Method of restoration of serviceability of hydraulic unit

FIELD: hydroelectric stations.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method of restoration of serviceability of hydraulic unit can be used at repairs of hydroelectric stations. According to proposed method, air gap is measured over circumference between outer plane of rotor pole and iron core of stator of generator, air gap between blades of working wheel and outer wall of chamber of turbine, air gap between guide bearing of turbine and its shaft are measured and distance from turbine support ring to generating belt of turbine working wheel is measured and value of deflection of hydraulic unit shaft axis from vertical position and degree of bending of shaft axis are determined and value of deflection of housing of turbine working wheel from horizontal position is found and alignment of generator stator in plan is carried out to provide equal of air gap between generator rotor poles and stator iron core and centering of generator stator in height is carried out to align magnetic axis of stator with magnetic axis of rotor of generator and then hydraulic unit is demounted, fixed and position of center of new vertical axis of hydraulic set is held and cold chamber of working wheel is replaced by new one installing it relative to new axis of hydraulic unit, and lower and upper rings of turbine guide assembly are installed in horizontal position with subsequent alignment of rings relative to new vertical axis of hydraulic unit, and then hydraulic unit is mounted in housing. Proposed method provides 2.5-3 times reduction of time taken for restoration as compared with traditional process and 1.5-2 times increase of service life of hydraulic unit after restoration. Moreover, method improves operating characteristics of hydraulic unit as a whole and materially increases degree of its repairability and serviceability at time between overhauls.

EFFECT: increase life, improved operating characteristics.

4 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of hydro, in particular the way recovery unit and can be used for repair and reconstruction work on the hydroelectric power plants (HPP), when performing work on the reconstruction of the unit, as well as when replacing hydraulic installation on vertical units with an umbrella or suspension of the execution of the generator and turbine Kaplan or Francis type.

There is a method of repair of the hydraulic unit includes inspection of the condition of the unit, disassembly (dismantling) of the hydraulic unit, the centering of the unit and replacement of worn components and details of new or reconstruction of these components and parts (see Affternoon, Installation and repair of turbines, 2nd edition, Gosenergoizdat, M.-L., 1961, s-479. The method of repair for a long service life of the unit and the degree of repairability after reconstruction is low, resulting in a need for re-repairs and restoration of the hydro unit.

The objective of the invention is to provide a recovery unit in the shortest possible time, to extend the service life of the unit after rehabilitation works to improve the operational characteristics of the unit as a whole as well as to improve the degree of maintainability and service turnaround time.

The inventive method is illustrated in Fig.1-4, which schematically presents: figure 1 - the crater and a fixed unit, in longitudinal section; figure 2 - hydraulic unit, vertically mounted on the thrust bearing, in longitudinal section; figure 3 - hydraulic unit after removal, in a longitudinal section; figure 4 - unit after recovering his health, in longitudinal section.

The unit, which includes a hydro generator (alternator) and the turbine (turbine)include moving (rotating and stationary parts.

To the movable parts of the unit are: the rotor 1 generator with pole 7 and the magnetic axis 8 (the middle line of the rotor); the impeller 2 turbine having a forming belt 21; a shaft 3 of the alternator; a turbine shaft (4), United flange connection 5 (Fig 1, 2, 4). To the stationary parts of the unit are: Foundation 9 running and fixed stator generator 10 having a magnetic axis 11 (the middle line of the stator); the upper cross-piece 12 of the generator; the support ring 13; the top 15 and the bottom 14 of the guide vane ring 22; the upper support flange 16 of the stator of the turbine; the cover 17 of the turbine, connected with the upper ring 15 of the guide vane 22; heel 6 of the generator set and rigidly attached to the cover 17 of the turbine; a guide bearing 18 of the friction-slip turbine tightly sacral the config in the cover 17 of the turbine; the chamber 19 of the impeller 2, which is the element of the flow channel of the turbine; the axis 20 of rotation rotor of the spike 2 (1-4).

During long-term operation of hydroelectric irreversible changes the position of its movable and stationary parts, both in plan and in elevation, in particular, these changes are shown in figure 1, where "γ" a deflection angle to the axis "A" of the hydraulic unit from the vertical position; "α" - the angle of the body of the impeller 2 of the turbine from a horizontal position; "β" a deflection angle to the axis "B" of the crater of the unit from the vertical position and "θ" - the angle of deviation from horizontal position.

The essence of the proposed method recovery unit is that carried out the measurement of the air gap around the circumference between the outer plane of the rotor poles and active steel part of the stator of the generator, perform the measurement of the air gap between the blades of the impeller and the outer wall of the chamber turbine, conduct measurement of the air gap between the guide bearing of the turbine and its shaft, conduct measurement of the distance from the support ring of the turbine prior to forming the band of the impeller of the turbine, determine the deflection axis of the shaft of the hydraulic unit from the vertical position and the degree of curvature the axis of the shaft, determine the amount of discard is of the body of the impeller of the turbine from the horizontal position, carry out the centering of the stator of the generator in the plan to obtain equal values of the air gap between the poles of the generator rotor and the active iron stator are aligned stator of the generator in height to align the magnetic axis of the stator magnetic axis of the rotor of the generator, hold the dismantling of the unit, fix and fix the position of the center of a new vertical axis of the unit, replace the relatively new axis unit old camera impeller on a new set of lower and upper guide vane ring of the turbine in a horizontal position with the subsequent reconciliation of the rings relatively new vertical axis of the unit and perform installation of the unit into the crater.

The measurements include: "Z" is a measurement of the air gap between the outer plane of the core pole 7 and the active steel part of the stator 10 of the generator; "X" is the measurement of the air gap between the blades of the impeller 2 and the outer wall of the chamber 19 of the turbine; "Y" is the measurement of the air gap between the guide bearing 18 of the friction-slip of the turbine shaft and turbine 4; Y is the measured distance from the support ring 13 of the turbine to the forming belt 21 on the housing of the impeller 2 of the turbine.

Figure 2 presents the unit, vertically mounted on the thrust bearing 6. The impeller 2 of the turbine is installed in the center, relative activities is but a supporting ring 13 Foundation turbine parts and fixed linear dimension "Y 1"namely, the distance from the support ring 13 of the turbine to the forming belt 21 on the housing of the impeller 2 of the turbine, and in two mutually perpendicular planes. The stator 10 of the generator is aligned to the rotor 1′ generator that was previously installed in a vertical position. Aligned stator 10′ and changing the position of the upper brackets 12′ generator shown in dotted lines. These changes position due to the fact that the upper cross-piece rigidly fixed with the stator of the main generator. The changed position of the impeller 2 about the axis 20 of the pivot of the blades of the impeller on her cell 19 shows the position 2′.

3 shows a disassembled unit. According to the results recorded measurements ""Z", "X", "Y", "Y" determine and fix the position of the new axis "a" unit size "Y2" center point "O"relative to the supporting ring 13 base parts of the turbine. Further, with respect to a new fixed-axis "A" hydraulic unit replaces the old camera 19 of the impeller 2 of the turbine (figure 2) on a new 19′and adjusted in terms of height relative to the new axis "A" rings 14 and 15 of the guide vanes 22 (2), installed in a horizontal position, by means of measuring strips and Jack bolts, with their new position shown position is s 14′ (bottom ring) and 15′ (top ring). The upper ring 15′ guide vanes 22 centered relative to the lower ring 14' of the guide vane to achieve alignment of the holes in the bearing housings of the guide vanes in the upper ring 15′ with holes in the bottom ring 14′ guide vanes 22. The stator 10 of the generator centered in achieving concentricity gap (dimension "Z1"between the poles of the rotor 7 1′ main generator and adjusted for height to achieve the alignment of the magnetic axis of the stator 11 with the magnetic axis 8′ the rotor of the main generator (figure 2) and the horizontal position of the stator. After adjusting the stator 10 with respect to the new axis "A" of his new position marked position 10′, with its magnetic axis 11′ coincides with the magnetic axis 8′ rotor 1′ generator.

4 shows the unit after installation and, respectively, after the recovery of his health.

The method is implemented as follows.

1. Carry out the measurement of the air gap (measurement "Z") on the circumference between the outer plane of the core pole 7 and the active steel part of the stator 10.

The measurement is carried out in several points (8-16 points) using the meter, for example, vane probe with calibration thickness. The obtained indicators and compared with regulatory and determine the degree of deviation. The indicator of the air gap, each pole must not differ from the average value across the rotor of the generator is not more than 10% of the nominal regulation value. Because the mounted position of the stator relative to the rotor is determined by the position of its center line, the deviation of the stator from the middle line of the rotor should not exceed 0.5% of the height of the active steel stator.

2. Carry out the measurement of the air gap (measurement "X") between the blades of the impeller 2 and the outer wall of the chamber 19 of the turbine.

Measurement, as the measurement Z, spend a few points (8-16) using a meter, for example, vane probe with calibration thickness. The obtained parameters are compared with the standard indexes and determine the degree of deviation of the impeller from the outer walls of the turbine.

3. Carry out the measurement of the air gap (measurement "a") between the guide bearing 18 of friction-sliding and the shaft 4 of the turbine.

Measurement, as the measurement of "Z" and "X", carried out at several points (8-16) with vane probe, with calibration thickness. The obtained parameters are compared with the standard indexes and determine the degree of deviation of the shaft of the turbine.

4. Carry out the measurement of the distance from the support ring 13 to form flanges 21 on the housing of the impeller 2 of the turbine (froze "Y").

5. Determine the magnitude of the Devi ations of a common line shaft (axis "A") of the hydraulic unit from the vertical position.

For this purpose the shaft of the turbine lead measurements in the upper part of the shaft and at the bottom, using the method of 4 strings; one end of the metal strings attached to the shaft, and the other with cargo, dipped in a special vessel with oil solution. As the meter is used caliper micrometer with a multiplier to 0.01 mm, the result is 8 indicators, which are compared to the regulatory indicators. The angle of deviation (the value of the slope) are marked in figure 1 as "γ" (figure 1).

The amount of deviation of the shaft from the vertical direction gives a picture of the deviations of all parts of the unit, as the shafts 3 and 4 are rigidly connected to the rotor 1 and the impeller 2.

6. Determine the degree of curvature of the common axis of the shaft of the unit, using the method of 4 strings or rotation of the rotor 1 in every 45 degrees, making it 8 times. The rotation of the rotor is performed with the use of pulley blocks, slings and crane. The measurement is performed with a dial indicator with a multiplier of 0.01 mm, the Obtained results are compared with the regulatory indicators and identify the degree of curvature of the common axis of the shaft of the hydraulic unit.

7. Determine the deflection of the casing of the impeller of the turbine from the horizontal position, in particular, determine the value of angle "α" (figure 1). When this deviation is determined relative to the rear (upper) plane of the heel under the jatnika 6.

In the above operations (1-7) determine the operating status of the mobile and fixed parts of the unit in the plan, height, and operational status of their relation to each other.

8. On the basis of the obtained results provide centering of the stator 10 of the generator in the plan to obtain equal values of the air gap between the poles of the rotor 7 1 generator and active iron stator generator 10 and the centering of the stator height to align the magnetic axis 11 of the stator magnetic axis of the rotor of the generator (figure 2).

Why install a casing impeller 2 turbines, by forming the belt 21 to the turbine housing relative to the support ring 13, in the center, fixing it by the size of Y1" (2, 4). Indicator size "Y1" is the base amount to determine the position of the new axis "A" at the point "O" relative to the ring 13. Further, with adjustable support part of the thrust bearing 6, the rotating parts of the unit (rotor 1 and the shaft 3 of the generator, the shaft 4 of the turbine and the impeller 2), installed in the vertical position of the axis "A" of the hydraulic unit. In the alignment unit is new spatial position, while the position of its movable parts are indicated by the positions, in particular, the rotor 1′ and the shaft 3′ generator shaft 4′ turbine and the impeller 2&x02032; .

After determining the actual position of the stator 10 of the generator in the plan (for measurement of air gap "Z") and the height (the position of the magnetic axis 11 of the stator 10 with respect to the magnetic axis 8′ rotor 1′ generator) relative to a new spatial position of the rotor 1′ generator, the stator 10 is lifted with the Foundation supports 9 and produce prezentace it to the rotor 1′ main generator in plan and height. The operation is carried out using a special lifting devices and cranes. As a result, the stator 10 of the generator takes the position for 10′in which the horizontal position adjusted by means of measuring strips, and magnetic axis 11′ stator aligned with the magnetic axis 8′ rotor 1′ generator. Received concentric air gaps fixed size "Z1". The stator 10′ generator mounted on the base and rigidly secured (figure 2).

9. Then make disassembly of the unit from the crater.

10. On the basis of a fixed size "Y1and Z1" the position of moving parts of the unit relative to the stationary fixed and fix the position of the center of a new vertical axis "A" of the hydraulic unit in the point "O" linear size "Y2" relative to the supporting ring 13 Foundation turbine parts.

p> 11. Are replacing the old camera 19 of the impeller 2 of the turbine (figure 2) on a new 19′that is centered in plan and in elevation, fitted and rigidly fixed to the base 9 and the support ring 13 of the turbine, a relatively new vertical axis "A" of the hydraulic unit and the center point "O"fixed size "Y2".

12. Set the lower and upper rings 14 and 15 of the guide vanes of the turbine in a horizontal position and carry out the alignment of the rings relatively new vertical axis "A" hydraulic system with center in the point "O" (figure 2).

To do this, set the lower ring 14 in a horizontal position by means of measuring strips and Jack bolts, recentralised it relative to the vertical axis "A", and then set and rigidly secured to the supporting ring 13. The new position of the lower ring represented by item 14′. Then set the horizontal position of the upper ring 15 of the guide vane 22. The operation is carried out also by means of measuring strips and Jack bolts with subsequent misalignment of the relatively new vertical axis "A" and the lower ring 14′ guide vanes to achieve alignment of the holes in the bearing housings of the guide vanes in the upper ring 15 with the holes in the lower ring 14′. In the top ring guide vanes plants itself the position 15′ (figure 3).

13. The final operation restore method is the installation of the unit into the crater. The alignment unit in the process of its installation is not time consuming, as this work was performed at the stage of disassembly of the unit.

The proposed method recovery unit after extended use allows 2.5-3 times to shorten the recovery time compared with traditional technology and in 1,5-2 times to prolong the service life of the unit after rehabilitation. Additionally, the method can improve the operational characteristics of the unit as a whole and significantly increase the degree of maintainability and service turnaround time.

The way recovery unit that carried out the measurement of the air gap around the circumference between the outer plane of the rotor poles and active steel part of the stator of the generator, perform the measurement of the air gap between the blades of the impeller and the outer wall of the chamber turbine, conduct measurement of the air gap between the guide bearing of the turbine and its shaft, conduct measurement of the distance from the support ring of the turbine prior to forming the band of the impeller of the turbine, determine the deflection axis of the shaft of the hydraulic unit from the vertical the CSO position and the degree of curvature the axis of the shaft, determine the deflection of the casing of the impeller of the turbine from the horizontal position, hold the centering of the stator of the generator in the plan to obtain equal values of the air gap between the poles of the generator rotor and the active iron stator are aligned stator of the generator in height to align the magnetic axis of the stator magnetic axis of the rotor of the generator, hold the dismantling of the unit, fix and fix the position of the center of a new vertical axis of the unit, replace the relatively new axis unit old camera impeller on a new set of lower and upper guide vane ring of the turbine in a horizontal position with the subsequent reconciliation of the rings relatively new vertical axis of the unit and perform installation of the hydraulic unit in the crater.



 

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