure therefrom through consecutive sol and gel formation stages, separating reaction product, and processing it to remove template. Invention is characterized by that water-alcohol derivative contains no more than 7% water and template consists of at least one ligand selected from group of macrocyclic compounds, in particular oxa- and oxaazamacrocyclic compounds containing at least four oxygen atoms, and/or complexes of indicated macrocyclic compounds with metal ions selected from group of alkali metals or alkali-earth metal metals, or f-metals consisting, in particular, of lithium, potassium, sodium, rubidium, cesium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, lanthanum, and cerium used in amounts from 0.001 to 0.2 mole per 1 mole precursor. Sol is formed by stirring reaction mixture at temperature not higher than 35°C. Once formation of spaced structure completed, mixture is held at the same temperature in open vessel to allow free access of water steam and, when template is removed from the mixture, mixture is first treated with nickel salt solution and then with alkali metal borohydride solution until metallic nickel is formed.

EFFECT: increased sorption and photocatalytic properties of catalyst and enabled reproducibility of its property complex.

7 cl, 68 ex

FIELD: organic synthesis catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: invention provides improved method for preparing catalyst for synthesis of N-methylaniline from aniline and methanol. Method comprises impregnation of alumina carrier with copper nitrate solution, to which were added nitrates of modifying metals selected from group consisting of manganese, chromium, iron, cobalt, and zinc, after which impregnated carrier is dried at temperature ensuring effective conversion of deposited nitrates into oxides of corresponding metals. When calcined, catalyst is subjected to additional impregnation with copper ammine solution, wherein Cu content (on conversion to oxide) lies within 0.6 to 7.0% based on the weight of catalyst, then dried at 100-120°C, and re-calcined at 230-250°C. After first calcination Cu content is 10.1-13% and after the second it rises by 0.6-5.0%. Lifetime of catalyst increases by a factor of 1.3 to 2.

EFFECT: increased lifetime of catalyst.

1 tbl, 12 ex

FIELD: industrial organic synthesis catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to environmentally friendly processes for production of isoalkanes via gas-phase skeletal isomerization of linear alkanes in presence of catalyst. Invention provides catalyst for production of hexane isomers through skeletal isomerization of n-hexane, which catalyst contains sulfurized zirconium-aluminum dioxide supplemented by platinum and has concentration of Lewis acid sites on its surface 220-250 μmole/g. Catalyst is prepared by precipitation of combined zirconium-aluminum hydroxide from zirconium and aluminum nitrates followed by deposition of sulfate and calcination in air flow before further treatment with platinum salts. Hexane isomer production process in presence of above-defined cat is also described.

EFFECT: increased catalyst activity.

5 cl, 2 tbl, 6 ex

FIELD: gas treatment catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: catalyst preparation method comprises depositing initially liquid soda glass onto metallic or glass-cloth surface, after which transition metal oxide mixture is sputtered onto wet surface, said transition metal oxide mixture containing, wt %: chromium (III) oxide 18-35, manganese (IV) oxide 18-35, alumina - the rest; or cupric oxide 5-15, chromium (III) oxide 10-15, alumina - the rest; or cupric oxide 12-35 and alumina - the rest. Resulting coating is dried in air during 1 day and then molded through stepwise heat treatment to temperature 400°C, which temperature is maintained for 2-2.5 h.

EFFECT: prolonged lifetime at the same catalytic efficiency.

3 tbl

FIELD: petroleum processing and petrochemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to catalysts for isomerization of paraffins and alkylation of unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons contained in hydrocarbon stock. Catalyst of invention is characterized by that it lowers content of benzene and unsaturated hydrocarbons in gasoline fractions in above isomerization and alkylation process executed in presence of methanol and catalyst based on high-silica ZSM-5-type zeolite containing: 60.0-80.0% of iron-alumino-silicate with ZSM-5-type structure and silica ratio SiO2/Al2O3 = 20-160 and ratio SiO2/Fe2O3 = 30-550; 0.1-10.0% of modifying component selected from at least one of following metal oxides: copper, zinc, nickel, gallium, lanthanum, cerium, and rhenium; 0.5-5.0% of reinforcing additive: boron oxide, phosphorus oxide, or mixture thereof; the rest being alumina. Preparation of catalyst includes following steps: hydrothermal crystallization of reaction mixture at 120-180°C during 1 to 6 days, said reaction mixture being composed of precursors of silica, alumina, iron oxide, alkali metal oxide, hexamethylenediamine, and water; conversion of thus obtained iron-alumino-silicate into H-iron-alumino-silicate; further impregnation of iron-alumino-silicate with modifying metal compound followed by drying operation for 2 to 12 h at 110°C; mixing of dried material with reinforcing additive, with binder; mechanochemical treatment on vibrating mill for 4 to 72 h; molding catalyst paste; drying it for 0.1 to 24 h at 100-110°C; and calcination at 550-600°C for 0.1 to 24 h. Lowering of content of benzene and unsaturated hydrocarbons in gasoline fractions in presence of above catalyst is achieved during isomerization and alkylation of hydrocarbon feedstock carried out at 300-500°C, volumetric feedstock supply rate 2-4 h-1, weight ratio of hydrocarbon feedstock to methanol 1:(0.1-0.3), and pressure 0.1 to 1.5 MPa. In particular, hydrocarbon feedstock utilized is fraction 35-230°C of hydrostabilized liquid products of pyrolysis.

EFFECT: facilitated reduction of benzene and unsaturated hydrocarbons in gasoline fractions and other hydrocarbon fuel mixtures.

3 cl, 1 tbl, 13 ex

FIELD: petrochemical process catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: preparation of crusted metallic catalyst comprises: (i) applying suspension containing diluent, catalytically active metal selected from cobalt and ruthenium groups, and optionally first refractory element (atomic number at least 20) oxide onto surface of carrier particles to form wet coating and (ii) removing at least part of diluent from wet coating, said suspension containing at least 5% by weight of catalytically active metal based on the weight of calcination residue, which would result after drying and calcination of suspension. Crusted metallic catalyst itself and hydrocarbon production process are also described.

EFFECT: simplified catalyst preparation technology, improved physicochemical properties of catalyst as well as selectivity thereof, and increased productivity of hydrocarbon production process.

10 cl, 1 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: industrial organic synthesis.

SUBSTANCE: invention is dealing with catalysts showing high catalytic stability in production of chloroform from carbon tetrachloride via catalytic dehydrochlorination reaction. Catalyst containing γ-alumina-supported platinum is characterized by that platinum in the form of particles 1 to 12 nm in size is distributed throughout the bulk of microspheric γ-alumina particles having median diameter 30 to 70 μm and pore volume 0.3 -0.6 cm3/g. Preparation of catalyst involves impregnation step accomplished via spraying γ-alumina with aqueous platinum compound solution used in amount equal to or less than alumina pore volume followed by platinum compound reduction step, wherein this compound is deposited onto γ-alumina with aqueous solution of formic acid or alkali metal formate.

EFFECT: achieved retention of high catalyst activity and selectivity over a long time period without being preliminarily activated.

9 cl, 2 tbl, 4 cl

FIELD: synthesis gas generation catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: invention provides catalyst for steam generation of synthesis gas containing 2.2-8.2% nickel oxide and 3.0-6.5% magnesium oxide deposited on heat-resistant porous metallic carrier having specific surface area 0.10-0.15 m2/g, summary pore volume 0.09-0.12 cm3/g, predominant pore radius 2-20 μm, and porosity 40-60%. Synthesis gas is obtained by steam-mediated conversion of hydrocarbons at 450-850°C.

EFFECT: increased heat conductivity of catalyst and catalytic activity.

11 cl, 1 tbl, 8 ex

FIELD: petrochemical process catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: invention provides catalyst for hydrofining of petroleum fractions, which catalyst shows elevated strength and stability upon regeneration. This is achieved supplementing alumina-based carrier with texturing additives selected from alumina and gibbsite thermochemical activation product in amount 5 to 30 wt %. Alumina additive is used with particle size not larger than 15 μm and gibbsite thermochemical activation product with that not larger than 45 μm. As binding agent in catalyst, nitric acid is used at molar ratio to alumina (0.01-0.03):1 and/or aluminum nitrate/ aluminum metal reaction product in amounts 1 to 5% based on alumina. Prior to be impregnated, catalyst is steamed at elevated temperature and impregnation is carried out from aqueous solution of nickel-cobalt-molybdenum-containing complex at pH 1-3.

EFFECT: improved performance characteristics of catalyst.

2 cl, 3 tbl, 10 ex

FIELD: organic chemistry, chemical technology.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technology for preparing caprolactam by the cyclization reaction of derivatives of aminocaproic acid. Method is carried out by cyclizing hydrolysis of compound chosen from the group comprising aminocaproic acid esters or amides, or their mixtures. The process is carried out in the presence of water, in vapor phase at temperature 200-450°C in the presence of a solid catalyst comprising of aluminum oxide that comprises at least one macroporosity with pores volume corresponding to pores with diameter above 500 Å taken in the concentration 5 ml/100 g of above. Preferably, the specific square of catalyst particles is above 10 m2/g and the total volume of pores is 10 ml/100 g or above wherein pores volume corresponds to pores with diameter above 500 Å is 10 ml/100 g or above. Invention provides improving the process indices due to the improved properties of the solid catalyst.

EFFECT: improved preparing method.

5 cl, 2 ex

FIELD: catalyst preparation.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to supported catalysts and provides a method for preparing catalyst-containing solid product comprising step, wherein ceramic carrier is applied onto metallic surface, and depositing catalytically active material onto ceramic carrier, which was preliminarily coated with supporting porous metallic material, ceramic carrier being applied onto and/or into supporting porous metallic material. Invention also describes device used in preparation of catalyst-containing solid product for applying supporting porous material onto inside or outside metallic surfaces of the hollow body.

EFFECT: increased stability of catalyst.

7 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: chemical industry; trapping nitric oxides and other harmful substances from the waste gases.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to chemical industry and is used for trapping nitric oxides and other harmful substances from the waste gases. The offered reactor contains a body with the connection pipes for introduction of the initial reactants. Inside the body there is a modular catalyst of a cellular structure. The through channels of the catalyst in respect to the incoming stream are oriented at an angel of 90°. The hydraulic diameter of the through channels of the different geometrical shape, beginning from the first channel, along the stream run is monotonically enlarging, reaching the ratio of the hydraulic diameters of the last channel to the first one first channel of no more than 1.5. No more than 1/6-th of the height from the bottom of the block the modular catalyst of the cellular structure has a mesh-cellular structure with a mesh size from 1.5 up to 3 mm and a specific surface up to 8...10 m2/g. The given engineering solution ensures an increased access to the internal surface of the bottom part of the modular catalyst of the cellular structure and its complete participation in operation.

EFFECT: the invention ensures an increased access to the internal surface of the bottom part of the modular catalyst of the cellular structure and its complete participation in operation.

4 dwg

FIELD: production of non-metallic elements.

SUBSTANCE: reactor comprises means for supplying hydrocarbon raw material and water vapor, means for discharging the product, and porous metallic load-bearing structure that receives catalyzer of reforming with water vapor. The porous load-bearing metallic structure is secured to the inner wall of the reactor by means of gluing or diffusion bounding.

EFFECT: improved functional capabilities.

5 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: heterogeneous catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: catalyst contains porous carrier, buffer layer, interphase layer, and catalytically active layer on the surface wherein carrier has average pore size from 1 to 1000 μm and is selected from foam, felt, and combination thereof. Buffer layer is located between carrier and interphase layer and the latter between catalytically active layer and buffer layer. Catalyst preparation process comprises precipitation of buffer layer from vapor phase onto porous carrier and precipitation of interphase layer onto buffer layer. Catalytic processes involving the catalyst and relevant apparatus are also described.

EFFECT: improved heat expansion coefficients, resistance to temperature variation, and reduced side reactions such as coking.

55 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: gas treatment catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: invention, in particular, relates to internal combustion engine exhaust gas neutralizers. Method of invention comprises rolling refractory metallic tape into block by way of overlapping its smooth and corrugated sides to form channels, performing ultrasound-assisted chemical cleaning of thus rolled tape in alkali solution followed by joining alternate layers of metallic tape with each other by diffusion welding in vacuo within a range of 5·10-5-1·10-5 mm Hg using stepwise heating to 1250 ± 10°С and isothermal exposure to this temperature for 12-17 min to form monolithic structure consisting of triangular and trapezoidal channel at density up to 600 channels per 1 inch2. Invention further describes carrier for catalytic exhaust gas neutralizers representing monolithic metallic structure in the form of cylindrical block or block with oval cross-section, which block consists of parallel channels, 200-600 per 1 inch2, density of channels varying along the cross-section of carrier: from center and extending to 0.55 0,7 diameter if cylindrical block or large axis of oval cross-section, density of channels is 400-600 per 1 inch2 and farther it decreases to 200 or 400 channel/inch2, respectively.

EFFECT: simplified manufacture technology and increased strength of monolithic cellular structure.

4 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl

Up!