Hydraulic power-generating station
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device is designed for converting kinetic energy of water flow into and thermal energy. Proposed station contains dam, conduit system, hydraulic turbines and electric generators. It includes at least one swirl heat generator whose injection branch pipe is furnished with water pressure transmitter and is connected with conduit system through adapter provided with water pressure regulator made, for instance, in form of shutter whose drive is connected with water pressure transmitter.
EFFECT: possibility of generation heat energy for consumers in addition to electric energy.
The present invention relates to energy and is intended to supply the population and industrial enterprises.
All known hydraulic power station belong to the category of hydraulic power plants (Soviet encyclopedic dictionary / CH. edit Prokhorov A.M. - 3 ed. - M.: Owls. encyclopedia, 1984, s). They convert the mechanical energy of water into electrical energy through turbines driving electric generators. Their main disadvantage is monofunctionality, i.e. the ability to produce only electricity. And as consumers demand more and the heat it receives in electric heating devices or by burning fossil fuels. This approach does not apply to quite economical and requires multiple equipment, including mechanical. For the latter cannot be achieved with high reliability and operational adaptability.
As a prototype of the selected hydraulic power plant (HPP) dam performance (Polytechnical dictionary. CH. edit ISI, M.: Owls. Encyclopedia, 1976, s-116). HES contains a dam, a system of conduits, turbines and generators. It operates as follows. Water from the reservoir is fed through the system in the horseflies laid in the dam to the turbines, which results in a rotation of the generators. Selected electric power is supplied to consumers. The transformation of energy in a hydroelectric power plant is carried out according to the scheme: the mechanical energy of water → the mechanical energy of the turbine → mechanical energy generator → electric energy. To obtain thermal energy in this scheme it is necessary to add two more cycle: heat the electric heating device → thermal energy fluid (liquid or gas).
The disadvantage of the prototype, typical for all HPP is the additional cost of energy to provide heat energy consumers.
The task of the invention is to improve functionality, reliability and maintainability station and reducing energy consumption. This technical result is achieved due to the fact that the HPP is entered, at least one vortex heat generator (for example, patent RF № 2045715. YU.S. Potapov // bul. Fig. No. 28, 1995), injection nozzle which is equipped with a pressure sensor of the water and connected with a water-piping system through the adapter, equipped with a pressure regulator water, made for example in the form of a valve actuator which is connected to the pressure sensor of water, and the outlet of the hot exit the vortex is gross generator coupled to the input of a pipeline network of consumers of hot water.
The proposed HPP has increased functionality, as it allows to provide consumers with both electrical and thermal energy. Since thermal energy is the direct conversion of mechanical energy of water, the supply is more economical. Improving the reliability and maintainability is ensured by the fact that the newly introduced unit is completely eliminated all power mechanically movable components (turbines, generators, pumps). Partly this affects the efficiency of energy consumption.
Additional information materials for this class of vehicle, but also among devices of this type are not detected hidroenergeticii with such essential features as requested object.
The present invention is shown in the drawing. In the HPP consists of dam (1), water-piping system (2), a turbine (3), generators (4), the newly introduced WTG (5), adapter (8).
The operation of hydropower in electricity generation is similar to the prototype. Water under pressure created in the reservoir, is fed through the system of conduits (2), laid in a dam (1), turbines (3), which results in a rotation of the generators (4) for the generation of electric energy.
When designing t is plooy energy, water flows through the conduit (2), the adapter (8) and the injection nozzle (6) WTG (5), where it is heated and through the inlet hot outlet (11) is input (12) of a pipeline network of consumers of hot water.
To effect the heating of water is required to create the pressure in the injection nozzle (6) within 5-6 ATM. This is achieved by maintaining the required level of water in the reservoir, the selection of geometric shapes and sizes of conduit (2) and adapter (8). Regulation of the water pressure regulator is made, for example, in the form of a flap (9), using the actuator (10) according to the sensor reading water pressure (7). Here the energy conversion is shorter: the mechanical energy of water → thermal energy. This is the main reason for more efficient energy production.
Thus, the proposed HPP has the advantage over all the stated parameters.
Hydraulic power station, containing the dam, water-piping system, turbines and generators, characterized in that its composition have at least one vortex heat generator, the injection nozzle which is equipped with a pressure sensor of the water and connected with a water-piping system through the adapter, equipped with a pressure regulator water, made for example in the form of a valve actuator which is connected to Datca is ω-pressure water.
FIELD: engineering of steam compression systems and heat exchangers.
SUBSTANCE: reversible steam compression system has compressor, internal heat exchanger, expanding device and external heat exchanger, connected by pipelines in working connection for forming of a single system. Internal and external heat exchangers are mounted in main contour. Compressor and expanding device are mounted in sub-contours, connected to main contour by means of flow switch devices for making it possible to switch system from cooling mode to heating mode. Reversible heat exchanger for liquid coolant, in particular, for carbon dioxide, in steam compression system contains several mutually interconnected sections, made with possible serial passage of air through them, having coolant contour, and is connected to mutually connected first and second sections. Flow of liquid coolant is witched from heating mode to cooling mode by means of flow switching devices, mounted in appropriate sections.
EFFECT: improved efficiency.
2 cl, 46 dwg
FIELD: energy conversion into heat by liquid parameter change, particularly to obtain heat used in raw hydrocarbon gathering, preparation and refining, in chemistry and oil chemistry, to heat hydrogen-containing liquid polluted with mechanical injuries, salt and gels.
SUBSTANCE: method involves creating vortex flow of cavitating liquid by utilizing liquid pressure and providing following linear liquid flow; providing cavitating liquid flow rotation at speed which provides creation of central and peripheral areas in which positive and negative ions of dissociated liquid molecules are accumulated during cavitation thereof. The negative ions are gathered in peripheral area under the action of centrifugal force. Positive ions having lesser mass are accumulated in central area of liquid flow. This results in obtaining potential difference between central and peripheral areas of liquid flow.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of liquid flow energy conversion into heat along with electric power obtaining.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: heating and cooling systems.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heating of buildings and cooling of refrigerating chambers using high-pressure gases, for instance, natural gas. Proposed system contains vortex tube installed on gas main line after preliminary gas preparation plant, heating system and hot-water supply system with heating devices, heat exchanger and pump, and also cold supply system with coil in refrigerating chamber and pump. All components of systems are coupled by straight and back pipelines. Coils interconnected by jumper pipe are arranged from outer of vortex chamber and heated gas outlet pipeline of vortex tube. Segments displaced relative to each other through one turn of coil mounted on said segments are arranged on inner surface of pipeline of heated gas outlet at opposite sides. Coil is connected with outer coils and straight pipeline of heating and hot-water supply systems provided with controller connected electrically by impulse lines with inner and outer air temperature sensors and actuating mechanism rigidly coupled through shaft with control element installed at outlet of heated gas of vortex tube. Coil placed inside cooled gas outlet branch pipe communicates hydraulically with pump and, through straight pipe line, with coil of refrigerating chamber.
EFFECT: improved environment protection.
FIELD: pipe-line systems.
SUBSTANCE: heater for fluid has housings of hydrodynamic converters which are made of diverging members at the ends of the vortex pipe. The inner side of the members is concave and is mating to the surface which is defined by the rotation of a second order curve around the longitudinal axis of the vortex pipe. Each face of the vortex pipe is provided with the flow generator which is mounted with a space relation to it. The flow generator is made of a disk whose symmetry axis is coaxial to the longitudinal axis of the vortex pipe. The space between the face of the vortex pipe and the surface of the flow generator, which faces it, receives at least four flow deflectors. Each flow deflector is made of a plate whose surface is parallel to the longitudinal axis of the vortex pipe. The inner side of the adjusting chambers is concave and mating to the surface which is defined by rotation of a second order curve around the longitudinal axis of the vortex pipe.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency .
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: air-conditioning and plenum-exhaust ventilation systems.
SUBSTANCE: proposed air-conditioning unit has three-section housing consisting of two peripheral sections and one central section located between them; it has two opposing suction ports for delivery of air to sections; each peripheral section has one delivery port for connection with respective fan and evacuation of air from peripheral sections where compressor and condenser are located; air-conditioning unit is also provided with evaporator of refrigerating machine and shut-off valve connected with central section and located between pair of ports; valve is made in form of plate and is used for control of air flow; this plate is mounted in central section between opposing suction ports; it is turnable relative to central section for disconnection of opposing suction ports and peripheral sections; each peripheral section is connected with respective opposing suction port, thus admitting the air to peripheral sections.
EFFECT: enhanced energy efficiency and operational reliability; facilitated procedure of assembly.
24 cl, 13 dwg
FIELD: combined cooling and refrigeration systems.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises expanding air in the turbine up to a low temperature, heating air in the first heat exchanger with utilized heat, compressing air to the initial pressure in the compressor, withdrawing heat in the second feeding heat exchanger, and supplying compressed dry air to the receiver where the air is heated.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method is designed for generating electric energy using natural energy enclosed in high pressure formation. Proposed method includes placing of turbine in well to which high-pressure agent is delivered, and electric generator with cable. Turbine is installed in encased well between showing high-pressure formation and intake low-pressure formation. Turbine is connected by pipes with electric energy generator. Flow of agent from high-pressure formation into low-pressure formation and to surface is provided. Regulation of agent flow into annulus and tube space is provided by distributing valve arranged in lower part of assembly of turbogenerator and hole between housing of turbine and pipe connecting tube space with annulus.
EFFECT: provision of effective generation of electric energy using energy contained in high-pressure formations.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: conversion of river stream energy into electric power.
SUBSTANCE: proposed plant has base in the form of catamaran that mounts current generators and their drive, current parameters stabilizing system, turbine capable of running in fully submerged condition, and its hoist. Turbine is made in the form of belt conveyer installed on edge at certain angle to river stream. Blades made of flexible material are secured throughout entire width and length of belt. Each blade is made in the form of bucket capable of folding and resting on belt during transfer from working to idle side of conveyer, and it has pocket on external surface for automatic raising of blade by river stream during transfer from idle to working position. Turbine hoist has rocker arm for turbine suspension hinged on one end to catamaran and on other end, to turbine frame that mounts generator-drive bevel gear so that longitudinal axes of hoist rocker-arm hinges and longitudinal axis of bevel-gear driven pinion are disposed on same line. In addition, hydroelectric power plant is equipped with device enabling variation of turbine angle of installation to water flow.
EFFECT: enhanced power capacity.
1 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas well drilling equipment, particularly axial flow turbine of multistage turbodrill.
SUBSTANCE: turbodrill turbine comprises stator with blade ring and inner rim, rotor with blade ring and hub. Design angles of stator flow inlet and outlet directions α2 and α1 and rotor flow inlet and outlet directions β2 and β1 are related by theoretical correlations with peripheral velocity determined in idle and optimal (shock-free) mode of turbine operation. Stator and rotor blade ring blades defining above design angles as distinct from prior art turbines are formed so that shock-free regime of flow around the stator and the rotor is realized at different peripheral velocities, wherein above shock-free regime of stator flow-around is performed in retardation mode, shock-free regime of rotor flow-around is performed in runaway mode thereof. Above stator and rotor angles are correlated as α1<α2≤π/2 and β2<β1≤π/2 (in the case of positive reactive turbine) and β1<β2≤π/2 (for negative reactive turbine). The stator rim has surface of lesser diameter having conoid shape and converging towards lower cross-section thereof so that minimal annular gap defined by rotor hub is 0.05-0.3, preferably 0.1-0.2 of radial stator blade height and inner blade ring surface of lesser diameter has conoid shape and is converged to upper section so that radial rotor blade height ratio in lower and upper sections is equal to 0.7 - 0.95.
EFFECT: increased axial support resistance along with increased performance.
5 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed hydraulic turbine generators are designed for creating stationary and portable hydraulic plants of modular type. Generators have rotor with central shaft non-rotating around horizontal axis or vertical axis (as version) on which chain drive gears are rigidly fitted, each being coupled through independent chain drive with planet pinion members arranged radially and uniformly around central shaft. Each member has blade reduction gear consisting of gear of chain drive and of large and small cylindrical gears, the latter being coaxial and rigidly coupled with gear of chain drive of blade reduction gear, and large cylindrical gear is rigidly secured on axle of blade installed horizontally for generator (or vertically, as version). Each blade rests by ends of its axle for rotation on brackets secured on hubs by bases. Hubs are installed on both ends of shaft for rotation and tops of brackets at both ends of central shaft are connected by ring rims being drive wheels connected with energy converters by flexible drive.
EFFECT: provision of effective and reliable operation.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: electromechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed generator primarily designed to supply with power borehole instrument of face telemetering system in the course of boring has internal stator and rotor; the latter mounts turbine in its front part that has casing carrying rectangular- or trapezoidal-section helical blades. These blades are free to vary their angle of lift depending on conditions of borehole washing with drilling fluid. Blades may be made of flexible material and have two parts of which one part is joined with turbine casing and other (loose) part is free to bend in transverse plane. In addition, blades may have variable stiffness in cross-sectional area and variable height of cross-section profile; loose parts of blades may be joined with ring. Blade turn limiter responding to maximal discharge of drilling fluid may be provided on the turbine casing.
EFFECT: enhanced operating reliability and extended variation range of drilling fluid discharge through generator turbine.
7 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: machines or engines for liquids.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises converter for converting flow power into kinetic energy of rotation and hydraulic turbines connected in series. The hydraulic turbine is made of hollow load-bearing shaft-cylinder with conical deflectors on the bases. The semi-cylindrical blades are secured to the shaft-cylinder along the generatrix of the cylinder or at an angle to the generatrix. The load-bearing shaft-cylinder is inscribed into the inner ends of the semi-cylindrical blades, and their outer ends tightened by means of rings define multi-blade cylinder provided with variable buoyancy that is controlled by ballast in the hollow section of the shaft-cylinder. The hydraulic turbine can be submerged into water completely or partially and interposed between the bearings and connected with the actuating mechanism through flexible links, clutches, and gearings. The actuating mechanism comprise one or several massive inertia flywheels made of disk or drum or cylinder connected through clutches and gears with the consumer.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
3 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: plant is designed for generating electric energy and pumping of water. Proposed device contains floating base in form of catamaran with channel between housing of catamaran in which water wheel with blades on its outer surface is mounted, and electric generator mechanically coupled with shaft of water wheel. Diameter of water wheel is less than its length. End faces of water wheel are covered, and front profile of water wheel blades is made to logarithmic spiral. Moreover, plant is furnished with water pump, and drive of electric generator is made in form of step-up harmonic gearing whose flexible gear is coupled with end face of water pump. Output shaft of step-up gearing is aligned with shafts of water wheel and electric generator, being coupled with water pump by step-up belt drive. Drive sheave of step-up belt drive is installed on shaft of electric generator. Controllable clutches are installed on shafts of belt drive.
EFFECT: improved reliability and enlarged operating capabilities of plant.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device is designed for converting kinetic energy of small and medium rivers into elastic energy. Proposed hydraulic unit contains hydraulic turbine installed on frame with bearings on its shaft, generator mechanically coupled with hydraulic turbine, stream shaper and device in form of plates to protect hydraulic unit from floating debris. Hydraulic unit has intermediate vertically and horizontally installed shafts with bearings interconnected by conical gears. Vertical shaft is arranged in well built near bank and communicating with river by channel made under level of maximum possible thickness of ice cover. Part of horizontal shaft connected with hydraulic turbine is arranged in said channel. Upper end of vertical shaft is connected with generator through ground horizontal shaft and step-up reduction unit. Stream shaper is made in form of flaps installed on shaft for turning to direct water stream of river to its central part between which turnable gate is installed for contacting with one of flaps to direct water stream to right-hand or left-hand side of hydraulic turbine.
EFFECT: provision of reliable operation all year round.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: engine manufacturing.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of operation of self-contained power station powered by diesel-generator set. According to proposed method of operation of self-contained power station powered by diesel generator set equipped with additional flywheel and disconnect clutch with automatic control members, additional flywheel is mounted on separate shaft which is connected with diesel-generator set by means of disconnect clutch. Preparatory operation is carried out to set power station into operation with subsequent overcoming of short-time starting resistances from consumer. Additional flywheel is connected to shut down diesel generator set by means of disconnect clutch. Power station is started under no load, and its coming to rated speed is detected by readings of generator shaft speed pickups. Load is connected and intensity of generator shaft speed drop is checked. Information is automatically transmitted to controller wherefrom, at termination of generator speed drop, signal is transmitted to disconnect clutch, and rotating additional flywheel is disconnected from diesel generator set, thus changing the set for accelerated mode of restoration of initial rated speed.
EFFECT: provision of power saving operation at stable conditions for overcoming designed resistance torque and short-time overloads exceeding capabilities of chosen supply source.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device is designed for converting kinetic energy of free flow of water into electric energy. Proposed microhydroelectric station contains hydraulic turbine with horizontal axle of rotation connected with submersed sealed electric generator. Station is provided with carrying frame consisting of sections on ends of which shields are installed to form confuser at inlet of water flow, and diffuser at outlet. Slow speed generator is used as electric generator whose shaft is directly connected with shaft of hydraulic turbine consisting of separate sections mounted on bearing supports. Each section contains one or more blade propulsors displaced through equal angle relative to each other. Each propulsor has two blades pointed in opposite directions being essentially NASA section modified by provision of cavity on lower plane, maximum depth of which being from 10 to 14% of maximum height of section and installed on posts secured on shaft of hydraulic turbine for fixed displacement of blades in radial and angular directions.
EFFECT: reduced cost of manufacture and mounting.
FIELD: oil and gas extractive industry.
SUBSTANCE: device has metallic hubs of stator and rotor, wherein crowns of stator and rotor are concentrically pressed. Crowns of stator and rotor are made of durable ceramics and are additionally equipped with connections, allowing to exclude non-controlled turning of crowns in hubs and spontaneous axial displacement thereof.
EFFECT: higher reliability and efficiency.