Method and device for gas separation

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises supplying initial gas under pressure of 0.002-0.24 MPa (0.02-2.4 kg/cm2), separating the initial gas into gas and liquid phases downstream of each cooling stage, discharging liquid phase produced, and supplying the residual gas to the subsequent cooling, condensing, and separating. The device is modular and comprises heat exchanger-condenser, separator, and collector of the liquid fraction extracted. The device has at least two modules connected in series. The heat exchanger-condenser may be made of Peltier elements.

EFFECT: reduced cost.

3 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to the oil and gas industry, in particular to a technology for separation of natural and associated petroleum gases for individual fractions.

Natural or associated gas produced from gas fields, gas condensate and oil, are found in nature, and it contains a mixture of compounds, the bulk of which is methane. Usually natural gas contains at least 95% methane and other hydrocarbons with low boiling point (although it may contain less); the remainder of the mixture contains mainly nitrogen and carbon dioxide. The exact composition varies within wide limits and may contain various other contaminants, including hydrogen sulfide and mercury.

Natural or associated gas may be poor and rich gas. These concepts are not exact values, but, in General, in the industry mean that poor gas tends to lower content of higher hydrocarbons than rich gas. Associated gas from oil fields contains more of the heavier hydrocarbons such as propane, butane, pentane and other similar substances, as well as hydrogen, nitrogen, dvuoksid carbon and some other gaseous substances and in a smaller amount of ethane and methane. The propane and heavier components can be captured and extracted from a variety of gases, for example from nature is the volumetric gas, gas refinery, associated gas in oil fields and natural gas unstable composition, i.e. more than the poor gas.

Cryogenic expansion process has been successfully used for separation of propane and heavier hydrocarbons from natural gas streams with simultaneous removal of ethane in the flow of the residual gas with methane. It is common practice to use the same technological scheme to capture and extract as ethane and propane. These processes, however, mainly focused on the treatment of natural and associated gas from impurities and the end result is to obtain a clean gas containing ethane and methane. Mainly produced associated gas is transported by pipeline network on a large gas processing plants. But sometimes the amount of produced gas is small (1000000-50000000 nm3/year), and construction of transport pipeline can be difficult and unprofitable. In this case it is enough "fat" associated gas may partially (by 30-60% depending on the fat content and availability of electricity) to process at the place of production to the production of useful products

It is therefore desirable that a method of processing gas, which would allow to detect and remove the propane and heavier coal the hydrogens of the flow of associated gas and natural gas unstable composition.

Because of natural and associated gas is a mixture of gases, it liquefaction occurs in the temperature range. After liquefaction, in the case of the transition phase state from gas to liquid gas, called liquefied.

The liquefied gas can be produced by cooling using a counter-current heat-exchange interaction with gaseous instead of liquid refrigerant refrigerants used in conventional methods of liquefaction, as, for example, in cascade or using pre-cooled propane ways with mixed refrigerant. At least part of the refrigerant flows through the refrigeration cycle, which includes at least one stage of compression and at least one stage of expansion. There is a method of natural gas liquefaction, which conducts pre-cleaning gas from carbon dioxide, water, sulfur compounds and heavy hydrocarbons and then further cooling the source gas external refrigerant at temperatures up to -146°and further receiving liquefied gas commodity. The pressure of the source gas of about 5.5 MPa. When implementing this method, an external refrigerant to obtain the necessary cooling of the source gas temperature must first compress the block multi-stage compressor to a pressure of about 5.6 MPa (see RF patent №2141084, IPC 6 F 25 J 1/02, 1999).

Flaws on the frame of the method are, first, applying it only to receive liquefied gas commodity without dividing it into separate fractions, secondly, the need to maintain high pressure in the pipeline of the source gas and the external piping of the refrigerant.

Known device used to achieve the above-described method. This installation for liquefying natural gas includes means for liquefying natural gas comprising the sequence of heat exchangers by countercurrent heat exchange with the refrigerant, compressor means for compressing refrigerant and means for isentropic expansion of the compressed refrigerant (see RF patent №2141084, IPC 6 F 25 J 1/02, 1999).

The disadvantage is the presence of a large number of compressor means, requiring constant care and monitoring, and which is the source of increased danger, which is necessary for the compression of natural gas, and external compression of the refrigerant. In addition, external compression of the refrigerant used a cascade compressors.

Known methods of treatment of natural and associated petroleum gases containing hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide. An example of such a method can serve as a way of separating acidic components from natural gas and associated gas, which consists in the fact that the flow of raw gas from tochnogo pressure is cooled by expansion in the vortex coolers up to temperature (-58° C), and the resulting liquid products rasclaat in the gravity field (see RF patent №2216698, IPC 7 F 25 J 3/08, 2003).

The disadvantages of this method are, first, the separation of liquefied products in the field of gravity. The solubility of liquids at this temperature (-58° (C) high and for their separation under the action of gravity need a very long process, requiring low velocities, the absence of trouble in the two environments. These conditions can be created in a vessel large unit capacity, isothermal performance (i.e. with reliable insulation). Such devices are characterized by high intensity and high cost performance at the expense of double-walled housings. But it will not allow you to get the products specified degree of purity in connection with the solubility of liquids in each other. In addition, in fact this method does not solve the problem of separation to separate a liquid fraction, and is designed for purification of natural gas from impurities with the aim of obtaining industrial gas, basic components are ethane and methanol.

Secondly, the effect of cold generation, based on the data received on the gas of a particular composition. When changing the composition of the gas, this setting will not work due to changes in material flows and cooling the mouth of ovci. In addition, you must pre-compression of the contaminated acid and liquefied components of the gas compressor installation, which is responsible explosive node and has a low reliability due to corrosion properties of such gases.

There is a method of gas separation by step cooling the source of compressed gas. In the process of cryogenic expansion incoming pressure in the installation, the gas is cooled in one or more heat exchangers using cold streams from other areas of technological process and/or through the use of external sources of cooling, for example, using system compression-cooling propane. The cooled gas is expanded to lower pressure and is supplied to a distillation column in which there is an allocation of the desired product (in the form of residual liquid product from the residual gas, which is discharged in the form of a pair of the upper ring of the column. This is an extension of the chilled feed, which provides education to the cryogenic temperatures required for capturing and extracting the desired product (see RF patent №2047061, IPC 6 F 25 J 3/02, 1995). This decision was made as a prototype.

The disadvantages of the prototype are handling the source of gas under pressure, the need to maintain high is x pressure in the pipeline source gas, and in the external piping of the refrigerant and the residual gas used for cooling. In addition, according to the description of the method, it is not intended for complete separation from receiving separate streams LPG, isobutane, butane and propane.

A device for separating gas containing the direct line of flow of the source gas from the series primary regenerative heat exchanger, heat exchanger-cooler, secondary regenerative heat exchanger and separator distillation column, booster compressor and line reverse flow of the residual gas (see RF patent №2047061, IPC 6 F 25 J 3/02, 1995).

The disadvantage of this device is the presence of a large number of compressors are designed to compress as the source gas, and refrigerant. In addition, this device is not mobile and is intended for use in stationary conditions of large processing plants. To use this device at full power, it is necessary to supply gas through pipelines, which leads to additional costs.

The problem solved by the invention, is getting enough clean separation products natural gas unstable composition and associated petroleum gases for a separate fractions at low pressure source of gas. And the objective, resh is by the invention, to reduce the cost of shipping gas to the location of factories for processing through the use of modular mobile units in the field at the location of deposits of gas or oil.

The problem is solved due to the fact that in the known method of separation of the source gas by step cooling external heat carrier, separation of gas and liquid phases, in accordance with the invention, the source gas is fed with the pressure of 0.002-0.24 MPa (0.02 to 2.4 kg/cm2), the separation of the gas and the liquid phase is performed after each stage cooling diverting the liquid fraction and the flow of residual gas on subsequent cooling, condensation and separation (separation of the liquid and gaseous phases).

The cooling temperature and the processing time at each stage corresponds to the temperature of liquefaction of the corresponding detachable faction at a known pressure.

The problem is solved also due to the fact that in the known device for separating gas containing the direct line of flow of the source gas with series heat exchanger-condenser and separator and the line of flow of the residual gas, in accordance with the invention the device is made in the form of separate modules, which includes the heat exchanger-condenser, separator and collection of selected liquid is faction, and provided with at least two of these additional modules, and the line of flow of the residual gas allocated to supply it to the unit.

In the device, the heat exchanger-condenser can be performed using the Peltier elements.

The technical result of solving the problem lies in the fact that due to the fact that the source gas is fed with the pressure of 0.002-0.24 MPa (0.02 to 2.4 kg/cm2), simplifies maintenance this way, decreases the danger of explosion. In addition, due to the fact that the separation of the steam and the liquid phase is performed after each stage cooling abstraction obtained liquid fraction, a cleaner composition selected liquid fractions, which improves the quality of consumer-facing products.

The technical result of solving the problem also lies in the fact that due to the fact that the device is made in the form of separate modules, which includes a heat exchanger-cooler, a separator and a collection of selected liquid fraction, it is mobile and can be used directly on the location of oil wells or gas field. This allows you to reduce the cost of the process. Due to the fact that the device has at least two additional modules, the selection of the selected fractions is carried out sequentially, which provides you the ocoe the quality of the products and reduces the amount of impurities in them. Abstraction line of flow of the residual gas for delivery on the unit allows the use of the residual gas for energy installation. The absence of the compressor to increase the pressure of the source gas simplifies the device and makes it easier and cheaper maintenance. The use of Peltier elements can simplify the process of cooling and condensing at equal power consumption.

The drawing shows a diagram of a device for separating gas.

The following are the most optimal variant of the device for separating gas.

A device for the separation of gas is a mobile unit 1, which consists of individual modules 2, 3, 4, each of which consists of series-connected heat exchanger-condenser 5, a separator 6 and a compilation of selected fractions 7. Line 8 of the direct flow of the source gas supplied to consistently included the heat exchanger-condenser 5-2, which is directly connected to the separator 6-2 module 2. The lower part of the separator 6-2 is connected to the collector 7-2. The output of the separator 6-2 module 2 pipe 9 is connected with the heat exchanger-condenser 5-3 first additional module 3. Similarly, module 2, the lower part of the separator 6-3 is connected to the collector 7-3, and the output of the separator 6-3 module 3 pipeline 10 is connected to the heat exchanger to what densation 5-4 second additional module 4. The output of the separator 6-4 module 4 is connected to line 11 of the residual gas stream, which removes the remaining nutritionally gas to unit 12.

The method is as follows.

Mainly this method can be used for separation of associated gas in oil wells. Therefore, we consider the application of this method for the separation of gases associated with the use of the above devices.

Gas taken after the separation of oil from the pressure of 0.002-0.24 MPa (0.02 to 2.4 kg/cm2), arrives on line 8 direct flow of the source gas in the heat exchanger-condenser 5-2 module 2 and then to separator 6-2 to obtain a liquefied fraction NGL. By calculation, the selected flow rate and time of exposure to the source gas in the external refrigerant with the aim of obtaining vapor fraction NGL. The heat exchanger-condenser 5-2 directly connected to the separator 6-2, thus the flow velocity of the gas does not change in the separator is achieved the most favorable conditions for the condensation of vapour LPG, which accounts for the loss of liquid fraction is minimal. From the bottom of the separator 6-2 in the collection 7-2 given liquid fraction NGL, and, since the flow velocity and the residence time in the separator is designed to highlight namely of this fraction, the amount of impurities other components (n-butane is, isobutane and propane) is minimized.

The remaining neskondensirovannyh part of the gas pipe 9 enters the heat exchanger-condenser 5-3 first additional module 3. This module is the separation of the liquid fraction of n-butane and isobutane, so the exposure time external refrigerant received in the heat exchanger-condenser 5-3 gas will be different than in module 2. Similarly, module 2 of the heat exchanger-condenser 5-3 gas, mixed with saturated pairs of n-butane and isobutane, enters the separator 6-3, where the condensation of the liquid fraction of n-butane and isobutane. From the bottom of the separator 6-3 in the collection 7-3 given liquid fraction n-butane and isobutane, highlighted in module 3. The calculation time of contact with the refrigerant and the time spent in the separator module 3 takes into account the characteristics of n-butane and isobutane, in order to exclude the possibility, as loss of deposited liquid fraction and deposition fraction of propane in liquid n-butane and isobutane.

The remaining neskondensirovannyh part of the gas through the pipeline 10 flows into the heat exchanger-condenser 5-4 second additional module 4. This module is the separation of a liquid fraction of propane, so the exposure time external refrigerant received in the heat exchanger-condenser 5-4 gas will be different than in modules 2 and 3, respectively. Analogion the modules 2 and 3 of the heat exchanger-condenser 5-4 gas, mixed with saturated vapour propane, into the separator 6-4, where the condensation of the liquid fraction of propane. From the bottom of the separator 6-4 in the collection 7-4 given liquid fraction of propane allocated to module 4. The calculation time of contact with the refrigerant and the time spent in the heat exchanger-condenser 5-4 and the separator 6-4 module 4 takes into account characteristics of propane, to eliminate the possibility of loss of deposited liquid fraction, and other deposition fraction in liquid propane.

The device can be manufactured using known heat exchangers and separators, and the method used for the application of this device and other devices using the same elements of the device, but interconnected in other connections.

1. The method of dividing the source gas by step cooling external heat carrier, separation of gas and liquid phase, characterized in that the source gas is fed with the pressure of 0.002-0.24 MPa (0.02 to 2.4 kg/cm2), the separation of the gas and the liquid phase is performed after each stage cooling diverting the liquid fraction and the flow of residual gas on subsequent cooling, condensation and separation (separation of the liquid and gaseous phases).

2. The device is modular for separation of gas without the use of a compressor, done the TES of series-connected modules, containing the heat exchanger-condenser, separator and collection of selected liquid fraction, whereby the device comprises at least two series-connected modules.

3. The device according to claim 2, characterized in that the heat exchanger-condenser performed using Peltier elements.



 

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13 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: low-temperature air separator plants.

SUBSTANCE: proposed rectification unit of air separator plant contains upper rectifying tower with built-in condenser-evaporator and lower rectifying tower. Condenser-evaporator is made up of rigidly interconnected sections. Each section is furnished with heat exchange element with condensing medium inlet and outlet branch pipes and boiling medium bath. Bats of heat exchange elements are installed coaxially. Bottom of upper rectifying tower forms bath of lower heat exchange element. Funnel is rigidly secured over heat exchange element in section of upper heat exchange element. Smaller diameter of funnel is equal to or less than diameter of bath of upper heat exchange element, and distance between upper sections of bath and heat exchange element is defined by equation a=(0-0.3)B where a is distance between upper sections of bath and heat exchange element; B is height of heat exchange element.

EFFECT: provision of compact rectification unit of large capacity.

4 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: manufacture of compressors; production of nitrogen-based compressed inert gas mixture from atmospheric air.

SUBSTANCE: proposed compressor station mounted on truck chassis includes multi-stage piston-type air compressor, membrane-type gas distributing module and module-type nitrogen plant. Outlet of third compression stage of air compressor is connected via cooler and water-and-oil separator with inlet of gas-distributing module through filter unit. Outlet of gas-distributing module is connected with inlet of air compressor fourth stage. Air compressed preliminarily in compressor stages is cooled down and cleaned in coolers and water-and-oil separators, after which it is delivered through pipe lines to inlet of gas-distributing module and cleaned in filters and water-and-oil separators from condensed moisture, mechanical admixtures and oil and is fed to gas-distributing reservoirs through gas-distributing unit; gas-distributing reservoirs are interconnected and are located in series and/or in parallel; concentration of oxygen in these reservoirs is reduced to 0.1%. Inert nitrogen gas mixture is fed to compressor stages, cooled to temperature below 60°C and cleaned from moisture and oil in coolers and water-and-oil separators of subsequent stages; then, it is fed to consumer through receiver, check valve and cock. During start at negative temperatures, pre-start heater is switched on and high-temperature gases enter preheating chamber and truck body of mobile compressor station. As required temperature has been attained, diesel engine and compressor are started and high-temperature gases are fed from preheating chamber to thermostatted body of module-type nitrogen plant through warm sleeve.

EFFECT: extended field of application; increased service life of station; facilitated procedure of start.

9 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: cryogenic technique, particularly for separating the constituents of gaseous mixtures involving the use of liquefaction or solidification.

SUBSTANCE: method involves compressing neon-helium mixture flow, cooling thereof and separating under 28-29.5 K temperature and pressure exceeding critical neon pressure to form stripping gas and liquid fraction; additionally absorbing neon from stripping gas by adsorbers; purging adsorbers with helium during desorption thereof; mixing purging gas with neon-helium mixture before compressing thereof. Separation device comprises compressor with inlet pipeline, main heat-exchanger with stripping gas inlet and outlet connection pipes, low-temperature heat-exchanger, separator with stripping gas and liquid fraction outlet pipelines, rectifying column with evaporator in column bottom and alternating adsorbers. Gas inlet connection pipe of each adsorber is connected to stripping gas outlet pipeline of separator downstream of low-temperature heat-exchanger and to compressor inlet pipeline through pipelines provided with valves. Gas outlet connection pipe of each adsorber is linked with stripping gas inlet and outlet connection pipes of main heat-exchanger through pipelines provided with valves. Evaporator has capillary-porous coating applied from boiling side thereof.

EFFECT: increased economic efficiency and reduced metal consumption.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: processes or apparatus for separation.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises supplying vapors of cooling agent to the cooling cycle for liquefying, mixing the liquid cooling agent with the liquefied cooling agent, and supplying the liquid cooling agent to the condenser-evaporators for evaporating.

EFFECT: reduced consumption of cooling agent.

1 dwg

FIELD: gas industry, particularly to cool pressurized liquefied natural gas containing methane and hydrocarbons with two or more carbon atoms.

SUBSTANCE: method involves expanding above pressurized liquefied natural gas to obtain expanded liquefied gas flow; separating the obtained gas flow into the first head fraction having greater volatility and the first tail fraction having lesser volatility; accumulating the first tail fraction comprising cooled liquefied natural gas; heating the first head fraction, compressing thereof in the first compressor and cooling the first head fraction to obtain the first compressed fraction of combustible gas; accumulating the first fraction of combustible gas; extracting the second compressed fraction from the first compressed one; cooling the second compressed fraction and mixing thereof with expanded liquefied natural gas flow; compressing the second compressed fraction in the second compressor communicated with turboexpander to obtain the third compressed fraction; cooling the third compressed fraction and separating thereof into the forth and the fifth compressed fractions; cooling the forth compressed fraction and expanding thereof in turboexpander connected to the second compressor to obtain expanded fraction; heating the expanded fraction and introducing thereof into the first medium-pressure compressor stage; cooling the fifth fraction and mixing thereof with expanded liquefied natural gas flow.

EFFECT: increased output.

13 cl, 11 tbl

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