Method and apparatus for production of hydrogen

FIELD: chemical industry; methods and devices for production of molecular hydrogen.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of chemical industry, in particular, to the method and the apparatus for production of molecular hydrogen. The apparatus represents essentially the closed reactor, operation of which is not accompanied with the harmful outbursts and the pollution of atmosphere. The reactor has the first and second reaction chambers, in which at essentially different temperatures there is the same pressure. To increase the amount and to improve the purity of the produced hydrogen the reactor is supplied with the separator of the reaction products. The method includes the conversion of highly inflammable material in the reactor having the first and second chambers with utilization of the separator of the reaction products. In the reactionary layer of the first chamber conduct the response of conversion with production of hydrogen and at least one by-product, and also the reaction of interaction between the by-product and the separator of reaction products, and then transfer the separator of the reaction products into the reactionary layer of the second chamber, which is located above the reactionary layer of the first chamber. The invention ensures the increased amount and purity of the produced hydrogen.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased amount and purity of the produced hydrogen.

24 cl, 2 dwg

 

The present invention relates to the production of molecular hydrogen, in particular to a method and apparatus for obtaining essentially pure stream of molecular hydrogen, requiring further minimal cleanup.

Molecular and atomic hydrogen are widely used in commercial and industrial purposes. Hydrogen, in particular, can be used for processing crude oil into various valuable products. Hydrogen, in addition, widely used for many chemical reactions associated with, for example, the restoration or the synthesis of various compounds. Hydrogen, in particular, is used as the main chemical in industrial production of such widely used products as cyclohexane, ammonia and methanol. In addition, recently, hydrogen is widely used as fuel to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. Hydrogen can also be used in fuel cells or other similar purposes for the creation of environmentally friendly sources of electrical energy that can be used to drive a variety of industrial machines and vehicles.

Currently, there are various ways of selecting or obtaining hydrogen from carbonaceous or hydrocarbonaceous m is materials. From all types of hydrocarbon raw material for hydrogen production currently usually use methane or natural gas. Gas easily passes through various mechanical devices and apparatus and can be used as fuel in the process of conversion (reforming) and industrial production of various chemical compounds. Currently, there are various methods of production of chemical compounds using as a raw hydrocarbon material to which, in particular, are high-temperature conversion with steam, low temperature conversion and the absorbance at variable pressure. The absorbance at variable pressure is also used for purification of the products obtained. The absorbance at variable pressure allows to obtain hydrogen-rich foods, which contain about 99% pure hydrogen. Other methods of hydrogen production include various industrial methods, in which the hydrogen is produced as a by-product and electrochemical decomposition of water.

Working on the principle of periodic changes (swing) pressure absorbers (ADF)that can be used to further purify the hydrogen flow, require hydrogen. Usually for industrial production of large quantities of odor is Yes, which is then processed in the ADF, use the installation for the conversion (reforming) of methane with water vapor (CMVP). When CMIT usually receive a stream of hydrogen content in which molecules of pure hydrogen does not exceed 90%. In addition to pure hydrogen obtained by CMIT stream contains hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane and other by-products which contaminate the hydrogen. In addition, when CMIT hydrogen usually get at high temperatures and pressures. The working temperature is at least 800°With (about 1470°F). To create such high temperatures in the reaction chambers should also burn a lot of fuel. In addition, to produce hydrogen by CMIT in the reaction chambers is required to create a pressure above 20 atmospheres. The creation of such high pressure also requires, obviously, the use of additional energy sources. In other words, the production of hydrogen in these systems is associated with extremely high energy costs.

Currently existing installation, in which hydrogen is produced by KMIT, although suitable for producing large amounts of hydrogen, not only have high energy costs and therefore are not efficient enough, but should work in conjunction with the APD. The need to use the ADF for more clear and hydrogen is caused, what is the content of pure hydrogen obtained by KMIT the flow of hydrogen is not normally exceed 90%. Although the basic principles of operation of the ADF sufficiently well known to experts in the art, however, they again discussed below in General terms.

Usually in the ADF stream of hydrogen passed through the filter or filter layer. The filter layer may consist of different materials, which are selected depending on the perceived impurities. Flushing the stream of hydrogen is usually used filter layers of carbon-based materials or molecular sieves. Various filters absorb molecules of various polluting a stream of hydrogen impurities. Completely clogged or saturated by various filters impurities begin to identify specific by-product. At this point, the pressure in the absorber is changed or the flow of hydrogen is directed to a different ADF, and clogged filters impurities of the first APD, through which hydrogen is not, respectively, are cleared. Cleaning filters, obviously, is accompanied by a loss of some cleaned in the ADF hydrogen. Currently used to produce hydrogen from a hydrocarbon fuel gas, particularly methane, KMVP-installation and AAA though and allow you to obtain a relatively pure hydrogen, however, they do not allow you to bring the pureness of the hydrogen to theoretically possible and is equal to approximately 99%. Typically, the efficiency of the systems in which hydrogen is produced from methane by CMIT and using the ADF, is only about 75%.

It is also known that for more effective removal from the stream of hydrogen by-products such as carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, can be used placed in a reaction chamber catalysts. In these cases, however, as the catalytic layers typically use solid layers, which require special handling and must meet special requirements. In addition, such methods, one of which is described in the work .balasubramanian and others, "Hydrogen From Methane in A Single-Step Process", Chemical Engineering Science, 54, 1999, cc.3543-3552, not suitable for the industrial production of hydrogen in large quantities.

Given the above, there is a need, especially in light of current and anticipated future needs in hydrogen, in the development of optimal efficiency of the method of producing a stream of essentially pure hydrogen and a corresponding system for carrying out the method. This method, in particular, should provide flow of hydrogen as clean as possible prior to its subsequent treatment. The solution to this problem would increase the amount of hydrogen produced per unit of fuel, and to reduce energy consumption per unit by the scientists of hydrogen. Increased purity in the reactor hydrogen would reduce costs further purification. When the purification of hydrogen using ADF reducing the amount of impurities contained in the crude hydrogen would reduce the size of the ADF and thus reduce the loss of hydrogen in the process of cleaning.

In the present invention proposes a device for producing hydrogen by conversion of flammable substances with water vapor. Typically such flammable substances use hydrocarbons, of which by conversion (reforming) can produce hydrogen. Proposed in the invention, the apparatus contains a first reaction chamber with the inside of the reaction layer in which the reaction conversion, the second reaction chamber with the inside of the reaction layer and the exhaust device for the selection of the unit of hydrogen produced. In the composition of the reaction layer of the first reaction chamber has an additional participant reaction - separator of the reaction products, it is removed from the first reaction chamber a by-product of the conversion and roaming in the reaction layer of the second reaction chamber. The reaction layer of the second reaction chamber in which the processing of the separator of the reaction products for reuse in the first chamber with the allocation of the by-product of the separator of the reaction products, located above the reaction layer of the first reaction chamber.

The placement of the reaction layer of the second reaction chamber above the reaction layer of the first reaction chamber provides a number of advantages. Designed so the device can have only a mechanical conveyor for forced displacement of material from the first reaction chamber to the second. Since the material of the reaction layer of the first chamber has a lower temperature than the material of the reaction layer of the second chamber, moving mechanical conveyor relatively cold material reduces wear of such conveyor and increases its durability. In addition, the placement of the reaction layer of the second reaction chamber above the reaction layer of the first reaction chamber allows for a more efficient and complete use of thermal energy, which is discussed in more detail below.

In a preferred embodiment of the proposed invention the apparatus includes the above-mentioned mechanical conveyor to move parts of the separator of the reaction products in the second reaction chamber, the feeding device of the apparatus of flammable substances in the required amount, the conversion which takes place in the first reaction chamber. While the resulting conversion is different from the hydrogen by-product is remediesa separator of the reaction products from the first reaction chamber to the second reaction chamber, and the resulting hydrogen is withdrawn from the apparatus.

The apparatus preferably in the form of a single reactor, in which are located the first and second reaction chambers. In this case, preferably, essentially all of the elements of the apparatus was located inside the reactor, which must be made watertight and should prevent, in particular, the emissions generated in the reactor gases or substantially reduce the loss of heat of reaction conversion with steam.

The composition of the separator of the reaction products preferably include a substance, in particular calcium, which keeps the side reaction product of the conversion.

Preferably, the disposal generated in the first reaction chamber product conversion, namely hydrogen from the first camera and the allocation of by-product in the second reaction chamber took place essentially during the course of the reaction conversion. The temperature in the first reaction chamber can be maintained in the range of 625 to 725°and in the second reaction chamber is in the range from 900 to 1000°C. the Pressure in the first and second reaction chambers may be essentially the same.

Mechanical conveyor to move the separator of the reaction products from the first reaction chamber to the second reaction chamber may contain guiding the device, specifies the path of movement of the conveyor moving along this path device for moving the separator of the reaction products and the engine, which results in a movement along a given path from the device to move the separator of the reaction products.

In the structure proposed in the invention can also be provided by the device for moving the separator of the reaction products from the second reaction chamber back into the first reaction chamber, and a source supplied into the first chamber flammable substances, which serves as the hydrocarbon.

The reaction layer in which the reaction proceeds of the conversion, it is preferable to maintain a fluid state.

The object of the invention is also a method of producing hydrogen by conversion of flammable substances in the reactor having first and second chambers, with the use of a separator of the reaction products, thus improving the productivity of the reactor and the purity of hydrogen. Proposed in the invention method is that in the reaction layer of the first cell using the corresponding conversion agent conducting the reaction conversion flammable substances to produce hydrogen and at least one by-product or impurity, as well as the reaction of interaction between by-product and will share the LEM products of the reaction, move the separator of the reaction products in the reaction layer of the second camera, located above the reaction layer of the first chamber and separated from the separator products of the reaction by-product.

In the implementation proposed in the invention method, as agent for the conversion, it is preferable to use water, mainly in the form of steam, which is treated with a flammable substance, which results in the ongoing conversion of at least hydrogen.

The allocation of by-product from the separator products of the reaction can be conducted by heating the latter to a temperature sufficient to discharge from the it side of the product, after which the separator of the reaction products from the second chamber can be returned back into the first chamber, which can significantly reduce thermal losses associated with the conversion of flammable substances.

Other features and possible applications of the present invention is described in more detail in the subsequent description. In this connection it should be noted that the described specific examples merely serve to illustrate the invention without limiting its scope.

Below the invention is described in more detail with reference to the accompanying drawings on which is shown:

figure 1 - the scheme proposed in the preferred option and the gaining installation for hydrogen and

figure 2 - cross section designed for hydrogen production reactor, which is schematically shown in figure 1.

The following description of the preferred options of a possible embodiment of the invention only illustrates its main features and does not restrict not only its volume, but also the field of its possible application.

Figure 1 is a simplified diagram shows the installation 10 for producing hydrogen in accordance with a preferred variant of the invention. The installation 10 has a reactor 12 from the bottom - the first reaction chamber 14 (DC1) and upper - second reaction chamber 16 (PK2). The reactor 12 has an inlet pipe 18, through which the lower chamber 14 from a source 20 of methane is methane. Through the inlet 18 into the reactor also serves from the corresponding source 21 water vapor. Under the action of water vapor in the reactor is conversion (reforming) of methane to form hydrogen or hydrogen flow, as described in more detail below. In the United reactor piping installed the appropriate heat exchangers 25A, 25b, 25C and 25d (TO1, TO, TO, TO). These heat exchangers 25A, 25b, 25C and 25d either heated or cooled flowing through the piping materials.

The upper chamber 16 is connected to a source 24 of methane and oxygen nozzle 22 for submission to react the R methane and oxygen. It should be noted that instead of methane into the second chamber 16 of the reactor can be submitted and other flammable substance, such as generated by the system 10 of the exhaust gas or get on it hydrogen. Similarly, and as an oxidizer can be used not only oxygen, but also, for example, ambient air. Methane in this case just selected as one of the possible flammable substances and oxygen as one of the possible oxidizing agents.

The reactor 12 has a nozzle 26 for removal of the upper chamber formed in the reactor of carbon dioxide. Through this pipe 26 from the reactor are selected carbon dioxide, which is formed in the reactor as a by-product, as described in more detail below, and then going in the appropriate collection 28. The reactor 12 has a discharge device 28 that is designed for the selection of the hydrogen produced in the reactor in the process of reforming of methane. The flow obtained in the reactor, hydrogen is withdrawn from the first reaction chamber 14, which is located in this case at the bottom of the reactor 12. In taken out of the reactor the flow of hydrogen may contain unreacted or excess methane gas, which is separated from the hydrogen in the filter or scrubber 30. The filter 30 of methane, which is installed on the pipeline, which is connected with the IP is the source 20 of methane, allows you to return the remaining taken out of the reactor 12, the flow of hydrogen-methane through pipe 18 back to the reactor 12. Thread cleaned from methane hydrogen is collected in the collector 32 and sent for further processing or directly to the consumer. Optionally produced hydrogen can to send the consumer an additional clear.

The system 10 to obtain from methane, hydrogen, schematically shown in figure 1, uses a new reactor 12. As mentioned above, to produce hydrogen is proposed in the invention method as a source of raw materials can be used not only methane, but also any other flammable substance. System 10 is designed to receive and collect hydrogen. The principle of the proposed invention in the installation and proposed in the invention is a method of producing hydrogen are explained on the example discussed below reactions. Conversion (reforming) of methane usually proceeds in accordance with the following equation:

the reaction of the conversion of methane: CH4+H2About→CO+3H3.

As a result of such reactions receive the first portion of the hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

Second flowing in the reactor the reaction is the reaction of the shift during which the result of the interaction in accordance with the following equation obrazowej is camping at methane conversion of carbon monoxide and water vapor to get the second part of the hydrogen:

the shift reaction: CO+H2About→CO2+H2.

The production of hydrogen on offer in the invention the method is based on these two basic reactions. The resulting hydrogen is withdrawn from the reactor through outlet 28.

In the reactor 12, in particular in the first reaction chamber 14, is the primary reaction layer (denoted in figure 2 by the numeral 42), which contains a separator or supporting participant reactions. Usually the primary reaction layer 42 consists of a catalyst and calcium-containing substances or compounds. As an example of this in the primary reaction layer 42 together with a catalyst containing calcium substances can be called calcium oxide and calcium carbonate. The presence in the reaction layer with a catalyst containing calcium substances facilitates the removal of carbon dioxide formed during the reaction shift. The removal or separation formed in the reactor products of carbon dioxide occurs in accordance with the response selection on the following equation:

evolution reaction: Cao+CO2→caso3.

Unlike obtained from methane gaseous hydrogen product obtained in the reaction selection, is a solid. Therefore, the Department formed during the reactions is the separation of the solid calcium-containing product from the gaseous hydrogen in the proposed invention the reactor is simply due to gravity, under the action of which he poured down from the consisting of a catalyst and calcium-containing substances of the reaction layer and is collected on the bottom wall of the lower or first chamber 14 of the reactor.

Described above can be obtained theoretically pure hydrogen, which is collected in the first reaction chamber above the reaction layer 42. Despite the fact that purity in this case, hydrogen is less than theoretically possible, however it significantly exceeds the purity of hydrogen currently known methods.

Typically, when the production of hydrogen from methane calcium-containing substance is mixed with an appropriate catalyst. As a catalyst it is possible to use a variety of catalysts, for example Nickel in an amount of from 4 to 22 wt.% on α-aluminium oxide mixed with calcium-containing substance.

The temperature in the first reaction chamber 14 upon receipt of the proposed hydrogen in the invention by a method substantially below the temperature at which currently hydrogen is produced from methane CMVP-installations. Upon receipt of the proposed hydrogen in the invention method, the temperature in the first reaction chamber 14 is typically supported at the level of from about 625°With (1150° (F) to approximately 725° (1340°F). The pressure in the first reaction the ion chamber 14 should be only from about 4 to about 6 ATM. Temperatures in the upper - second reaction chamber 16 can be higher than the temperature in the first reaction chamber 14. Usually the temperature in the second reaction chamber 16 is maintained at a level from approximately 900°C (1650° (F) to approximately 1000° (1840°F). To create in the reactor such temperatures is used in small quantities appropriate fuel and oxidizer. For this purpose, in particular, the second reaction chamber 16 through the inlet 22 from a source 24 serves to heat the chamber, the amount of methane and oxygen. The combustion of the fuel in the second chamber 16 creates a high enough temperature, necessary for the evolution of carbon dioxide from calcium-containing substances, which do not need to support in the whole volume of the reactor 12. At relatively high temperatures, the pressure in the second reaction chamber 16 is essentially equal to the pressure in the first reaction chamber 14. The magnitude of this pressure, as mentioned above, is usually from about 4 to about 6 ATM.

In the primary reaction layer 42 in accordance with the above equation of the reaction of conversion of the initial methane conversion into other products. In the primary reaction layer 42, also occurs and the shift reaction. In principle, these reactions can proceed in any of the reaction layer is 42, for example, in the fluidized bed. A fluidized bed is a layer of solid fine particles of small size, they are similar to liquid.

When passing through the primary reaction layer 42 water vapor and methane in it occur the reaction conversion and shift. The resultant carbon dioxide enters into the primary reaction layer 42 in engagement with the supporting member reactions. As a result of such interaction is formed reaction product selection, such as calcium carbonate (in the case when the auxiliary member reaction is calcium). The resulting reaction product selection, such as calcium carbonate, in bulk form, move to the second reaction chamber 16. In the second reaction chamber 16 calcium carbonate is heated to a higher temperature. From heated to a high temperature calcium carbonate produce carbon dioxide, and he turned back into the original calcium-containing substance, which was located in the reaction layer 42. Formed in the second chamber 16 of the carbon dioxide derived from it in the gaseous state. It should be noted that when using other flammable substances and other auxiliary participant reaction in the reaction selection form is by other products.

The use of the proposed invention in reactor 12 allows to produce hydrogen in a confined space. Such reactor 12 can be performed in a single apparatus, which can simultaneously occur in the processes of combustion and conversion. In this case, all associated with hydrogen production processes will be securely isolated from the surrounding atmosphere confined space inside one of the reactor 12. The use of such a reactor can significantly reduce or virtually completely avoid pollution of the atmosphere with harmful emissions, in particular the combustion products generated during the production of hydrogen by known methods.

In figure 2 the example shows the structure proposed in the present invention the reactor 38 for hydrogen production by methane reforming with water vapor. The reactor 38 has a first reaction chamber 14 and the second reaction chamber 16. The reactor 38 has a single common housing 39 within which are located the first and second reaction chambers 14, 16. This embodiment of the reactor reduces the likelihood of leakage into the surrounding space in the reactor reagents. Essentially designed reactor is fully closed and hermetically isolated from the surrounding space system to produce hydrogen. In such a system otsutstvuyutpredmety outside of the reactor 38 of the combustion chamber, which is usually accompanied by pollution of various combustion products.

Methane and water vapor fed to the first reaction chamber 14 through the inlet 18. Passing through the inlet methane and water vapor are in the lower part 40 of the first reaction chamber 14. First, methane and water vapor pass through the primary reaction layer 42. The primary reaction layer 42 is located in the liquefied state of the calcium-containing substance and an appropriate catalyst. The primary reaction layer 42 may consist not only of fluidized material, but Bartiromo material or material in any other mobile. It should also be noted that the primary reaction layer 42 may be a continuous layer of material, through which the methane and water vapor. With the passage of methane and water vapor through the primary reaction layer 42 are set all three of the above-mentioned reaction conversion, shift, and selection.

Above the primary reaction layer 42 in the first chamber is a free zone 44. In this zone, extending from the primary reaction layer 42, the gas rises. Rising gas essentially consists of hydrogen. In addition to hydrogen derived from methane and water vapor gas may also contain side productiei through the free zone, the gas is filtered first, or the principal, the filter 46. The main filter 46, the filter falls into it from the free zone gas, purifies the hydrogen from by-products and solid particles that fall from the layer containing a calcium compound and catalyst. The flow passing through the main filter 46 of purified hydrogen is withdrawn from the reactor through outlet 28. Coming out of the reactor through the exhaust device 28, the hydrogen can be collected in the quality of the finished product in an appropriate container (see figure 1).

In the first reaction chamber 14 is also the mechanism 48 to move the material of the reaction layer. The mechanism 48 to move the material of the reaction layer moves forming a layer of material from the primary reaction layer 42 in the secondary reaction layer 50, which is located in the second reaction chamber 16. Forming a layer of material in bulk form is moved from the primary reaction layer 42 mechanism 48 move layer located above the secondary reaction layer 50 zone, a second reaction chamber in which the material is poured from the mechanism 48 located down in the second reaction chamber of the secondary reaction layer 50. In this regard, it should be noted that through the mechanism 48 forming a reaction layer material can be moved from the primary reaction layer immediately in secondary reactionally 50. The mechanism 48 to move the material of the reaction layer can be performed in the form of a lift or a continuous chain conveyor that moves the part containing calcium and the catalyst material from the primary reaction layer 42 is located above the secondary reaction layer 50 zone 52 of the second reaction chamber, in which forming the reaction layer material is poured from the conveyor under the action of gravity down into the second reaction chamber of the secondary reaction layer 50.

In the material transferred from the primary reaction layer in the secondary, contains calcium carbonate, which is the reaction product of selection occurring in the first reaction chamber. This material in the secondary reaction layer 50 is heated to a temperature higher than in the primary reaction layer. The heated secondary reaction layer 50 is due to the heat released during combustion (flammable substances) and oxidant. For heating the secondary reaction layer you can use any fuel, but it is preferable to use for this purpose methane, which reduces the number of different elements of the technological equipment necessary for the work proposed in the invention of the installation 10 for producing hydrogen.

Burning in the chamber when orania 54 methane and oxygen is heated secondary reaction layer 50. When heated secondary reaction layer 50 are found in the material produce carbon dioxide, which is in a gaseous state rises in located above the secondary reaction layer free space 56 of the second reaction chamber. Forming a secondary reaction layer 50 material as well as in the primary reaction layer is in motion, but not necessarily in a fluidized condition. However, do not exclude the possibility and secondary liquefaction reaction layer 50.

Secondary reaction layer 50 is connected to the primary reaction layer 42 by a pipe 58. The pipe 58 has a valve 60. The valve 60 is designed to control and measure the amount of material sipusers down from the secondary reaction layer 50 in the primary reaction layer 42. The movement of material through the pipe 58 of the secondary reaction layer 50 in the primary reaction layer 42 occurs under the action of gravity. Instead of passive gravitational return of material from the secondary reaction layer in the primary, you can use the active system of the moving material. Such a system can be performed, for example, in the form of a second conveyor which transports the material from the secondary reaction layer 50 in the primary reaction layer 42. Processed in a secondary reaction layer 50 material can C erevna be dumped back into the primary reaction layer 42. In this way the reactor is a continuous update of the material layer in the first and second reaction chambers. In addition, the production of hydrogen in this reactor is actually without any consumption of catalyst and calcium-containing substance.

In the reactor, in which the secondary reaction layer 50 is located above the primary reaction layer 42, the material of the secondary reaction layer 50 in the primary reaction layer 42 is poured through the pipe 58 solely under the action of gravity. Designed reactor should have only a mechanical conveyor 48, designed for forced displacement of material from the primary reaction layer in the secondary. The material in the primary reaction layer 42 has a lower temperature than the material located in the secondary reaction layer 50. As mentioned above, the moving mechanical conveyor 48 only relatively cold material reduces wear and increases its durability. In this connection it should, however, be noted that if necessary, a mechanical conveyor can be used to move relatively hot material from the secondary reaction layer in the primary.

Regulation of the flow rate of the material of the reaction layer valve 60 allows you to regulate the th temperature of the layers. By adjusting the flow rate of material should be taken into account that the primary reaction layer 42 should have a lower temperature than the secondary reaction layer 50. Therefore, an excessive increase in the amount of material falling from the hot secondary reaction layer 50 in a relatively cold primary reaction layer 42 may violate heat balance in the reactor.

Carbon dioxide, which is collected in the free space 56 of the second reaction zone, prior to selection of the reactor through the outlet 26 can pass through the second filter 62. The second filter 62 is usually cleans up carbon dioxide from the solid particles of the material and prevent the ash from the reactor by the gas flow. Emerging from the outlet of the reactor carbon dioxide then going in a suitable container (see figure 1).

It should be noted that obtained on offer in the invention the installation of hydrogen can be further cleaned in a specially designed, although not shown in the diagram, the secondary treatment systems. For a deep cleaning of hydrogen can, in particular, to use the appropriate APD. Such absorbers can be used for hydrogen purification from additional impurities, such as carbon dioxide and other that may be contained in a stream of hydrogen produced offered in the invention pic is BOM. Usually, however, the purity of the hydrogen produced in the reactor 12 and is not further purified, is at least about 93%. This relatively high purity of the hydrogen produced in the reactor 12 proposed in the invention method, minimizes the need for further purification. The high purity of the obtained proposed in the invention by way of hydrogen also allows to substantially reduce the loss of hydrogen, or otherwise associated with its additional cleaning.

High purity hydrogen obtained proposed in the invention method, due primarily to the minimal amount of contained carbon dioxide, which is one of the main side products formed in the reactions of conversion and shift. The presence in the primary reaction layer 42 of the auxiliary member reactions, in particular calcium-containing substances, significantly contributes to the emissions of carbon dioxide from the reaction products of conversion and shift. Auxiliary participant reactions not only significantly increases the purity of hydrogen produced, but also increases the amount of hydrogen produced from flammable substances (fuel). The increase in the number of hydrogen from flammable substances, determined by the principle are proved. In the accordance with the principle proved removing from the reaction zone of one of the products of the reaction disturbs the equilibrium of the reaction and is accompanied by an increase in the number of other reaction products.

In the proposed invention the installation of carbon monoxide formed during the conversion of methane with water vapor interacts with water vapor in the process shift reaction, the products are carbon dioxide and optionally the formed hydrogen. As a result of the allocation, which consists in the interaction formed during shift reaction of carbon dioxide with calcium-containing substance is formed of solid calcium carbonate. Representing the solid calcium carbonate is easily and almost completely separated from all others which gases reagents. Thus, upon receipt of the proposed hydrogen in the invention method, all leading to the formation of hydrogen reaction, i.e. the reaction conversion and the reaction shift, accompanied by a response, which provides the removal of hydrogen unwanted or contaminating its impurities (monoxide or carbon dioxide), and ultimately increase the amount of pure hydrogen.

In the proposed invention the reactor 12 carbon dioxide is easily removed from the forming reaction layer of material in which the reaction occurs in the selection. Proposed in the invention, the reactor operates without spending forming a reaction layer of material, which, after appropriate processing in the second reaction is the first camera is used again in the first reaction chamber, in which process the reaction of the allocation of carbon dioxide produced continuously taken from the first reaction chamber 14 of the reactor. Thus there is an increase in the number received in the reactor essentially pure hydrogen.

The location of the secondary reaction layer 50 above the primary reaction layer 42 also allows for more efficient and complete use of the proposed invention in the installation of 10 thermal energy. To remove the unit 10 from the reaction products of carbon dioxide formed during the conversion of methane with water vapor and the shift reaction, the secondary reaction layer 50 should have a relatively high temperature. Therefore, the material forming the secondary reaction layer 50 must be properly heated to such temperature. The presence in the proposed invention the reactor return pipe 58 allows the use of heated to a relatively high temperature in the secondary reaction layer 50, the material for the primary reaction layer 42 of the conditions necessary to offset weak occurring there endothermic reaction. Desorption of carbon dioxide from the primary reaction layer 42 is accompanied by the absorption of energy by the material of the reaction layer and, as a consequence, the primary cooling of the reaction layer 42. In addition, the ri obtaining hydrogen in the primary reaction layer 42 as a result of absorption of energy by the material layer, the primary temperature of the reaction layer 42 is reduced. Sapaudia (or floating) in the primary reaction layer from over the hot secondary reaction layer 50 material shifts slightly endothermic reaction occurring in the primary reaction layer 42, and supports preferably at a constant level of temperature. Thus, the proposed in the present invention, the solution associated with the return material consisting of a catalyst and calcium-containing substances from the secondary reaction layer 50 in the primary reaction layer 42 and used in the primary reaction layer 42 contained in thermal energy can significantly reduce heat loss associated with obtaining on the installation 10 is almost pure hydrogen.

The above description only illustrates the main features of the invention, which allows making is considered as an example of variations in its implementation of various changes and improvements, which, however, must not violate the essence of the invention. All such modifications and improvements shall not go beyond the basic idea of the invention and should not narrow its scope.

1. Apparatus for producing hydrogen by conversion of flammable substances with water vapor, containing the first (14) reaction chamber with the inside of the reaction layer (42)where CV is the et reaction conversion, the second reaction chamber (16) into the reaction layer (50) and an outlet (28) for the selection of the unit of hydrogen produced, and in the composition of the reaction layer (42) of the first reaction chamber (14) includes a separator of the reaction products, it is removed from the first reaction chamber a by-product of the conversion and roaming in the reaction layer (50) of the second reaction chamber (16), which is located above the reaction layer (42) of the first reaction chamber (14) and in which there is a release side product from the separator of the reaction products.

2. The apparatus according to claim 1, which contains a mechanical conveyor to move parts of the separator of the reaction products in the second reaction chamber (16), a device for supply to the apparatus (10) flammable substances in the required amount, the conversion which takes place in the first reaction chamber (14), and the resulting conversion is different from the hydrogen by-product is moved by the separator of the reaction products from the first reaction chamber (14) into the second reaction chamber (16), and the resulting hydrogen is withdrawn from the apparatus (10).

3. The apparatus according to claim 1 or 2, which has a reactor (12)where the first (14) and second (16) of the reaction chamber.

4. Apparatus according to any one of claims 1 to 3, in which essentially all of its elements are inside reacto the and (12), which is airtight and prevents, in particular, the emissions generated in the reactor gases (12) or significantly reduces the loss of heat of reaction conversion with steam.

5. Apparatus according to any one of claims 1 to 4, in which the composition of the separator of the reaction products is a substance, in particular calcium, which keeps the side reaction product of the conversion.

6. Apparatus according to any one of claims 1 to 5, which are formed in the first reaction chamber (14) conversion product is removed from it, essentially, during the course of the reaction conversion.

7. Apparatus according to any one of claims 1 to 6, in which the temperature in the first reaction chamber (14) is maintained in the range of 625 to 725°and a second reaction chamber (16) is in the range from 900 to 1000°C.

8. Apparatus according to any one of claims 1 to 7, in which the first (14) and second (16) of the reaction chambers is created, essentially, the same pressure.

9. Apparatus according to any one of claims 1 to 8, in which the composition of the separator of the reaction products is a substance intended for selection of the obtained hydrogen by-product.

10. Apparatus according to any one of claims 1 to 9, in which the allocation of by-product in the second reaction chamber (16) is, essentially, during the reaction time of the conversion.

11. Apparatus according to any one of claims 1 to 10, containing also the mechanical conveyor (48) to move the Oia separator of the reaction products from the first reaction chamber (14) into the second reaction chamber (16).

12. The apparatus according to claim 11, in which the mechanical conveyor (48) includes a guiding device that determines the path of movement of the conveyor moving along this path device for moving the separator of the reaction products and the engine, which results in a movement along a given path from the device to move the separator of the reaction products.

13. The apparatus according to claim 11 or 12, comprising a device for moving the separator of the reaction products from the second reaction chamber (16) back into the first reaction chamber (14).

14. Apparatus according to any one of claims 1 to 13, in which there is a source (24) supplied to it flammable substances, which serves as the hydrocarbon.

15. Apparatus according to any one of claims 1 to 14, in which the reaction layer (42), in which the reaction conversion is in the fluidized state.

16. The method of producing hydrogen by conversion of flammable substances in the reactor (12)having first (14) and second (16) camera, using the separator of the reaction products, thus improving the productivity of the reactor and the purity of hydrogen produced, namely, that in the reaction layer (42) of the first chamber (14), using the corresponding conversion agent conducting the reaction conversion flammable substances to produce hydrogen and at least one side is the product, and the reaction of the interaction between by-product and the separator of the reaction products, move the separator of the reaction products in the reaction layer (50) of the second chamber (16)located above the reaction layer (42) of the first chamber (14), and are separated from the separator products of the reaction by-product.

17. The method according to clause 16, which as agent for conversion use water, which is treated with a flammable substance, and the resulting conversion gain at least hydrogen.

18. The method according to 17, in which a flammable substance is treated with water vapor.

19. The method according to 17 or 18, in which the temperature in the first chamber (14) is maintained within the range of 625 to 725°C.

20. The method according to any of PP-19, which in the interaction of a by-product from the separator of the reaction products as a final use calcium-containing substance which, in contact with the side product separates it from the generated hydrogen.

21. The method according to any of PP-20, in which part of the separator of the reaction products move from the reaction layer (42) of the first chamber (14) in the reaction layer (50) of the second chamber (16) via conveyor (48).

22. The method according to any of PP-21, in which by-product is recovered from separator of the reaction products by heating the latter to a temperature which s, sufficient to discharge from his side of the product.

23. The method according to any of PP-22, in which the separator of the reaction products from the second chamber (16) is recycled back into the first chamber (14).

24. The method according to any of PP-23, in which the return of the separator of the reaction products in the first chamber (14) is used to substantially reduce heat losses associated with the conversion of flammable substances.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: catalyst preparation methods.

SUBSTANCE: invention proposes combination of protective layer against chlorine compounds and copper-containing catalyst bed. Protective layer is formed from molded members prepared from particles of led carbonate and/or basic led carbonate with weight-average particle size less than 10 μm. Catalytic reaction in presence of above-defined combination is also described.

EFFECT: prevented deactivation of copper-containing catalyst operated with process gas containing chlorine compounds.

11 cl, 3 tbl, 7 ex

FIELD: synthetic fuels.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for production of synthesis mainly containing H2 and CO for producing hydrogen, alcohols, ammonia, dimethyl ether, and ethylene, for Fischer-Tropsch processes, and also for use in chemical industry for processing hydrocarbon gases and in chemothermal systems for accumulation and transport of energy as well as in methane-methanol thermochemical water decomposition cycles. In the multistage process of invention, at least two consecutive stages are accomplished, in each of which stream containing lower alkanes having about 1 to 34 carbon atoms are passed through heating heat-exchanger and the through adiabatic reactor filled with catalyst packing. Before first stage and between the stages, stream is mixed with water steam and/or carbon dioxide and cooled in the end of each stage. Steam leaving last stage is treated to remove water steam.

EFFECT: increased conversion of lower alkanes and reduced H2/CO ratio in produced synthesis gas.

12 cl

FIELD: power industry; methods of devices for generation of electric power using carbon-containing fuels.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to methods of devices for generation of electric power using carbon-containing fuels, more particular, to production of hydrogen and connected with it generation of electric power by a coal gasification. Hydrogen is produced out of solid or liquid carbon-containing fuels. The fuel is gasified by hydrogen producing an enriched with methane gaseous product, which then is introduced in the reaction with water and calcium oxide gaining hydrogen and calcium carbonate. The calcium carbonate may be continuously removed from the zone of the reaction producing hydrogen and the carbonization and to anneal it for regeneration of the calcium oxide, which may be repeatedly introduced into the zone of the reaction producing hydrogen and the carbonization. The method is realized in the device containing a reactor of gasification and a reactor of the carbonization for production of hydrogen. The given invention allows to use the produced hydrogen at the stage of the fuel gasification to ensure it with electric power.

EFFECT: the invention ensures production of hydrogen, which may be used at the stage of the fuel gasification for generation of electric power.

36 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: alternate fuels.

SUBSTANCE: in order to obtain hydrogen-containing gas, reaction mixture consisting of water steam and hydrocarbons is passed through first reaction zone to form products, which are then passed through second reaction zone containing mixture of steam CO conversion catalyst and CO2 absorbent. Reaction products formed in second reaction zone are passed through third reaction zone wherein reaction products are cooled to separate condensate from gas phase. The latter is passed through fourth reaction zone containing CO and CO2 methanization catalyst. Hydrogen-containing gas from fourth reaction zone is recovered for further use and first to fourth stages are continuously run until level of carbon-containing compounds exceeds allowable maximum. In order to regenerate absorbent, passage of reaction products from first reaction zone to second reaction zone is cut off and the same is fulfilled with reaction products from second reaction zone passed to theirs reaction zone. Thereafter, pressure in second reaction zone is leveled with regeneration agent pressure and regeneration agent is passed through second reaction zone in direction opposite to direction in which reaction products are passed in the second stage. Once regeneration of absorbent is ended passage of regeneration agent through the second reaction zone is cut off, pressure in the second reaction space is leveled with pressure of reaction products in the second reaction zone and all stages are repeated. Hydrogen thus obtained can be used in small-size autonomous fuel processor.

EFFECT: increased economical efficiency of process.

21 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl, 9 ex

FIELD: alternate fuels.

SUBSTANCE: in order to obtain hydrogen-containing gas, reaction mixture consisting of water steam and hydrocarbons is passed through first reaction zone to form products, which are then passed through second reaction zone containing mixture of steam CO conversion catalyst and CO2 absorbent. Reaction products formed in second reaction zone are passed through third reaction zone wherein reaction products are cooled to separate condensate from gas phase. The latter is passed through fourth reaction zone containing CO and CO2 methanization catalyst. Hydrogen-containing gas from fourth reaction zone is recovered for further use and first to fourth stages are continuously run until level of carbon-containing compounds exceeds allowable maximum. In order to regenerate absorbent, passage of reaction products from first reaction zone to second reaction zone is cut off and the same is fulfilled with reaction products from second reaction zone passed to theirs reaction zone. Thereafter, pressure in second reaction zone is leveled with regeneration agent pressure and regeneration agent is passed through second reaction zone in direction opposite to direction in which reaction products are passed in the second stage. Once regeneration of absorbent is ended passage of regeneration agent through the second reaction zone is cut off, pressure in the second reaction space is leveled with pressure of reaction products in the second reaction zone and all stages are repeated. Hydrogen thus obtained can be used in small-size autonomous fuel processor.

EFFECT: increased economical efficiency of process.

21 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl, 9 ex

FIELD: chemical industry; methods of production of hydrogen.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of chemical industry, in particular, to production of hydrogen. The method of start up of the evaporation installation for formation of the hydrocarbon-air mixture decomposed in the reformer for production of hydrogen contains the combustion/mixing chamber, in which through a device with inlet openings the air is fed; the porous evaporating medium and the first heating device added to it; the tool of a surface ignition for inflaming of hydrocarbon-air mixture present in the combustion/mixing chamber. The method includes the following stages: a) heating and evaporation of the liquid hydrocarbon or the hydrocarbon-containing liquids; b) mixing of the vapor produced at the b) stage with the air; c)inflaming of the mixture produced at the b)stage for starting up of a combustion procedure of the mixture; d)keeping up of the combustion procedure up to the end of the given duration of time and-or until the given temperature will be reached in one or several given zones of the installation; e) the termination of the combustion process after the given duration of time and-or after reaching the given temperature. The invention ensures an increase of efficiency of the process due to the temperature drop in the zone of the catalytic reaction.

EFFECT: the invention ensures an increase of efficiency of the process due to the temperature drop in the zone of the catalytic reaction.

7 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: power engineering; methods of production of hydrogenous gas in the turbine-generator installations.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of power engineering, in particular, to the method of production of hydrogenous gas in a turbine-generator installation. The method of production of hydrogenous gas is realized in a turbine-generator installation containing: the I-st, the II-d and the III-d stages; a framework, on which there is an installed fuel tank for two-component mixture H2О +CnH2n+2 with a stirrer and a drive unit; a turbine burner system; an induction heater of the I-st stage; a pulse source of ignition for a start-up and a system of gas pipelines. At that the two-component mixtureH2О +CnH2n+2 is fed to the fuel tank, start the drive and exercise its stirring action and pumping under pressure in the I stage of the turbine-generator installation, where with the help of an induction heater conduct heating up to 500°C. Then the two-component mixture transformed into a gaseous state is feed in the turbine burner system and from the pulse source of ignition realize the I-st stage start-up. After that a part of the gas is fed into the II-d stage, keeping the heating up to 1000°C; and the other part of the gas is fed into the turbine burner system for provision of the gas heating at the I-st, the II-d and the III-d stages. At that after the II-d stage the gas for its final heating up to the temperature of 1300°C is fed into the III-d stage with production of a hydrogenous gas, which is fed into turbine burner system. The invention ensures a decrease of the power input of the process in a combination with utilization of a low-cost hydrocarbon mixture.

EFFECT: the invention ensures a decrease of the power input of the process in a combination with utilization of a low-cost hydrocarbon mixture.

3 dwg

FIELD: synthesis gas generation catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: invention provides catalyst for steam generation of synthesis gas containing 2.2-8.2% nickel oxide and 3.0-6.5% magnesium oxide deposited on heat-resistant porous metallic carrier having specific surface area 0.10-0.15 m2/g, summary pore volume 0.09-0.12 cm3/g, predominant pore radius 2-20 μm, and porosity 40-60%. Synthesis gas is obtained by steam-mediated conversion of hydrocarbons at 450-850°C.

EFFECT: increased heat conductivity of catalyst and catalytic activity.

11 cl, 1 tbl, 8 ex

FIELD: gas production technologies.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of hydrogen-rich and/or carbon monoxide-rich gases, which is accomplished in reactor having upper and lower parts and involves introducing hydrocarbon feedstock preheated to 400-700°C into upper part of reactor. In this part of reactor, hydrocarbon feedstock is mixed with water steam and oxygen-containing atmosphere resulting in a partial oxidation of feedstock. Partially oxidized feedstock, if necessary, comes into contact with reforming catalyst located in lower part of reactor in presence of water steam. At the same time, a part of partially oxidized feedstock contacts with steam reforming catalyst disposed at least on the surface of upper part of reactor. Mixing of feedstock with water steam and oxygen-containing atmosphere is effected in amounts providing oxygen-to-carbon molar ratio between 0.5:1 and 0.7:1 and water steam-to-carbon between 0.5:1 and 1.5:1.

EFFECT: considerably reduced formation of carbon black in combustion zone under critical process conditions.

1 dwg, 1 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: chemical engineering; production of reactors for catalytic synthesis.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of chemical engineering, predominantly to reactors of catalytic synthesis. The horizontal multi-shelved catalytic reactor consists of a load-bearing plate, a high-pressure cylindrical body with a cover, which may be transported along the axis of the catalytic unit. The reactor has the typical component and the design of components of the catalytic unit, which consists of the sealed cylindrical catalytic containers, the load-bearing support frame and the module-type heat-exchange devices. The load-bearing support frame represents a crosswise section beam cantileverly fixed on the load-bearing support plate. The vertical plane of symmetry of the frame coincides with the longitudinal axis of the high-pressure body, and on the shelves there are catalytic containers installed in two parallel rows. The frame is cantileverly fixed to the load-bearing plate, through which all inlets and outlets are carried out. The plate is upright mounted on the horizontal foundation and the high-pressure body is joined with it. In the module heat-exchange devices there are tracts for passage of the reactionary gases and the heat-transfer medium. The invention ensures improved conditions of the reactor operation, reduction of its overall dimensions and the mass, simplification of the process of manufacture.

EFFECT: the invention ensures improved conditions of the reactor operation, reduction of its overall dimensions and the mass, simplification of the process of manufacture.

2 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: hydrocarbon conversion catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: catalyst for generation of synthesis gas via catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons is a complex composite composed of ceramic matrix and, dispersed throughout the matrix, coarse particles of a material and their aggregates in amounts from 0.5 to 70% by weight. Catalyst comprises system of parallel and/or crossing channels. Dispersed material is selected from rare-earth and transition metal oxides, and mixtures thereof, metals and alloys thereof, period 4 metal carbides, and mixtures thereof, which differ from the matrix in what concerns both composition and structure. Preparation procedure comprises providing homogenous mass containing caking-able ceramic matrix material and material to be dispersed, appropriately shaping the mass, and heat treatment. Material to be dispersed are powders containing metallic aluminum. Homogenous mass is used for impregnation of fibrous and/or woven materials forming on caking system of parallel and/or perpendicularly crossing channels. Before heat treatment, shaped mass is preliminarily treated under hydrothermal conditions.

EFFECT: increased resistance of catalyst to thermal impacts with sufficiently high specific surface and activity retained.

4 cl, 1 tbl, 8 ex

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method includes searching for continental or oceanic rift generation zones, supported by abnormal mantle with output of substance branches to earth crust. Drilling of wells by turbodrills into mantle substance. After well enters mantle substance a reaction hollow is formed in it by putting together force and product wells or by expanding force and/or product wells. Water is pumped into force well and gas-like hydrogen is outputted to surface through product well forming during reaction of inter-metallic substances fro mantle substance to water. Water is fed in amount, adjusting output of hydrogen, while reaction surface of reaction hollow is periodically regenerated, for example, by high pressure water flow, supplied through jets in reaction hollow, on remotely controlled manipulators. Expansion of well may be performed via explosions of explosive substances charges, and it is possible to separate forming gaseous hydrogen and water steam by separator mounted therein.

EFFECT: higher effectiveness of hydrogen production.

9 cl

FIELD: alternative fuel production and catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to (i) generation of synthesis gas useful in large-scale chemical processes via catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons in presence of oxygen-containing components and to (ii) catalysts used in this process. Catalyst represents composite including mixed oxide, simple oxide, transition element and/or precious element, carrier composed of alumina-based ceramic matrix, and a material consisting of coarse particles or aggregates of particles dispersed throughout the matrix. Catalyst has system of parallel and/or crossing channels. Catalyst preparation method and synthesis gas generation method utilizing indicated catalyst are as well described.

EFFECT: enabled preparation of cellular-structure catalyst with high specific surface area, which is effective at small contact times in reaction of selective catalytic oxidation of hydrocarbons.

6 cl, 2 tbl, 16 ex

FIELD: autothermal catalytic reforming of hydrocarbon feed stream.

SUBSTANCE: method relates to method for reforming of hydrocarbon feed stream with water steam at elevated temperature to produce gas enriched with hydrogen and/or carbon oxide. Hydrocarbon stream is passed through water steam reforming catalyst bed wherein oxygen is fed through oxygen-permeable membrane followed by removing of finished product from this bed. Said catalyst bed contains in input region catalyst with reduced or without water steam reforming activity, but having hydrocarbon feed oxidation activity.

EFFECT: process with improved characteristics due to temperature controlling in reactor.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: alternate fuel manufacture catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to generation of synthesis gas employed in large-scale chemical processes such as synthesis of ammonia, methanol, higher alcohols and aldehydes, in Fischer-Tropsch process, and the like, as reducing gas in ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy, metalworking, and on gas emission detoxification plants. Synthesis gas is obtained via catalytic conversion of mixture containing hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon mixture and oxygen-containing component. Catalyst is a complex composite containing mixed oxide, simple oxide, transition and/or precious element. Catalyst comprises metal-based carrier representing either layered ceramics-metal material containing nonporous or low-porosity oxide coating, ratio of thickness of metallic base to that of above-mentioned oxide coating ranging from 10:1 to 1:5, or ceramics-metal material containing nonporous or low-porosity oxide coating and high-porosity oxide layer, ratio of thickness of metallic base to that of nonporous or low-porosity oxide coating ranging from 10:1 to 1:5 and ratio of metallic base thickness to that of high-porosity oxide layer from 1:10 to 1:5. Catalyst is prepared by applying active components onto carrier followed by drying and calcination.

EFFECT: increased heat resistance and efficiency of catalyst at short contact thereof with reaction mixture.

13 cl, 2 tbl, 17 ex

FIELD: electric power and chemical industries; methods of production of the electric power and liquid synthetic fuel.

SUBSTANCE: the invention presents a combined method of production of the electric power and liquid synthetic fuel with use of the gas turbine and steam-gaseous installations and is dealt with the field of electric power and chemical industries. The method provides for the partial oxidation of hydrocarbon fuel in a stream of the compressed air taken from the high-pressure compressor of the gas turbine installation with its consequent additional compression, production of a synthesis gas, its cooling and ecological purification, feeding of the produced synthesis gas in a single-pass reactor of a synthesis of a liquid synthetic fuel with the partial transformation of the synthesis gas into a liquid fuel. The power gas left in the reactor of synthesis of liquid synthetic fuel is removed into the combustion chamber of the gas-turbine installation. At that the degree of conversion of the synthesis gas is chosen from the condition of maintenance of the working medium temperature at the inlet of the gas turbine depending on the type of the gas-turbine installation used for production of the electric power, and the consequent additional compression of the air taken from the high-pressure compressor of the gas-turbine installation is realized with the help of the gas-expansion machine powered by a power gas heated at the expense of the synthesis gas cooling before the reactor of synthesis. The invention allows simultaneously produce electric power and synthetic liquid fuels.

EFFECT: the invention ensures simultaneous production of electric power and synthetic liquid fuels.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: petrochemical industry.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with petrochemical industry, in particular with a method of catalytic preliminary reforming of the hydrocarbon raw materials containing higher hydrocarbons. The method provides for the indicated hydrocarbon raw materials gating through a zone of a catalyst representing a fixed layer containing a noble metal on magnesia oxide (MgO) and-or spinel oxide (MgAl2O4) at presence of oxygen and water steam. The technical result is a decrease of a carbon share on the catalyst.

EFFECT: the invention allows to decrease a carbon share on the catalyst.

3 cl, 2 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: technology for production of methanol from syngas.

SUBSTANCE: claimed method includes mixing of hydrocarbon raw material with water steam to provide syngas by steam conversion of hydrocarbon raw material and subsequent methanol synthesis therefrom. Conversion of hydrocarbon raw material and methanol synthesis are carried out under the same pressure from 4.0 to 12.0 MPa. In one embodiment hydrocarbon raw material is mixed with water steam and carbon dioxide to provide syngas by steam/carbonic acid conversion of hydrocarbon raw material in radial-helical reactor followed by methanol synthesis therefrom under the same pressure (from 4.0 to 12.0 MPa). In each embodiment methanol synthesis is carried out in isothermal catalytic radial-helical reactor using fine-grained catalyst with grain size of 1-5 mm. Methanol synthesis is preferably carried out in two steps with or without syngas circulation followed by feeding gas from the first or second step into gasmain or power plant.

EFFECT: simplified method due to process optimization.

12 cl, 3 tbl, 3 dwg

FIELD: methods of production a synthesis gas.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the process of production of hydrogen and carbon oxide, which mixture is used to be called a synthesis gas, by a selective catalytic oxidation of the hydrocarbonaceous (organic) raw material in presence of the oxygen-containing gases. The method of production of the synthesis gas includes a contacting with a catalyst at a gas hourly volumetric speed equal to 10000-10000000 h-1, a mixture containing organic raw material and oxygen or an oxygen-containing gas in amounts ensuring the ratio of oxygen and carbon of no less than 0.3. At that the process is conducted at a linear speed of the gas mixture of no less than 2.2 · 10-11 · (T1 + 273)4 / (500-T2) nanometer / s, where: T1 - a maximum temperature of the catalyst, T2 - a temperature of the gas mixture fed to the contacting. The linear speed of the gas mixture is, preferably, in the interval of 0.2-7 m\s. The temperature of the gas mixture fed to the contacting is within the interval of 100-450°C. The maximum temperature of the catalyst is within the interval of 650-1500°C. The technical effect is a safe realization of the process.

EFFECT: the invention ensures a safe realization of the process.

10 cl, 5 ex

FIELD: chemical industry; petrochemical industry; oil refining industry and other industries; methods of production a synthesis gas.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of the methods of production of a synthesis of gas and may be used in chemical, petrochemical, oil refining and other industries. The method of production of synthesis gas using a vapor or a vapor-carbon dioxide conversion of a hydrocarbonaceous raw material provides for purification of the hydrocarbonaceous raw material from sulfuric compounds, its commixing with steam or with steam and carbon dioxide with formation of a steam-gas mixture. The catalytic conversion of the steam-gas mixture is conducted in a reactor of a radially-spiral type, in which in the ring-shaped space filled with a nickel catalyst with a size of granules of 0.2-7 mm there are the hollow spiral-shaped walls forming the spiral-shaped channels having a constant cross section for conveyance of a stream of the steam-gaseous blend in an axial or in a radially-spiral direction. At that into the cavities of the walls feed a heat-transfer agent to supply a heat into the zone of reaction. The invention ensures intensification the process.

EFFECT: invention ensures intensification the process.

4 cl, 4 dwg, 2 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: chemical industry; methods and devices for production of molecular hydrogen.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of chemical industry, in particular, to the method and the apparatus for production of molecular hydrogen. The apparatus represents essentially the closed reactor, operation of which is not accompanied with the harmful outbursts and the pollution of atmosphere. The reactor has the first and second reaction chambers, in which at essentially different temperatures there is the same pressure. To increase the amount and to improve the purity of the produced hydrogen the reactor is supplied with the separator of the reaction products. The method includes the conversion of highly inflammable material in the reactor having the first and second chambers with utilization of the separator of the reaction products. In the reactionary layer of the first chamber conduct the response of conversion with production of hydrogen and at least one by-product, and also the reaction of interaction between the by-product and the separator of reaction products, and then transfer the separator of the reaction products into the reactionary layer of the second chamber, which is located above the reactionary layer of the first chamber. The invention ensures the increased amount and purity of the produced hydrogen.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased amount and purity of the produced hydrogen.

24 cl, 2 dwg

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