Carbamate condenser and the method of modernization of the existent carbamate condenser

FIELD: chemical industry; devices and methods of production of carbamate.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of chemical industry, in particular, to carbamatecondenserof the sinking type used in the installation for production of the synthesized carbamide from the gaseous carbon dioxide and the liquid ammonia. The condenser (1) of the sinking type contains the bundle (5) of pipes, in which the condensation of the gaseous compounds is exercised and as a result of the interaction of ammonia with carbon dioxide the carbamate is formed. The condenser differs from others by availability the condensate circulating pipe (19, 23) structurally not connected with the bundle (5) of pipes and designed for circulation of the components in the closed contour of the condenser (1)of the part of the condensed inside it gaseous compounds. The availability of the separate circulating pipe structurally not connected with the bundle of the condensation pipes and communicating with the upper and the lower parts of the condenser ensures the possibility of circulation of the carbamate passing over of the bundle of the condensation pipes, what allows to increase essentially the output of carbamate gained as a result of condensation.

EFFECT: the invention allows to raise essentially the output of carbamate gained as a result of condensation.

6 cl, 3 dwg

 

The present invention relates to carbamate condenser so-called immersion type used on the device for producing synthesized urea from gaseous carbon dioxide and liquid ammonia, and to a method of upgrading an existing carbamate condenser in the system for producing synthesized urea.

Used to obtain a urea source reagents, i.e. carbon dioxide and ammonia, are served after the partial condensation and the formation of carbamate in the synthesis reactor, in which there is almost complete condensation of carbamate that is used as an intermediate product synthesis. In the reactor due to the chemical balance flowing in the conversion of only a portion of the carbamate is converted into urea. The rest of the carbamate together with unreacted ammonia is withdrawn from the reactor and at least partially by evaporation, for example, using a CO2separated from the reaction product in the form of gaseous ammonia and carbon dioxide are well known ways. Gaseous ammonia and carbon dioxide is then partially condense to form a liquid carbamate, which is recycled back to the synthesis reactor.

It is known that the device for producing urea required by condensation can be converted to carbamate part of the original Reagan the s and intermediate products, that are not converted into urea in the synthesis reactor and stand out from the obtained in the reactor product in the form of gaseous ammonia and carbon dioxide.

For this purpose in the application EP-A 1036787 was proposed capacitor so-called immersion type containing cylindrical body with located therein beam direct heat-exchange tubes, cooled appropriate cooler. In the tube bundle is the condensation of ammonia and carbon dioxide with the formation of the carbamate. In addition to a number of benefits proposed in this application the capacitor has a specific, substantial, and are discussed in detail below disadvantage.

In the tube bundle such a condenser only a certain part, though bómost is used for converting the carbamate gaseous compounds flowing through the tubes from the bottom up. The rest of the tubes of the tube bundle must be used instead to recycle part of the condensed gaseous compounds from the upper zone of the beam in its lower zone. The purpose of this is to create in the condenser conditions for natural circulation of the liquid phase and increase its heat transfer coefficient.

It is obvious that at a certain size of the tube bundle in the presence of tubes that do not participate in the condensation process, in a certain way limit the AET output capacitor.

The present invention was used to develop highly efficient condenser, which in comparison with the known capacitors of the same size tube bundle would have a significantly greater yield of gaseous compounds.

This problem is solved by using the proposed invention carbamate condenser submersible type for plants to obtain synthesized urea, having an essentially cylindrical housing, opposite ends of which are closed respectively by upper and lower heads, which together with the housing form in the condenser middle, top and bottom, tube bundle, which is designed for condensing gaseous compounds and which is located in the middle part of the capacitor is connected with the upper and lower part and consists of the upper tube, the lower tube and the many vested in them, tubing, pipe for supply to the condenser to be condensation of gaseous compounds, which is located in the lower part of the condenser under the tube bundle and the free end of which is located inside the gas chamber, and the outlet openings which are located in the upper part of the condenser and are intended for selection of the capacitor, respectively neskondensirovannyh and condensates of gazoobrazovania.

Gaseous compounds of NH3and CO2that enter the condenser is located behind the synthesis reactor evaporators and must be condensed in the condenser, and the flow of carbamate in aqueous solution, which enters the condenser from the cooling allocation of urea, and under certain conditions, the solution containing urea, which flows into the capacitor from the synthesis reactor, and liquid source of ammonia is preferably lodged in the lower part of the condenser through the appropriate holes drilled in the bottom plate of the capacitor.

The condensed gaseous compounds, on the contrary, it is preferable to select from the top of the condenser at least one opening that communicates with the upper portion of the condenser and is made in the upper plate.

Differences between the proposed capacitor are in the presence of a circulating pipe is structurally designed separately from the tube bundle and output holes. This pipe communicates with the upper portion of the condenser and its lower part and is intended for circulation in a closed circuit of the capacitor part of the condensed therein gaseous compounds.

Proposed in the invention, the solution allows you to use the entire tube bundle for condensing supplied to the condenser gaseous compounds, about the opportunity through circulation carbamate bypassing beam condenser tubes.

Use in the proposed invention the condenser all the tubes of the bundle as condensation allows comparison with conventional capacitors of the same size tube bundle to substantially increase the output obtained by condensation of carbamate.

In the private embodiment, the condenser circulating pipe may be located outside of the housing. In this case, the capacitor may be provided with a receptacle which is attached to the upper plate, is connected with the upper portion of the condenser and circulating pipe and has its output apertures.

The circulation pipe can be located inside of the condenser and may be fastened to the tube grids. In this case, the circulation pipe is preferably positioned on the axis of the housing.

The object of the invention is also a method for modernization of an existing carbamate condenser in the system for producing synthesized urea. This capacitor has an essentially cylindrical housing, opposite ends of which are closed respectively by upper and lower heads, which together with the housing form in the condenser middle, top and bottom, and the tube bundle, which is designed for condensing gaseous compounds. The tube bundle is located in the middle part of the capacitor is connected with the upper and lower cha is part and consists of the upper tube, the lower tube and the many vested in them tubes.

Proposed in the invention, the method consists in the following. The condenser installed outside the housing, structurally associated with the tube bundle of the circulation pipe, a chamber connected with the upper and lower part of the condenser and intended for circulation in a closed circuit of the capacitor part of the condensed gaseous compounds. With the top plate of the capacitor connected capacity, which communicates with the upper portion of the condenser and located outside the housing of the circulation pipe and has outlet openings intended for selection of the capacitor, respectively neskondensirovannyh and condensed gaseous compounds. In the lower part of the condenser under the tube bundle installing the pipe, intended for supply to the condenser to be condensation of gaseous compounds.

Other distinctive features and advantages of the present invention is described in more detail below in the description of the example of one not limit the inventions of its possible variants, with reference to the accompanying drawings.

Attached to the description of the drawings in particular, it is shown:

figure 1 - the scheme proposed in the invention of the capacitor in longitudinal section,

the piano is Data2 - the scheme proposed in the invention of the capacitor in longitudinal section, made according to another variant, and

figure 3 - proposed in the invention of the capacitor in a longitudinal incision made one more option.

Proposed in the present invention the capacitor is marked on the figure 1 position 1 has a cylindrical housing 2, opposite ends of which are closed respectively by upper and lower end plates 3 and 4. In the housing 2 is the beam 5 tubes of a certain size, i.e. consisting of a certain number having a certain length and diameter straight tubes 6, the opposite ends of which are fixed in the upper and lower tube sheets 7 and 8, respectively. Tube 7, and 8 are separated defines the dimensions of the middle part 9 of the capacitor body 2 from the upper and lower heads 3 and 4, which respectively define the dimensions of the upper and lower parts 10 and 11 of the capacitor.

The upper and lower portions 10 and 11 of the capacitor are connected with each other through straight tubes 6 of the tube bundle 5.

It should be noted that the condensing tube bundle 5 are cooled by the appropriate coolant, such as water, which flows (inside) in the annular space of the beam 5 and is fed, and out of the capacitor through the corresponding holes and conventional coupling devices, which is Artie not shown.

In the upper part 10 of the capacitor is first hole 12 for a gas outlet in the top plate 3, and the second hole 13 made in the lateral part of the upper plate of the capacitor.

In the upper part 10 of the capacitor next to the second hole 13 is compatible with a filling device 14, schematically depicted in the form of a partition.

In the lower part 11 of the capacitor is first hole 15, through which passes the first connected to the bottom of the inlet pipe 16, which, as described in detail below, is designed to supply to the condenser to be the condensation of gases.

The free end 17 of the first pipe 16 is located inside the gas chamber 18, secured in the usual manner within the lower part 11 of the capacitor.

Proposed in the present invention, the condenser is a tube 19, which is located outside the housing 2 of the capacitor and through the openings 20 and 21 respectively connected at one end with the upper part 10 of the capacitor, and the other end with the bottom part 11.

The pipe 19 is structurally associated with the tube bundle 5 and is connected with the second supply line 22.

Below with reference to the above drawing, the main features of the work proposed in the invention of the capacitor. On this drawing (and other drawings), the flow of the gaseous phase in condensatore designated as F gand the flow of the liquid phase is designated as F1.

Proposed in the invention, the capacitor is conventionally depicted in figure 1 during operation in the normal mode, when it is completely filled with an aqueous solution of carbamate, ammonia and optionally urea, and the mixture containing ammonia, carbon dioxide and water vapor.

These substances are fed into the condenser in the vapor phase from behind the synthesis reactor (not shown) evaporators (not shown), which is intended for the decomposition of carbamate and evaporation of ammonia and carbon dioxide from the urea solution coming from the synthesis reactor. Supplied to the capacitor above the first supply pipe 16 pairs are distributed in the bottom 11 near the lower ends of the condensing tubes 6 beam 5 in the gas distribution chamber 18.

In the bottom 11 of the condenser the gas distribution chamber these gaseous compounds are mixed with already in this part of the condenser water solution.

Mixed with a water solution of gaseous compounds from the lower part 11 of the capacitor are in straight tubes 6 of the tube bundle 5.

Inside the tubes 6 ammonia, carbon dioxide and water are condensed, and the result of the interaction of ammonia with carbon dioxide is formed carbamate

Inside the capacitor 1 formed in the tubes as a result of interaction of ammonia with carbon dioxide carbamate mixed with carbamate, in aqueous solution, obtaining at the outlet of the tubes 6 one General solution of the carbamate, which may also contain urea.

A solution of carbamate going in the top 10 of the capacitor, and the first part is returned through the pipe 19 back to the bottom part 11 and the second part comes out of the condenser 1 through the opening 13 in number, which can be adjusted overflow device 14. Coming out of the condenser 1 through the opening 13 of the solution of the carbamate served in the synthesis reactor, in which the result of the synthesis reaction contained in a solution of carbamate and ammonia is formed urea.

It should be noted that the presence of the proposed invention the condenser tubes 19 provides enough circulation in a closed circuit of the capacitor 1 of an aqueous solution of carbamate, which is continuously returned from the upper part 10 of the capacitor in the bottom part 11.

In the presence of the capacitor of this circuit straight tubes 6 of the tube bundle is constantly completely filled with the same amount of solution. In addition, the presence of the capacitor such a circulating pipe allows you to maintain at an optimal level near the banks of the stream in a constantly filled with the same amount of fluid tubes 6 of the beam with all the ensuing advantages, associated with the cooling liquid flowing in the tube 6 from the outside of the cooler and efficiency occurring in the tubes of the process of condensation of gaseous compounds.

Part of the aqueous solution flowing through the capacitor 1, it comes in the form of an aqueous solution of carbamate from the section selection urea (not shown) and an aqueous solution, which comes from the synthesis reactor and may contains not entered into the reactor in the interaction of matter and the source of liquid ammonia. This part of the aqueous solution served in the lower part 11 of the housing 2 of the capacitor on the line 22, the end of which is embedded in the pipe 19, and in this pipe is mixed with recirculating in a closed loop condenser water solution. This solution eliminates the need for a run in the bottom plate 4 of the capacitor 1 any additional holes.

Coming into the lower part 11 of the condenser 1 water solution is mixed with the output from the distribution chamber 18 of gaseous compounds and, as described above, circulates in the closed circuit of the capacitor 1.

Going in the top 10 of the condenser, the gaseous substances are removed from the condenser 1 through the opening 12 in the top plate 3.

The synthesis reactor, the evaporators and the condenser 1 are parts of the so-called contour synthesis of the high-pressure installation for industrial production of urea. All these devices are actually at the same pressure and are connected to each other in a single circuit that provides the possibility of separating and feeding back into the synthesis reactor at least part of the unreacted substances, which are contained in taken from the reactor solution of urea.

The above-described capacitor 1 can be modified by changing appropriately the design.

One example of such modifications to the design proposed in the invention a capacitor is shown in figure 2.

Shown on the drawing details of the capacitor 1, which is structurally and functionally no different from similar parts of the condenser shown in figure 1, are denoted by the same positions and are not re-examined.

The condenser 1, provided in this embodiment of the invention, has a capacity of 27 located above the top plate 3.

Capacity 27 has at least a first lower hole 33 (figure 2 shows two such holes, the second bottom opening 32 in communication with the pipe 19, the third hole 28, which is located in its upper part and is intended for venting gas from the condenser, and is located on the side of the fourth hole 29.

In turn, the upper plate 3 of the capacitor 1 has at least one top aperture 34, in which RA is supposed nozzle 31 (figure 2 shows two such nozzles).

Shown in figure 2 embodiment, the container 27 is communicated with the upper part 10 of the condenser 1 through the lower holes 33, which are situated opposite fixed in the top plate 3 nozzles 31.

Near the fourth hole 29 is compatible with a filling device 30, which is conventionally shown in the drawing in the form of a partition.

Below with reference to Fig. 2 reviewed the work proposed in this variant of the invention, the carbamate condenser.

In performed under this scenario the capacitor aqueous solution coming from the beam 5 tubes in the upper part 10 of the capacitor through the holes 34, the nozzle 31 and the holes 33 enters the tank 27.

The first part of the collecting vessel 27 aqueous solution is returned to the lower part 11 of the condenser 1 through the opening 32 through the pipe 19, and the second part through the hole 29 is supplied from the capacitor 1 in the reactor for the synthesis of urea. The amount of aqueous solution, which through the hole 29 is supplied from the condenser to the reactor, adjustable overflow device 30.

It should be noted that all of the collecting vessel 27 gaseous substances are removed from the condenser 1 through the opening 28.

The main advantage of this option is the possibility to use it for upgrading existing capacitors, such as capacitors, film type.

In such condensate is pax liquid phase moves inside the tubes of the tube bundle under the action of gravity in the form of liquid films in the General flow of gaseous compounds, subject to condensation.

Currently, constructive further development of the existing capacitors, especially their buildings, either impossible or not feasible for purely economic reasons.

In this embodiment, the invention relates to installation on the upper plate of capacitor 27 through which the upper part 10 of the capacitor 1 is connected with the bottom part 11, a fully circulates aqueous solution in a closed circuit of the capacitor and eliminates the need for changing the design of the housing 2 and end plates 3 and 4 of the capacitor.

Another option possible implementation proposed in the invention of the capacitor shown in figure 3.

Shown on the drawing details of the capacitor 1, which is structurally and functionally no different from similar parts of the condenser shown in figure 1, are denoted by the same positions and are not re-examined.

In this embodiment of the invention instead of shown in the above drawings the outer tube 19 for circulating the aqueous solution is used structurally associated with the tube bundle 5 and the inside of the condenser 1, the pipe 23, which runs along the entire length of the housing 2 and is fixed to the tube grids 7 and 8. Soamsawali its upper and lower ends 25, 26 with therefore, its upper part and the lower part 10 and 11 of the capacitor 1 pipe 23 provides enough circulation inside the capacitor 1 formed in the tube bundle condensation of gaseous compounds.

In the example shown in figure 3, the pipe 23 is located on the axis of the housing 2 and passes from the upper part 10 of the capacitor from the property, it partitions 14 into the lower part 11 and reaches almost to the bottom of the bottom 4.

In the bottom plate 4 of the capacitor 1 has a second hole, indicated by position 24. Through this opening into the lower part 11 of the capacitor flows containing taken from the section selection urea carbamate in aqueous solution and do not necessarily taken from the synthesis reactor a solution containing urea and a source of liquid ammonia.

The advantage of the capacitor, in this embodiment, the invention is not only higher compared with the known output capacitors, but also significantly less. In addition, due to the lack of the outer tube, which must withstand high pressure, the cost of manufacturing such a capacitor is less than the cost of manufacture of capacitors, proposed in the above embodiments of the invention.

Used in this embodiment, the pipe 23 is entirely located inside the condenser 1, and therefore caused the voltage is determined only by the quantity of an aqueous solution circulating in the closed circuit of the capacitor.

1. The capacitor (1) of the carbamate submersible type plants for synthetic the new urea having essentially cylindrical housing (2), the opposite ends of which are closed respectively by upper and lower heads (3 and 4), which together with the housing form in the condenser, the average, upper and lower parts (9, 10 and 11), tube bundle (5), which is designed for condensing gaseous compounds and which is located in the middle part (9) of the capacitor is connected with its upper and lower parts (10 and 11) and consists of the upper tube (7), the lower tube (8) and enshrined in many these tubes (6), pipe (16) for filing in the capacitor is subject to condensation of gaseous compounds, which is located in the lower part (11) of the capacitor under the tube bundle (5) and the free end (17) which is located inside the gas distribution chamber (18)and outlet openings (12, 13), which are located in the upper part (10) of the capacitor and are intended for selection of the capacitor, respectively neskondensirovannyh and condensed gaseous compounds characterized by the presence of the completed structurally separate from the tube bundle (5) and outlet openings (12, 13)communicating with the upper part (10) of the capacitor and the bottom part (11) of the circulation pipe (19)intended for circulation in a closed circuit of the capacitor part of the condensed therein gaseous compounds.

2. The capacitor(1) of the carbamate according to claim 1, characterized in that the circulation pipe (19) is located outside the housing (2).

3. The capacitor (1) of the carbamate according to claim 2, characterized by the presence of the vessel (27), which is connected with the upper plate (3), communicates with the upper part (10) of the capacitor and located outside the housing (2) circulation pipe (19) and has outlet openings (28, 29).

4. The capacitor (1) of the carbamate according to claim 1, characterized in that the circulation pipe (23) is located inside the condenser and attached to the tube grids (7, 8).

5. The capacitor (1) of the carbamate according to claim 4, wherein the circulation pipe (23) is located on the axis of the housing (2).

6. A method of upgrading an existing condenser (1) of the carbamate in the device for producing synthesized urea, having an essentially cylindrical housing (2), the opposite ends of which are closed respectively by upper and lower heads (3 and 4), which together with the housing form in the condenser, the average, upper and lower parts (9, 10 and 11), and tube bundle (5), which is designed for condensing gaseous compounds and which is located in the middle part (9) of the capacitor is connected with its upper and lower parts (10 and 11) and is from the upper tube (7), the lower tube (8) and many vested in them tubes (6), characterized in that the set outside the housing (2), structurally svjazanno the tube bundle (5) of the circulation pipe (19), chamber connected with the upper and lower parts (10, 11) of the capacitor and intended for circulation in a closed circuit of the capacitor part of the condensed gaseous compounds, with the upper plate (3) capacitor connected capacity (27), which communicates with the upper part (10) of the capacitor and located outside the housing (2) circulation pipe (19) and has outlet openings (28, 29)for selection of the capacitor, respectively neskondensirovannyh and condensed gaseous compounds, and in the lower part (11) of the capacitor under the tube bundle (5) install the pipe (16)intended for submission to the capacitor to be condensation of gaseous compounds.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: chemical technology.

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8 cl, 7 dwg

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Film apparatus // 2260466

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3 cl, 1 dwg, 8 ex

FIELD: chemical and petrochemical industries; gas-liquid reactors.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of chemical and petrochemical industries, in particular, to hardware of the chemical processes running in the gas-liquid medium and may be used for industrial production of carbamide. Versions of the gas-liquid reactors contain a vertical body with branch-pipes for feeding of the liquid and gaseous reactants and a branch-pipe for withdrawal of the liquid and gaseous products of the reaction. Inside the body there is a cyclone ejector mounted near to the bottom of the reactor on the axial space interval from a nozzle to the bottom equal to 0.2-0.5 the internal diameter of the body of the reactor. The ejector includes a tangential branch-pipe connected to the branch-pipe of feeding of the liquid reactant, a coaxial pipe and a nozzle directed towards the bottom of the reactor. The first version provides that the upper end of the coaxial pipe is connected to the branch-pipe of feeding of a gaseous reactant and its lower end is supplied with a vane swirler and placed above the nozzle section of the cyclone ejector. The tangential inlet branch-pipe is placed so, that the direction of the streams rotating was equal. In the second version the upper end of the coaxial pipe is connected to a coaxial to it cylindrical component containing the tangential branch-pipe connected to the branch-pipe of the gaseous reactant feeding. The tangential inlet branch-pipes are placed so, that the rotating direction of the tangential streams are equal, the lower end of the coaxial pipe is placed above the nozzle section of the cyclone ejector. At presence of two or more liquid or gaseous reactants the gas-liquid reactors can contain at least one additional ejector with a tangential branch-pipe of the reactant feeding. The additional ejector is placed between the coaxial pipe and the body of the main cyclone ejector. The offered invention allows to intensify the process of the reactants mixing and to boost a degree of dispersion of the gas.

EFFECT: the invention allows to intensify the process of the reactants mixing and to boost a degree of dispersions of the gas.

4 cl, 4 dwg

The invention relates to devices used for one-step synthesis of isoprene from isobutylene

FIELD: gas-oil-producing and processing industry; methods and devices of purification of the gas containing hydrogen sulfide.

SUBSTANCE: the group of inventions is pertaining to the field of purification of the gas containing hydrogen sulfide and may be used in gas-oil-producing and processing industry. The method providing for purification of the gas containing hydrogen sulfide with extraction of sulfur by oxidizing the gas includes its contacting with the activated charcoal with the subsequent regeneration of the latter. Before contacting with the charcoal the oxidization is conducted by injecting of the dispersed oxygen saturated water into the purified gas, and the contacting with the charcoal is exercised for a short time. At that the activated charcoal is located on the rotating surface. The product of oxidation representing the suspension made out of the condensate, water and the elemental sulfur is subjected to flotation, and a part of the purified from hydrogen sulfide gas preheated and use in the process of flotation and regeneration. The installation for purification of the gas includes the block of oxidation, the block of saturation of the water with oxygen, the injector, on the outlet of which there is the screen with the filtering surface, the block of flotation, on the outlet of which there is the block of compaction of the elemental sulfur connected with the block of smelting, the accumulator of the liquid. The screen filtering surface has the layer of the activated charcoal and is made with the capability of rotation and regeneration by the heated gas of the back blowing. The block of saturation of water with oxygen is connected to an inlet of the injector, and the accumulator of the liquid is made with the capability of the three-phase separation into the water, the gaseous condensate and the gas degased from the liquid. The inventions ensure the increased service life of the installation, improvement of the quality of purification, the possibility to separate the condensate in the process of the purification and utilization of the products of the purification.

EFFECT: the inventions ensure the increased service life of the installation, improvement of the quality of purification, the possibility to separate the condensate in the process of the purification and utilization of the products of the purification.

15 cl, 1 dwg

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