# Method and passive radar for determination of location of radio-frequency radiation sources

FIELD: radio engineering, applicable for location of posthorizon objects by radiations of their radars, for example, of naval formations of battle ships with operating navigational radars with the aid of coastal stationary or mobile passive radars.

SUBSTANCE: the method consists in detection of radiations and measurement of the bearings (azimuths) with the use of minimum two spaced apart passive radars, and calculation of the coordinates of the sources of r.f. radiations by the triangulation method, determination of location is performed in three stages, in the first stage the posthorizon objects are searched and detected by the radiation of their radars at each passive radar, the radio engineering and time parameters of radar radiations are measured, the detected radars with posthorizon objects are identified by the radio engineering parameters of radiations and bearing, and continuous tracking of these objects is proceeded, the information on the objects located within the radio horizon obtained from each passive radar is eliminated, the working sector of angles is specified for guidance and tracking of the selected posthorizon object, in the second stage continuous tracking of one posthorizon object is performed at least by two passive radars, and the time of reception of each radar pulse of this object is fixed, in the third stage the period of scanning of this radar, the difference of the angles of radiation by the main radar beam of each passive radar and the range to the posthorizon object with due account made for the difference of the angles of radiation are determined by the bearings (azimuths) measured by the passive radar and the times of reception of each pulse of the tracked radar. The method is realized with the aid at least of two spaced apart passive radars, each of them has aerials of the channel of compensation of side and phone lobes, a narrow-band reflector-type aerial, series-connected noiseless radio-frequency amplifier, multichannel receiving device, device of primary information processing and measurement of carrier frequency, amplitude and time of reception of signals of the detected radar, device of static processing of information and measurement of the bearing, repetition period, duration of the train and repetition of the pulse trains and a device for calculation of the difference of the angle of radiation of the aerials of the passive radars by the detected radar.

EFFECT: reduced error of measurement of the coordinates of posthorizon sources of radio-frequency radiations.

3 cl, 5 dwg

The invention relates to electrical engineering and can be used for positioning over the horizon of interest for the radiation of their radar stations, for example, ship connections or warships with working navigation radar with coastal stationary or mobile passive radar stations.

There is a method of positioning emitters (see Dolukhanov BTW, the Propagation of radio waves. - M.: Communication, 1972. - 336 S.), based on the measurement of the azimuth and the distance calculation to Iran by the known power of the transmitter, the gain of the transmitting antenna and the attenuation factor of the track. The disadvantages of this method include the need for a priori information about the sending device and the parameters of the medium of propagation of radio waves (eres), which limits its use.

From the description to the patent of Russian Federation №2072524, publ. 1997, MPK G 01 S 3/02 known method of positioning radioslushatelei, consisting in measuring the angles of arrival of ionospheric waves in horizontal and vertical planes, measurement of high-frequency characteristics of the ionosphere on radio direction finder by vertical sounding, performing trajectory calculation of the coordinates of the point of reflection of radio waves and determining the median values of the parameters of the ionosphere in n the th forecast the calculation of the angles of the longitudinal and transverse tilt of the reflecting layer of the ionosphere in the vicinity of the point of reflection of the radio waves, the correction of the measured azimuth and elevation, the distance calculation to Iran, as well as its latitude and longitude. This method has low accuracy positioning of emitters, due to the significant magnitude of the error of approximation of high-frequency characteristics of the ionosphere, which determines the errors of determination of the increments of the height of the reflecting layer along the propagation path of radio waves and angles to its longitudinal and transverse slopes in the vicinity of the point of reflection of radio waves.

From the patent of the Russian Federation No. 2154281, MPK7 G 01 S 3/02, publ. 2000 known method of positioning emitters, which consists in measuring the azimuth and elevation of the ionospheric radio wave emitters, measurement of high-frequency characteristics (VCH) of the ionosphere by vertical sounding at the point of measurement of azimuth and elevation, the definition of projected median characteristics of the ionosphere over the area of measurement of angles of arrival and the point of reflection of the radio waves, the determination of the increment of the parameters of the ionosphere along the propagation path of radio waves, adjustment VCH model of the ionosphere at the point of reflection of radio waves based on the data of vertical sounding and prognoza is, the calculation of the angles of the longitudinal and transverse tilt of the reflecting layer of the ionosphere in the vicinity of the point of reflection of radio waves and trajectory calculating the coordinates of the source of electromagnetic radiation when measuring VCH ionosphere by vertical sounding at the point of measurement of azimuth and elevation it was approximated by a polynomial, then adjust VCH of the ionosphere at the point of reflection of radio waves. This method reduces errors in determining the coordinates of the emitters, but as described previously, has a low accuracy.

Known methods and devices of finding sources of radio emission (RES) by means of electronic intelligence (see CEO, Vpen, Aigument. Electronic warfare: radio razvedka and radioprotective. M.: Izd-vo MAI, 1998, page 27...32). For example, there are a number of ways of finding, based on the fact that the phase relation between the signals received at spatially separated points can be converted to amplitude dependence of the amount of received signals from the location of the RES (see CEO, Vpen, Aigument. Electronic warfare: radio razvedka and radioprotective. M.: Izd-vo MAI, 1998, p.29).

There is also known a method of direction finding based on measuring the time differences of the signals from the source of radiation, n is the sample radar station (radar) two spaced antennas (see Web, Vpen, Aigument. Electronic warfare: radio razvedka and radioprotective. M.: Izd-vo MAI, 1998, p.39). When the deviation of the position of the radar from the perpendicular to the center of the base there is a difference of turn signals Δr=r1-r2 (r1 and r2 are distances from the radar to the first and second antennas respectively). The relative delay t of the signal, due to the constancy of the speed and linearity of propagation of radio waves is proportional to the difference of course: t=Δr/C. In the General case, a system that uses considered are differential-ranging, however, with large deletions radar from the center of the base, when the distance to the radar significantly exceeds the size of the database, the hyperbolic line of position, typical differential-distance measuring method, in the far zone coincide with their asymptotes, coming in the form of rays from a center of the base. In this case, the differential-ranging system acceptable to assume angular with inherent errors.

Patent of the Russian Federation No. 2204145, MPK7 G 01 S 3/46, publ. 2003-protected differential-ranging method of direction finding emitters and realizing it device that provides the possibility of determining the azimuth of the radar for any size of the measurement bases of the direction finder and options mutual location of the radar and antenna direction finder.

The proposed CSP is about involves the following operations:

- have three antennas at the vertices of an isosceles right triangle ΔABC;

- take the radar signal on all three antennas

- measure the time differences of signal radar antennas forming an orthogonal base;

- calculates the sum and difference of the difference of times of signal acquisition radar;

- calculate the value of the ratio of the sum of the differences between the times of reception of the radar signal to the difference of difference of times of signal acquisition radar;

- calculate the value of the function arctan(x)as argument which is the result of the previous operation;

- calculate the coordinate value of the point belonging to the line position of the radar;

- show the obtained results.

The disadvantage of this method is its low accuracy at low speeds the convergence of the measuring system and the media radar, as well as significant errors in determining the location of pulse radar and the inability to detect over the horizon of interest because of the low sensitivity preset direction finders.

The most obvious and widely used is the amplitude method of direction finding, which uses an antenna system having a directional pattern with a pronounced maximum. Due to the mechanical change in the position (orientation) of the antenna is scanning space, resulting identify eleesa the antenna,
when the output signal of the antenna has a maximum amplitude and a direction coinciding with the maximum of the radiation pattern of antenna is the direction of RES (see CEO, Vpen, Aigument. Electronic warfare: radio razvedka and radioprotective. M.: Izd-vo MAI, 1998, p.27). This method of direction finding can be used in multi-determining the location of the RES, when at the first stage based on the analysis of radio signal parameters RES are defined by their geometrical parameters (bearing from multiple, spaced, direction finders or difference of distances), and then, in the second stage, based on the geometric parameters are calculated spatial coordinates. Most often used triangulation methods (see CEO, Vpen, Aigument. Electronic warfare: radio razvedka and radioprotective. M.: Izd-vo MAI, 1998, p.33...37). Triangulation method of positioning is implemented as follows. Two direction finder located on the earth's surface at a distance d from each other. With DFS related topocentric Cartesian coordinate system, respectively O_{1}x_{1}y_{1}z_{1}and O_{2}x_{2}y_{2}z_{2}. If the main system to adopt a system O_{1}x_{1}y_{1}z_{1}#x02261;
≡Oxyz, the coordinates of the REFs in this system can be estimated on the basis of geometric constructions y=x·tgα_{1}=(d-1)·tg(1/2π-α_{2}), where α_{1}and α_{2}- Peleng, the measured first and second direction finders, where:

As can be seen from the formulas for determining the spatial coordinates RES only two independent measurements, but to improve accuracy and eliminate the uncertainty of the number of dimensions increase by more direction finders.

Triangulation method of positioning emitters adopted as a prototype. The disadvantage of the prototype - with increasing distance to the source of radiation significantly increases the measurement error of the coordinates, and due to the growth of square errors of the coordinates increases the likelihood of false detections when multiple emitters.

The problem solved by the invention, reducing the measurement error of the coordinates over the horizon emitters.

The solution of the stated problem is achieved in that in the method of positioning of emitters, mainly of interest for radiation their radar (radar), including radiation detection and measurement of bearings using minimum is m two spaced passive radar stations (prls) and calculating the coordinates of the emitters triangulation method,
characterized in that the positioning is carried out in three stages, the first stage on each prls search and discovery over the horizon of interest for radiation their radar to measure radio and temporal parameters of radiation radar, radio emissions parameters and identify bearing detected by radar, over the horizon (oth objects and pass in the continuous maintenance of these objects and filter out information from within the radio horizon of interest, obtained from each prls, precise work sector angles for pointing and tracking selected over the horizon of the object, in a second stage with at least two prls provide continuous support allocated for the first stage over the horizon of the object and record the time of reception of each pulse radar this object, in the third stage measured prls the bearings and the time of reception of each pulse is followed by the radar to determine the period of review of this radar, the difference between the angles of irradiation of the main beam of the radar each prls and range up to over the horizon of the object triangulation method, taking into account the difference of angles of radiation. The difference between the angles of radiation in the following sequence: measure the time of passage of the maximum radiation patterns radar direction on the first prls, the time of passage high on the chart is upravleniya on the second prls,
determine the difference between the angles of irradiation by the formula ψ=(2π·Δt)/T_{KBO}where T_{KBO}- the period of review radar measured or selected from the directory Δt is the dierence between the times of passage of the maximum radiation patterns RLS directions on the first and second prls, π=3,14.

Passive radar used when implementing the proposed method is independent of the invention.

Patent of the Russian Federation No. 2204145, MPK7 G 01 S 3/46, publ. 2003 protected device that realizes a differential-ranging way of finding the source of the radio emission, which provide the possibility of determining the azimuth of the radar for any size of the measurement bases of the direction finder and options mutual location of the radar and antenna direction finder. The structure of the device consists of (3) antennas 1, 2 and 3, a measuring device N1, containing a measure of the difference between times 4 and 5, and the information-processing device and display V2, containing the subtraction unit 6, the summation block 7, block analysis 8 and the display unit 9. The outputs of the antennas 1 and 2 are connected with the first inputs of the measure of the difference between times 4 and 5, the second input of which is supplied the output signal from the antenna 3. The meter output is the difference of the times 4 is connected to the first input of the subtraction unit 6 and unit summation 7, and the output of the meter to the difference of times 5 is connected to the second inputs of the block you the power supply 6 and the summation block 7. The inputs of the analysis block receives signals from the outputs of the measure of the difference between times 4 and 5, the subtraction unit 6 and unit summation 7. The output of the analysis block is connected to the input of the display unit.

Antenna 1, 2 and 3 are spatially separated and are located at the vertices of an isosceles right triangle ΔABC, respectively.

Signal radar, adopted by the antennas 1, 2 and 3, at their outputs is

u_{1}(t)=U(t)cos(w_{0}t+ϕ_{0}),

u_{2}(t)=U(t+Δt_{21})cos[w_{0}(t+Δt_{21})+ϕ_{0}],

u_{3}(t)=U(t+Δt_{31})cos[w_{0}(t+Δt_{31})+ϕ_{0}],

respectively.

The signals from the outputs of the antennas 1 and 3 are received at first and second inputs of the meter difference of 4 times, respectively, similarly, the signals from the outputs of the antennas 2 and 3 are received at first and second inputs of the meter difference of 5 times, respectively. The measure of the difference between times 4 and 5 perform the operation of measuring the difference of time Δt_{13}and Δt_{23}a signal IRI on a pair of antennas (1, 3) and (2, 3). When it Δt_{ij}=t_{i}-t_{j},

where t_{k}- the arrival time of the signal IRI at the k-th antenna

Δt_{nm}- the time difference of signal arrival Iran's n-th and m-th antenna.

The measure of the difference between times 4 and 5 implement one known way of measuring the time differences.

From the outputs of the sensors of the differences of the times 4I 5 measured values Δ
t_{13}and Δt_{23}come on blocks subtracting 6 and summation 7. The subtraction unit performs the operation of calculating the values of t_{Δ}difference of difference of times of signal reception, Iran; unit summation performs the operation of calculating the values of t_{s}the amount of the difference of times of signal reception IRI:

t_{s}=Δt_{13}+Δt_{23},

t_{Δ}=Δt_{13}-Δt_{23}.

The calculated values of t_{Δ}and t_{s}outputs of blocks 6 and 7 are received in the first and fourth inputs of the analysis block 8, on the second and third inputs of which receive the values of the differences between the times Δt_{13}and Δt_{23}from the outputs of the sensors of the differences of the times of 4 and 5.

The unit of analysis 8 is a specialized computing device, performing the following computation:

- calculated value of the ratio w=t_{s}/t_{Δ};

- compute the value ϕ elevation radar using expression

ϕ=arctan (w),

where the argument is the result of the previous computation;

- calculate values of x_{f}, y_{f}the coordinates of a point belonging to the line position of the station.

The calculated values ϕ, x_{f}, y_{f}from the output of the analysis block enter display unit, which is designed to visualize the results of the proposed method is elangovan.

The device described in the patent of Russian Federation №2204145, taken as a prototype.

The drawback of the device is its low accuracy at low speeds the convergence of the measuring system and the media radar, as well as significant errors in determining the location of pulse radar and the inability to detect over the horizon of interest because of the low sensitivity preset direction finders.

The technical result from the use of the inventive passive radar - precision positioning over the horizon of interest for radiation their radar.

This technical result is achieved by the fact that passive radar contains antenna channel compensation of the lateral and background petals, narrow mirror antenna, connected in series low noise amplifier high frequency, multi-channel receiving device, the primary device information processing and measurement of the carrier frequency, duration, amplitude and time of the reception signals detected by the radar device of statistical information processing and bearing measurement, the repetition period, the duration of the series and repetition of a series of impulses, a second input the output of which is connected to the first input-output mutual information exchange passive RA is ilocation stations about the detected radar stations and timing the third input-output connected to the first input-output device calculating the difference of angles of radiation detected radar antennas passive radar stations, the fourth input-output connected to the first input-output control device, the second input-output control device connected with the second input-output device calculating the difference of angles of radiation detected by radar antennas passive radar stations, the third input-output of which is connected with the second input-output mutual information exchange passive radar stations about the detected radar stations and timing, the third output control unit connected to the drive narrowly focused reflector antenna, the irradiator which connected to the input of a low noise amplifier high frequency amplifier output channel compensation of the lateral petals and background is connected with the second input multi-channel receiver, antenna channel compensation of the reception side and the background petals connected to the amplifier channel compensation of the lateral petals and background.

Technical solutions meet the conditions of patentability of "novelty", "inventive step" and "industrial applicability"because there is no historicalinformation with a description of the claimed combination of features, technical solutions related to electrical engineering and can be repeatedly reproduced with achieving the stated result.

The invention illustrated by the drawings. Figure 1 shows a diagram of the positioning of the radar by triangulation method, figure 2 - diagram of the positioning radar with the use of the claimed method, figure 3 - block diagram of the device for the positioning of emitters according to the patent of Russian Federation №2204145, figure 4 - example system that implements the claimed method, figure 5 - block diagram of the passive station radio station

Position in the drawings 1...5 mean:

1 - the first antenna device according to patent No. 2204145;

2 - the second antenna device according to patent No. 2204145;

3 - the third antenna device according to patent No. 2204145;

4 - the first measuring time differences device patent number 2204145;

5 - second measuring time differences device patent number 2204145;

6 is a block subtraction device patent number 2204145;

7 is a block summation device patent number 2204145;

8 - unit analysis device according to patent No. 2204145;

9 is a block display device patent number 2204145;

10 - the first passive radar prls 10;

11 - second passive radar prls 11;

12.1, 12.2 - focused mirror antenna;

13.1, 13.2 - antenna channel compensation of the reception side and the background lepes the Cam;

14 - unit mutual exchange of information and timing of WSOI 14;

15 - communication channel;

16 - low noise amplifier high frequency UHF 16;

17 is a multichannel receiver unit the MPU 17;

18 - amplifier channel compensation of the lateral petals and background MC 18;

19 - unit primary data processing and measurement of the carrier frequency, duration, amplitude and time of reception of signals from the radar POI 19;

20 - unit statistical information processing and bearing measurement, pulse repetition period, the duration of the series and the repetition period of the warriors series 20;

21 - the control unit CU 21;

the 22 - unit calculating the difference of angles of radiation detected by radar antennas passive radar stations and coordinates of the detected radar WU 22;

23 - drive narrow-band reflector antenna;

A - position prls 10;

In - position prls 11;

With the true position of the object carrier radar;

C1, C2, C3, C4 - field errors in triangulation method of positioning;

N1 - measuring device;

U2 - the information-processing device and display;

R α - spatial coordinates of the object-carrier radar;

ψ the difference between the angles of radiation.

The claimed method is implemented as follows. At least two passive radiolocation the main station (prls),
includes gauges radio and temporal parameters of the received radio emission and are related to each other by a channel of information exchange, located at a distance d from each other. In the first stage, each prls own discovery over the horizon radar and measure bearings on them and radio and temporal parameters. On the measured radio and time settings by identification of radar directory. The information obtained from each prls processed for the purpose of screening information from closely spaced (within radio horizon) of interest and Refine the working sector angles for pointing and tracking prls selected over the horizon of the object. At the second stage, consistent positioning of antennas prls over the horizon on the object selected in the first stage, and is a refinement of the spatial and radio radar parameters and elimination of false results triangulation. The third step is the measurement of the difference of angles of radiation radar prls (by measuring the difference of times of irradiation surveillance radars and period review of this RLS) and the coordinates of the object based on these angles. The difference between the angles of irradiation is determined in the following sequence: measure the time of passage of the maximum radiation patterns radar direction on the first prls, time is of rachada maximum charting directions for a second prls,
determine the difference between the angles of irradiation by the formula ψ=(2π·Δt)/T_{KBO}where T_{KBO}- the period of review radar measured or selected from the directory Δt is the dierence between the times of passage of the maximum radiation patterns RLS directions on the first and second prls, π=3,14.

In more detail, the inventive method can be illustrated by describing the operation of the system, which, for example, contains the first and second passive radar prls 10 and prls 11, spaced from each other at a distance line of sight (figure 4). Each passive radar (figure 3) contains narrow mirror antenna 12 to the actuator 23, the irradiator which the rotating waveguide connection connected to the input of a low noise amplifier high frequency UHF 16, and the antenna 13 of the channel compensation of the reception side and the background petals connected to the amplifier channel compensation of the lateral petals and background MC 18. UHF 16 and 18 of the criminal code is executed on the low-noise transistors. Outputs UHF 16 and 18 of the criminal code is connected to a multi-channel receiving device, the MPU 17, which represents a set of multi-frequency broadband receivers direct gain with which the microwave signal amplified respectability and detected. The outputs of the MPU 17 is connected to the primary device information processing and the measurement of carrier h is the frequency, the duration, amplitude and time of reception of signals from the radar POI 19, in which the analog-to-digital conversion on all channels LPA 17, exception signals received on the side and the background petals and their active radar, monopulse measurement of radio parameters (carrier frequency, pulse duration, and the relative level) atzelektronik signals. POI 19 data bus is connected with a statistical information processing and bearing measurement, pulse repetition period, the duration of the series and the repetition period of the series (the secondary device information processing) the client 20, which is formed by information about the detected radiation by a combination of several pulses with a measurement period of the pulse, the duration of the series, the repetition period of the series, time of reception of each pulse and the average bearing, and the aggregate radio and temporal parameters - catalog identification radar and the object carrier. The VOG 20 ports I / o is connected with a mutual exchange of information and timing of WSOI 14, the control unit CU 21 and a device for calculating the difference of angles of radiation detected by radar antennas passive radar stations and coordinates of the detected radar WU 22. VSOE 14 pre is assigned to exchange information about the detected radar prls 10 and prls 11. This information includes classification code radar set on the directory, the combination of radio and temporal parameters of the radio emission and the average bearing. In the SU 21 States the fact of detection of both prls the same radar and decision synchronous guidance and support for this radar, the measurement of the difference of angles of radiation and determining coordinates of the object-carrier radar. SU 21 is connected to the actuator 23 focused reflector antenna and WU 22, which in turn is connected with WSOI 14. In WU 22 for information about the time of the beginning and end of reception of the series of pulses accepted by both prls for one period of the review, and the review period the radar calculates the difference between the angles of irradiation and determined the coordinates of the object carrier of the station.

Each of prls first independent searches over the horizon radar in a given sector or in the circular view. Upon detection of any prls radiation radar parameters of its signals (bearing, carrier frequency, duration and the pulse repetition period) is transmitted to the second prls. When detecting radar second prls begins a synchronous tracking of the detected radar both prls and measure its period of review. On both prls recorded time of arrival of the first and last pulses of a series of one period of the review. The difference between the angles of irradiation ψ (2) is determined from the following with the tosini.
The time of passage of the maximum radiation patterns radar direction on the first prls is determined from the expression t_{1}=1/2(t_{K1}-t_{H1}), where t_{K1}- the arrival time of the last impulse of the series, recorded on the first prls, t_{H1}the time of arrival of the first pulse series. Time pass by max chart the direction for the second prls t_{2}=1/2(t_{K2}-t_{H2}), where t_{H2}- the arrival time of the last impulse of the series, recorded on the second prls, t_{H2}the time of arrival of the first pulse series, recorded on the second prls. The difference Δt=t_{2}-t_{1}equal to the time of passage high on the chart from the direction to the first prls to directions on the second prls, where ψ=(2π·Δt)/T_{KBO}where T_{KBO}- the period of review radar measured or selected from a catalog. Since the time of the review T_{KBO}proportionally greater than the pulse duration and pulse repetition period of the radar, the measurement error of angle ψ rather small, especially when averaged over the results of several measurements, and will be significantly lower than the errors of the direct measurement of this angle (figure 1). At small angles ψthat practically takes place at the location of prls on range line-of-sight distance to the emitting radar, equidistant from both prls (α=1/2π), uniquely determined by the formula D=12d/sin1/2ψ
≈d/ψ, where d is the distance between prls. In the General case, when α≠1/2π we can assume that D=d·cosα/ψ. From figure 1 it is seen that the accuracy of measuring the distance to the emitting radar triangulation when mestoopredeleniya significantly increases with R due to the growth of square errors (quadrangle C1, C2, C3, C4). When mestoopredeleniya using the inventive method, the accuracy of determining the distance does not depend on the accuracy of direction finding that long-range over the horizon media radar allows to reduce the resulting measurement error range.

1. The method of positioning of emitters, mainly of interest for radiation their radar (radar), including radiation detection and measurement direction using at least two spaced passive radar stations (prls) and calculating the coordinates of the emitters triangulation method, characterized in that the positioning is carried out in three stages, the first stage on each prls search and discovery over the horizon of interest for radiation their radar to measure radio and temporal parameters of radiation radar, radio emissions parameters and identify bearing detected by radar, over the horizon about what projects and move into a mode of continuous support these objects, when this filter out information from within the radio horizon of interest, obtained from each prls, precise work sector angles for pointing and tracking selected over the horizon of the object, in a second stage with at least two prls provide continuous support allocated for the first stage over the horizon of the object and record the time of reception of each pulse radar this object, in the third stage measured prls the bearings and the time of reception of each pulse is followed by the radar to determine the period of review of this radar, the difference between the angles of irradiation of the main beam of the radar each prls and range up to over the horizon of the object triangulation method, taking into account the difference of angles of radiation.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the difference between the angles of radiation in the following sequence: measure the time of passage of the maximum radiation patterns radar direction on the first prls, the time of passage high on the chart the direction for the second prls determine the difference between the angles of irradiation by the formula ψ=(2π·Δt)/T_{KBO}where T_{KBO}- the period of review radar measured or selected from the directory Δt is the dierence between the times of passage of the maximum radiation patterns RLS directions on the first and second prls, π=3,14.

3. Passive radar, containing antenna channel compensation side is o and petals background, narrow mirror antenna, connected in series low noise amplifier high frequency, multi-channel receiving device, the primary device information processing and measurement of the carrier frequency, duration, amplitude and time of the reception signals detected by the radar device of statistical information processing and bearing measurement, the repetition period, the duration of the series and repetition of a series of impulses, a second input the output of which is connected to the first input-output mutual information exchange passive radar stations about the detected radar stations and timing, the third input-output connected to the first input-output device calculating the difference of angles of radiation detected by radar passive radar antennas stations, the fourth input-output connected to the first input-output control device, the second input-output control device connected with the second input-output device calculating the difference of angles of radiation detected by radar antennas passive radar stations, the third input-output of which is connected with the second input-output mutual information exchange passive radar stations about the detected radar station is the beautiful and timing the third output control unit connected to the drive narrowly focused reflector antenna, the feed of which is connected to the input of a low noise amplifier high frequency amplifier output channel compensation of the lateral petals and background is connected with the second input multi-channel receiver, antenna channel compensation of the reception side and the background petals connected to the amplifier channel compensation of the lateral petals and background.

**Same patents:**

FIELD: finding of azimuth of radio emission source (RES) in wide-base direction finding systems.

SUBSTANCE: angle of azimuth of RES is measured with high degree of precision due to elimination of methodical errors in direction finding caused by linearization of model electromagnet wave propagation wave front. As surface of RES location the plane is used which has RES line of location which has to be crossing of two hyperbolic surfaces of location corresponding to difference-time measurement. Method of RES direction finding is based upon receiving its signal by three aerials disposed randomly, measuring of two time differences of RES signal receiving by aerials which form measuring bases and subsequent processing of results of measurement to calculate values of RES angles of azimuth and coordinates of point through which the RES axis of sight passes. The data received are represented in suitable form. Device for realization of the method has three aerials disposed at vertexes of random triangle, two units for measuring time difference of signal receiving, computing unit and indication unit. Output of common aerial of measuring bases is connected with second inputs of time difference meters which receive signals from outputs of the rest aerials. Measured values of time differences enter inputs of computing unit which calculates values of RES angle of azimuth and coordinates of point through which the RES axis of sight passes. Data received from output of computing analyzing unit enter indication unit intended for those data representation.

EFFECT: widened operational capabilities of direction finder.

2 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method can be used for systems for finding of location of radio signal radiation sources. Method includes receiving of radio signal by means of three non-directional aerials which form ring-shaped equidistant mesh, measuring phase difference among signals from aerials for all the bases formed by reference and other aerials of mesh and finding of primary estimation of direction finding to the source taking those phase differences into account. Aerial signals are additionally and simultaneously conversed into sum-difference signals due to subtraction of reference aerial signal from signals of other aerials. Then signal differences received are added in the first channel and subtracted in the other one and complex amplitude of sum-difference signals S_{m} are measured. Amplitudes are conversed in the neighborhood of primary estimation of direction finding θ^ into complex angular spectrum of , where m=1, 2 is number of sum-difference channel, θ is possible values of direction finding to source of θ^-π/2<θ<θ^+π/2, D^{·} _{1}(θ)= cos (√3πR/λ·sinθ)-exp(i3πR/λ·cosθ), D^{·} _{2}(θ)= isin(√3πR/λ·sinθ)are directional patterns of sum-difference channels, λ is radiation wavelength, R is radius of mesh. Direction finding is estimated from location of maximum of complex angular spectrum module. Location of maximum of complex angular spectrum module is estimated relatively primary estimation of direction finding by introducing correction in form of relation of first and second derivatives, V(θ^)' and V(θ^)'' correspondingly, of module of complex angular spectrum for direction finding in point of its primary estimation of ▵θ= V(θ^)'/V(θ^)''. Values of first and second derivatives V(θ^)' and V(θ^)'' of module of complex angular spectrum are determined from values of complex angular spectrum in close neighborhood of primary estimation of direction finding V(θ^)'=(V(θ^+δ)-V(θ^-δ))/2δ, V(θ^)''= =(V(θ^+δ)-V(θ^-δ-2V(θ^))/δ², where δ is differentiation constant.

EFFECT: improved precision of direction finding.

3 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering, applicable for determination of the bearing and frequency of the source of radio signals in the systems of automatic detection of radio emissions.

SUBSTANCE: the method is based on reception of the signal of the source of radio emission by two antennas, whose focal axes are shifted relative to each other approximately by the width of the directional pattern, measurement of the frequency and amplitudes of the received signals and approximate estimation of the bearing of the radio signal by comparison of the amplitudes of the signals received by the antennas, the centers of aperture of the antennas are spaced at a distance exceeding the wavelength of the signal under inspection, approximate estimation of the bearing of the radio signal source is effected by subtraction of the ratio of the difference of the amplitudes of the signals received by the antennas to their sum simultaneously with measurement of the frequency and amplitudes of the signals received by the antennas, the phase shift between them is measured, several values of the bearing of the source of radio signals are calculated according to the measured difference of phases, they are compared with their approximate estimation of the bearing, the value of the bearing is selected from those calculated according to the difference of the phases, the closest to that determined by the ratio of the difference of the amplitudes to their sums, and taken as a bearing to the source of radio signal.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of direction finding and simplified realization due to the reduced number of antennas and receiving channels.

1 dwg

**FIELD: radar engineering and cellular communication systems for locating mobile stations.**

**SUBSTANCE: proposed method is distinguished from prior art in saving satellite measurement results incorporating abnormal errors and reducing weight of these erroneous measurements followed by repeated searching for subscriber's mobile station location using corrected weighting coefficient. This operation is executed until sum of weighed error measures corresponding to corrected location of subscriber's mobile station using refined weighting coefficients reduces below threshold value. Corrected estimate of subscriber's mobile station location obtained in this way is assumed as final estimate of subscriber's mobile station location.**

**EFFECT: enhanced precision and reliability of locating subscriber's mobile station.**

**3 cl, 5 dwg**

**FIELD: radar engineering and cellular communication systems for locating mobile stations.**

**SUBSTANCE: proposed method is distinguished from prior art in saving satellite measurement results incorporating abnormal errors and reducing weight of these erroneous measurements followed by repeated searching for subscriber's mobile station location using corrected weighting coefficient. This operation is executed until sum of weighed error measures corresponding to corrected location of subscriber's mobile station using refined weighting coefficients reduces below threshold value. Corrected estimate of subscriber's mobile station location obtained in this way is assumed as final estimate of subscriber's mobile station location.**

**EFFECT: enhanced precision and reliability of locating subscriber's mobile station.**

**3 cl, 5 dwg**