Method of reinforcement of the outer surface of the rolling cutters of the drilling bits with the milled tooling

FIELD: oil-producing industry; mining; boring equipment.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of boring equipment and may be used at building-up of boreholes in the deep and superdeep drilling, and also at the open-cut mines at the blastholes drilling with blasting of the mine face by air. The method provides for the milling machining of each cog and deposition on it of an abrasive resistant protective coating. Before milling machining it is necessary to exercise turning machining of the inner and outer surfaces of the rolling cutter. After milling machining deposit an anticementing coating on the surfaces requiring protection against cementation. Then exercise cementation of the rolling cutter, its subsequent tempering in the oil, the low tempering, the bearing tracks grinding and coating by vapor deposition of an abrasive resistant protective coating on the cutter teeth and its intercrowned pits of the milling cutter. The protective coating has the hardness in the interval from HRC64 up to HRA72. Deposition of the protective coating is exercised, when the limiting temperature of heating-up of the rolling cutter does not exceed the temperatureof tn=280°C, at which the loss of strength of the cemented surfaces starts. The abrasive resistant protective coating is deposited in one or several layers till reaching the preset project depth of 0.2-0.8 mm. The technical result of the invention is the increased reliability of protection of the surfaces of the milled reinforced items against the wear and the increased mechanical resistance of the drilling bit as a whole.

EFFECT: the invention ensures increased reliability of protection of the surfaces of the milled reinforced items against the wear and the increased mechanical resistance of the drilling bit as a whole.

3 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of drilling equipment and is used in the construction of wells in deep and ultra-deep drilling, and mining pits for drilling blastholes with the blowing of the bottom air.

The durability and performance of drill bits are directly dependent on the ability milled weapons of milling cutters to resist abrasive wear occurs when the rolling movably fixed cutters in very high values of the specific contact stresses. Often, when the wear of the contact surfaces milled weapons bit while it is still workable support fail, reducing drilling performance.

There is a method of reinforcing milled weapons using cementation - saturation of the surface layer of carbon at a depth of 3 mm (depending on the diameter of the drill bit) [1]. This method allows to increase the hardness of the surface layer on the machined arms up to HRC 60÷62. This method is most often used for reinforcing milled weapons drill bits designed for drilling maloabrazyvnym rocks, and bits of small diameter, increasing the resistance arms from wear. In this way, along with the contact surfaces of the teeth with rock at the bottom, at a depth of 3 mm procontinued from all sides and the surface, where the cementation is not needed. For example, the least dangerous section in the body of the milling cutter can get through cementation, which leads to a dramatic embrittlement and fracture under cyclic loads during the drilling process. So dangerous section and outside, and the inside cone protects anticipatation coating that prevents the penetration of carbon for these coatings. This is a very time-consuming manual operation. Cover, generally produced in several layers. Details must undergo a significant period of drying under special drying lamps. But even in spite of careful control over the operations of applying antitermination pastes protected from the cementation surface, often "breakdowns" and carbon still penetrates dangerous sections in the body of the cones that are helping to accelerate the failure.

Also known another method of reinforcement milled teeth of milling cutters drill bits [2], adopted for the prototype. In this way, milled teeth, each individually, manually napravljajutsja carbide. Methods of facing. For example, in the flame of a gas burner to melt the hollow electrodes, filled carbide powder. In this method, the material of the tube electrode is metal-bonded to the carbide particles. Another method of welding using inductors TFC, carts who's to each tooth of the milling cutter. When heating to melt the outer surface of the teeth of the cemented carbide powder, pour on Armeria surface of each tooth of the milling cutter dispenser, sink in the molten layer. Metal - bond in this case is the melt of the tooth. These methods are cladding a very time consuming manual operations, poorly amenable to automation, because to apply you need from one surface of the tooth, for example, lapping up all five surfaces of the two side, two face, and the surface of the blunting of the tooth.

Another disadvantage is the relatively low hardness of the reinforced surface (HRC 52÷54), because the composition of deposited alloy includes soft component is cobalt, Nickel, iron, etc. is not high Enough hardness is caused by abrasion of the axle with a loaded hand at high loads during drilling and premature bit failure.

The technical result of the present invention is to increase the reliability of protection of surfaces milled arms from wear and tear, increasing the resistance on the drill bit as a whole.

This technical result is achieved by using the method of reinforcing the outer surface of the drill bits with milled weapons, including milling of each tooth and the application of a durable protective cover that protects the ment, before milling treatment is carried out by turning the processing of the inner and outer surface of the milling cutter, after milling is applied antitermination coating on the surface that need to be protected from cementation, and then perform the cementation of the milling cutter, subsequent quenching in oil, low tempering, grinding bearing tracks and the application by spraying of wear-resistant coatings with hardness in the range from HRC64 to HRA72 on the teeth and interfering with hollow cones.

The protective coating is carried out, when the maximum temperature of heating of the cone does not exceed the temperature tn=280°C, at which begins the softening of carburizing surfaces of the internal cavity of the cone. Wear-resistant protective coating is applied by one or more layers to achieve the specified design thickness 0,2-0,8 mm

The drawing shows an exemplary arrangement of the milling cutter 1 with teeth 2, having side surfaces 3 and 4, end 5, and 6, and the surface of the blunting 7. Position 8 marked interfering with hollow cone, also need protection from abrasion (to a lesser extent than in contact with the rock at the bottom teeth 2). Position 9 - welding gun, and the position of the 10 - sprayed a jet of powder wear-resistant material.

Reinforcement using the proposed method can be implemented as p the entire outer circular surface of the milling cutter, including all the teeth, and only directly on the surface of the teeth, except less wear interfering with the depression 8 of the milling cutter, which can help protect against welding the screen.

The drawing shows also schematically the position of the milling cutter 1 on the Chuck arm with software control (not shown)that enables the fixation of the milling cutter 1 can rotate 360° as reinforcement, as well as the position of the displacement and rotation of the nozzles of the guns 9 for crowns and each tooth individually, which is shown by arrows. Fixation of the milling cutter in the Chuck or on a faceplate of the manipulator with software control allows you to provide rotations and motions with 6 degrees of freedom in the sound-proof explosion-proof chamber, coating the surface of milled teeth and interfering with depressions of milling cutters wear-resistant material with adhesion not less than 8 kg/mm2.

The diameter of the nozzle of the gun 9, the distance to armaramos surface modes, the properties of the original materials, surface preparation and the thickness of the sprayed layer is determined empirically, based on health requirements of the bit, depending on the size armorama teeth.

Methods and systems for applying wear-resistant protective coating can be different, depending on selected qualities of the layer and expenses.

For example, using a high-speed thermal spraying powder coating thickness of 0.1-0.5 mm and a hardness of HV=1100-1250 kgf/mm2. As materials applied wear-resistant coating can be applied carbides of chromium, titanium, tungsten, tungsten disulfide, and other highly rigid wear-resistant materials.

The only limitation with this method of applying a wear-resistant protective coating is the limit of the heating temperature is not above tn=280°C, which would begin the softening of carburizing layer inside the cavity of the cone. When the temperature tn=280°C the process of applying a wear-resistant protective coatings sprayed, you must stop and continue after cooling of the milling cutter.

Another method is "cold" detonation spraying, in which a heating roller cutter, characteristic for the previous method, does not occur. "Cold" detonation spraying is a process in which heat and disperse the solid powdery material is used, the energy of the gas explosion. Cannon filled with a gas mixture of acetylene and oxygen, spryskivaetsya the sprayed powder and an electric spark is excited detonation. When the temperature in the blast zone around 4000°With what korostil more than 1000 m/sec, heated to melt the powder particles into the surface armaramos details. This provides Microware and powder at the molecular level is connected with the surface of the part, forming a single layer of a thickness of 8-10 μm. The necessary increase in the thickness of the layer of reinforcement is achieved by a series of gun shots. While the total deposited wear-resistant protective coating has the same properties as one.

As the sprayed materials wear-resistant protective coatings are applied to all of the above wear-resistant materials (carbides of chromium, titanium, tungsten, tungsten disulfide) and other highly rigid wear-resistant materials.

The best adhesion layer for the above methods is observed when the axis of the gun is located perpendicular armaramos surface. This position of the gun relative to the surfaces of teeth and interfering with grooves is achieved by the joint movement of the milling cutter 1 and cannons 9, provide a computer pointing device.

The next method of reinforcement surfaces of the teeth of the milling cutter can be used electrospark alloying electrode, which is pulsating percussive contact of the electrode with armaramos surface. The advantages of this method include no special noise insulation and explosion is topasna cameras, characteristic for the previous methods, the utilization rate of the electrode is the highest - 0,99 (0,4-0,5 previous methods), completely eliminates the possibility of overheating of carburizing surfaces of the milling cutter. The cost of the electrodes on the lower powders used for the first and second methods. The disadvantages of the third method are significantly lower performance. Before applying the material, a reinforcing surface, when any of the following methods must be properly prepared surface is cleaned of scale, rust, burrs, cracks, shells, oil, etc.

The application of the proposed method ensures the application of wear-resistant protective coating of the required thickness by spraying or by alloying the electrode and allows to solve the problem is to greatly increase the hardness on the entire surface of the cones, especially milled teeth, almost to the hardness of the sintered hard alloy that can dramatically increase their durability and performance bits in General. When developing prototypes of drill bits, fabricated with the use of the proposed method of reinforcing the outer surface of the cone drill bits having milled weapons, with the microhardness of the coating to HV=100 kgf/mm 2and with the adhesion of about 8 kg/mm2shown a sharp increase in resistance arms and sinking on the bit. In addition, there is a real opportunity to automate and accelerate very time-consuming operation reinforcement milled weapons drill bits.

Sources of information:

1. Reference "Drill bits", the authors Korneev CE, paly P.A., ed. "Nedra", 1965, M., str-325.

2. Europatent EP 0510531 B1 from 27.03.93.

1. Method of reinforcing the outer surface of the cone drill bits with milled weapons, including milling of each tooth and the application of a durable protective coating, characterized in that prior to milling treatment is carried out by turning the processing of the inner and outer surfaces of the milling cutter, after milling is applied antitermination coating on the surface that need to be protected from cementation, and then perform the cementation of the milling cutter, subsequent quenching in oil, low tempering, grinding bearing tracks and the application by spraying of wear-resistant protective coating having a hardness in the range from HRC64 to HRA72, teeth and interfering with hollow cone.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the protective coating is carried out, when the maximum temperature of heating of the cone does not exceed the temperature tn=280°C, by which inalsa alloys carburizing surfaces.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the wear-resistant protective coating is applied by one or more layers to achieve the specified design thickness 0,2-0,8 mm



 

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