Fuel nozzle with optimized batching device and combustion chamber

FIELD: continuous combustion chambers using liquid or gas fuel.

SUBSTANCE: fuel nozzle comprises first valve that closes when the pressure of inflowing fuel reaches a given value and second batching valve mounted at the outlet of the first valve, which is opened under the action of the second given value of fuel pressure. The second valve is open when the pressure increases so that to provide the inflow of fuel to the consumers. The batched fuel flow rate is a function of the flowing sections of the openings made at the level of the second valve. The nozzle is additionally provided with means for individual adjusting of the second threshold value of pressure made so that to provided the uniform injection of fuel to the combustion chamber.

EFFECT: expanded functional capabilities.

4 cl, 6 dwg

 

The technical field to which the invention relates.

The present invention relates in General to devices for controlling the flow of fluid and more particularly relates to fuel nozzles in the combustion chamber of the turbomachine, as well as the combustion chamber of the turbomachine equipped with multiple nozzles.

The level of technology

Regulation of the flow rate of fuel supply in turbojet or turboprop engine (hereinafter referred to as the turbomachine) is carried out at the level of the fuel injectors, which are designed to provide the first fuel consumption in run mode are measured and the mode of operation with low power and the second fuel consumption for higher modes up to full power.

A typical example of the run fuel injector for a turbomachine shown in French patent No. 2540186. Fuel injector contains, on the one hand, a relief valve, the spring is adjusted so that the valve opens at a pressure corresponding to the fuel supply in the run mode, and remains open until the pressure exceeds that specified a certain amount. On the other hand, the fuel injector includes metering valve, the spring is adjusted to open the valve when a certain pressure value exceeding the first threshold in the mask. The valve remains open until the pressure exceeds the second specified a certain amount, up to the maximum working pressure. In this second mode, the fuel is controlled by Windows, which are made in the dosing valve through mechanical processing and have calculated flow areas to ensure a consistent increase of flow rate at a predetermined function of the pressure of the fuel supply. The initial load of the spring, which determines the first threshold metering valve is controlled by an annular mounting wedge.

It is a known solution corresponding to the prior art, has a significant drawback. In devices of the type described fuel consumption corresponding to the maximum opening of the proportioning valve (for access to the full power of the engine), essentially depends on the mechanical characteristics of the spring and flow sections of Windows (friction in the valve is also affected, but to a lesser extent). While the tolerances on the manufacture or machining as springs and Windows are such that this maximum flow may not be identical for all the fuel injectors in this engine. Figure 6 shows the deviations of consumption ΔQ1that ΔQ2that can be created in various Topley is different nozzles 100, 102 one combustion chamber, with respect to theoretical design flow 104. The result is a most uneven flow between the fuel injectors, which adversely affects the operation of the turbomachine.

The invention

The problem to which the present invention is directed, is to create a fuel injector, which can significantly reduce the non-uniformity of flow between the fuel injectors one combustion chamber. The invention is directed to the solution of the task of creating a device that allows you to simplify and make more flexible regulation of the flow rate of fuel injection into the combustion chamber of each fuel nozzle. Another object of the invention is a device that allows you to reduce the time for individual adjustment of these costs. The next task of the invention is to provide a device which can eliminate the effect of friction in the metering valve of the fuel injector.

In accordance with the invention the solution of this problem is achieved by creating a new fuel injector, designed for the combustion chamber of the turbomachine. The nozzle according to the invention includes a housing with inlet fuel under pressure, a first valve mounted at the outlet of these funds to the intake of fuel under pressure and with amatively when reaching the preset pressure value of the fuel inlet for the passage of fuel in the specified case, and a second valve mounted at the outlet of the specified first valve and triggered upon reaching the first certain value of pressure (S1) fuel exceeding the specified pressure inlet, for dosed supply of parts received in the specified chassis fuel means fuel use. The fuel supplied to these funds use fuel at pressures below a second certain value of pressure (S2), exceeding that of the first pressure value is a function of flow sections performed at the level specified second valve. Outside the specified second pressure value of the second valve is configured as a fixed diaphragm. The nozzle according to the invention is characterized by the fact that it further comprises means of individual settings of the specified second certain value of the fuel pressure in such a way as to ensure uniformity of the fuel into the combustion chamber.

This special design nozzle avoids heavy duty work (outside of the pressure threshold S2) of the dispersion characteristics of the flow in the means of using fuel. In addition, significantly simplifies the configuration of a maximum flow rate of the fuel injector.

In an optimal embodiment, the personal settings contain the focus of the La travel limit specified metering valve to a certain value, which corresponds to the desired amount of fuel. This stops the flow limiting preferably contains a ring attached to the specified second (metering) valve and designed to interact with a sleeve in which the valve is installed with the possibility of bias.

The invention also provides for the creation of a combustion chamber of a turbomachine, equipped with a plurality of fuel injectors in accordance with the present invention.

List of drawings

An example implementation of the present invention, its features and advantages will be described in more detail below with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which

figure 1 depicts a view in section of the fuel nozzle of a turbomachine in accordance with the invention;

2 to 4 depict the views in the context of a dosing unit injector of figure 1 at various stages of its operation;

5 is a chart, which shows an example of curves of fuel management in the turbomachine when using the fuel injector of figure 1;

6 is a diagram which shows an example of curves of fuel management in the turbomachine when using known devices.

Information confirming the possibility of carrying out the invention

Figure 1 shows a fuel injector of the combustion chamber of the turbomachine. This f is Ranka may be the so-called "trigger" nozzle, designed for engine starting and running constantly, or so-called "core" nozzle that provides the flight modes and can operate on or off. In the housing 10 of the fuel injector is made inlet 12, which is designed to receive fuel under pressure from the corresponding fuel pump (not shown) and communicates with the input cavity 14 for receiving fuel into the housing of the fuel injector. In the input cavity 14 is installed shut-off valve 16, which is designed to seal the fuel injector when it is off. Shut-off valve 16 of known construction formed by the plate 18 and the rod 20 and is installed with the sleeve 22, the Central tubular portion 24 which forms a support for the valve. In addition, the sleeve 22 has a cylindrical peripheral part 26, which goes down from this Central part and occupies a significant portion of the remaining volume of the body 10 of the fuel injector. Cylindrical peripheral portion 26 of the sleeve 22 forms an internal cavity 28 of the secondary fuel and the main ring of the fuel cavity 30, which surrounds the cavity 28 of the secondary feed and communicated with her through transverse holes 31. The cavity 28 of the secondary fuel is communicated with the inlet cavity 14 through a calibrated hole 32, evenly machined around the pores 24 of the valve. The seat of this valve is formed by a cylindrical flange of the liner 34 that rests on the sleeve 22. Coil spring 36 mounted between the support 24 of the valve and the plate 18 of the valve and is designed to regulate the pressure of the inlet fuel into the inlet cavity above which opens the shutoff valve (comprising, for example, 1.5 kg/cm2).

The metering device 38 that is designed for dispensing fuel flowing from the cavity 28 of the secondary fuel supply, is mounted directly in the cavity. It contains a metering valve 40 of the tubular form, with cross-holes 42 of the release of secondary fuel and a closed end, which leaves a circular flange 44 forming a plate valve. To this end, there are also Windows 46, carried out with high accuracy for metering fuel flowing from the cavity 28 of the secondary fuel supply through the transverse holes 42 to the secondary outlet channel 48.

The metering valve 40 can be displaced by sliding in a cylindrical sleeve 50 at the end of which has a circular bore 52, which forms the valve seat. This sleeve is rigidly held in the housing 10 of the fuel injector with the help of a flange 54 which is clamped between the end of the sleeve 22, the opposite leg 24 of the valve, and a sleeve 56 of the bearing sleeve. This flange also forms a reference pleskot the first end of the coil spring 58, the other end of which is mounted in a holding element made in the form of the retaining sleeve 60. The retaining sleeve 60 mounted on the end of the valve, opposite the plate, and is held on the valve using a split retaining ring 62. The annular wedge 64, located between the split ring 62 and the retaining element is designed to control the load of the spring 58 to determine a first threshold S1 actuation of the metering valve. This load is chosen so that the metering valve is opened when a predetermined pressure value of the fuel (for example, 10 kg/cm2), corresponding to the pressure at the start, and remained open with increasing pressure while the fuel flow is regulated through the sections of the Windows 46).

According to the invention the metering device 38 is further provided with tuning, focusing, designed to determine the second threshold S2 actuation of the metering valve. This second threshold has the same value for all the fuel injectors one combustion chamber, and beyond the valve acts like a fixed aperture, the characteristics of which are completely independent of the characteristics of friction in the valve. This configures the focus allows you to limit the stroke of the metering valve. Due to this, the fuel consumption is set at Maxim is inuu a preset value, appropriate this second threshold and identical for all the fuel injectors.

Figure 5 clearly seen the effect of this tuning focus on the ow deviations that may exist in the range of operation of the turbomachine in two different fuel injector 200, 202 one combustion chamber compared with the calculated theoretical flow 204. This emphasis can be formed, for example, the ring 66 mounted on the end of the metering valve, the opposite of his plate. Private setting (by means of machining thickness D of the ring) allows you to determine for each fuel injector predefined common to all nozzles pressure value of the fuel, which corresponds to the flow rate when approaching full opening (for example, 30 kg/cm2). It should be noted that you can set this emphasis on the sleeve 50 so that it is engaged with the retaining element 60 to limit the stroke of the metering valve 40.

Next, the operation of the metering unit fuel injector according to the invention will be explained with reference to figure 2-4.

In figure 2, the metering device 38 is shown in its original resting position, with the metering valve 40 is closed and rests on the saddle 52. The secondary fuel is not supplied to the spray nozzle, and it feeds only on the basis of the fuel, which the intake cavity 14 passes through an orifice 32, the cavity 28 of the secondary fuel and a transverse hole 31 of the sleeve 22 (of course, assuming that the valve 16 is open).

Figure 3 the metering device is in an intermediate position, when under the influence of the supply pressure exceeding the first threshold S1, the spring 58 is compressed and causes the opening of valve 40 by half. The fuel located in the cavity 28 of the secondary feed permeates through the valve by passage through a transverse hole 42 and the openings 46, providing a supply to the nozzle of the fuel injector secondary flow of fuel that is added to the primary flow. Variables continuous section of the Windows 46 regulate the flow of secondary injection.

Finally, in figure 4 the metering device shown in the position of maximum opening, which corresponds to the pressure of the supplied fuel is greater than the threshold S2. When the metering valve 40 is in position of rest, as the ring 66 is in thrust contact with the sleeve 50 and blocks any further displacement of the valve regardless of further increase fuel pressure. In this end position, which is regulated in accordance with the length D of the ring 66, the feed-through section of the Windows 46 are no longer variables, and the valve acts as a fixed the aperture (its characteristics on consumption depend only on the size of the ring). Eliminates all the problems of variation in the flow rate in the known devices.

Thus, according to this invention, the flow control injection is performed not only by opening the metering valve at low values of consumption (with the threshold S1), but also through the full opening for a significantly higher cost (beyond the threshold S2). This regulation through full opening is configured individually for each fuel injector in such a way as to obtain the same pressure of the fuel in the combustion chamber regardless of the individual and have excellent characteristics of each of the fuel injectors (and, in particular, each of the springs 58). This simple modification of the metering device by adding the adjustment ring, the length D which will be different for each fuel injector in the functions of its individual mechanical characteristics, gives a significant improvement in control non-uniformity of flow between the nozzles in the mode of operation at full power. Indeed, to obtain a uniform flow no longer require high precision manufacturing of all components of the fuel injector. Now it is enough thrust ring 66. In addition, this component provides a high degree of flexibility in regulating the offering of the metered consumption, as well as saving time setting because this setting is at full capacity now only depends on one parameter, namely the size of the thrust ring and does not depend on flow sections of Windows and characteristics of elasticity of the spring.

1. Fuel injector to the combustion chamber of a turbomachine, comprising a housing (10) with means (12) of the inlet fuel under pressure, a first valve (16)mounted on the release of these funds to the intake of fuel under pressure and triggered upon reaching a preset pressure value of the fuel inlet for the passage of fuel specified in the housing, and a second valve (40)mounted on the specified output of the first valve and triggered upon reaching the first certain value of pressure (S1) fuel exceeding the specified pressure inlet, for dosed supply of parts received in the specified chassis fuel to the means (48) use fuel, and the fuel supplied to these funds use fuel at pressures below a second certain value of pressure (S2), exceeding that of the first pressure value is a function of flow sections (46), is performed on the level of the specified second valve, while outside the specified second pressure value of the second valve is configured as a fixed diaphragm, ex is different, however, which further contains personal settings specified second certain value of the fuel pressure in such a way as to ensure uniformity of the fuel into the combustion chamber.

2. Fuel injector according to claim 1, characterized in that said funds customization contain a stop to limit the stroke of the specified second valve to a certain value, which corresponds to the desired maximum flow rate of fuel injection.

3. Fuel injector according to claim 2, characterized in that the stop limit nut contains a ring (66)attached to the specified second valve and for interacting with the sleeve (50)in which the specified second valve is provided with offset.

4. The combustion chamber of the turbomachine that contains multiple fuel nozzles made in accordance with any of claims 1 to 3.



 

Same patents:

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2 cl, 5 dwg

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