SUBSTANCE: extractor-separator comprise housing, extracting module, separating module, electric drive, and unit for control and temperature control. The extracting module and separating module are movably mounted parallel inside the housing on supports in the vertical plane. The separating module is coaxially mounted in the housing. The extracting module is made of ring stand with the sockets for changeable sleeves. The separating module comprises rotating hollow, cylindrical rotor for receiving changeable sleeves and provided with the changeable collector of extract and ring chamber with drain pipeline. The changeable sleeves are provided with the separating lid.
EFFECT: expanded functional capabilities.
The invention relates to the field of extraction and concentration of trace contaminants in analytical chemistry, refers to structures of mass - and heat exchangers used in the sample preparation in the determination of the content of contaminants in the environment, can be used in industrial processes for the extraction and preconcentration of trace contaminants in various technological processes.
In analytical chemistry are widely used in various mixers, agitators, including apparatus for shaking type AVA-6P (see Equipment for chemical laboratories. The Handbook. - L.: Chemistry, 1978, str, 38 / Mushkin A.P., Rachinsky FU, Suglobov CD)containing a base movably mounted on its tripod, with clamping device, the drive and control unit and temperature control.
The closest analogue of the claimed invention is a device for extraction, presented in the patent RU 2048776, C1, 01 D 11/00, 27.11.1984,
The apparatus has the following disadvantages:
- gravitational separation of the processed mixtures;
- instability of extraction, loss of impurities in samples of 20-40%;
- high consumption of electricity.
The technical problem is solved in that the extractor-separator, comprising a housing, the extraction module and the actuator, characterized in that the apparatus d which contains additional separation module, coaxially fixed in the housing, and the control unit and temperature control, and the extraction module and separator module movably installed on poles in parallel in the vertical plane, the extraction module is made in the form of an annular tripod socket for removable cups, the separation module includes a rotating hollow cylindrical rotor to accommodate removable cups and is equipped with a replaceable collector extract and annular chamber with drain fitting, removable cups made with a separator lid, this group, the actuator provides rotational-vibrational motion of the tripod in the mode of extraction and rotational movement of the rotor in the mode of separation.
Technical solution provides a highly efficient interaction of the processed blends, optimization of the separation process under the action of centrifugal forces and reducing the time for the extraction and separation of the extract from the sample. The intensification of the process of mixing the sample with the solvent provided a uniform volumetric contact the processed phase and with the exception of stagnant zones by imposing on transverse vibrations of centrifugal forces. The use of a separation module allows you to reduce not only the time spent on manual operation of separation of the extract from the sample, but also reduces p is Teri obtained volume of the extract.
Figure 1 shows the schematic design of two-extractor-separator with parallel placement of extraction and separation units, figure 2 - coaxial their location. Figure 3 presents the design of the rotor with the rotating annular chamber, and a replaceable collections of extract for each replacement glass installed coaxially to the rotor.
Extractor-separator (figure 1) consists of a housing 1, which is placed on supports extraction module in the form of a slidably fixed tripod ring 2 and the separation module 3 with lids 4 and 5, respectively. Removable cups 6 with a separator lid 7 is placed in the socket of the tripod with the possibility of fluctuation relative to the tripod 2. Tripod 2 is mounted on a shaft 8 of the bearing unit 9. The drive 1 equipped with the oscillatory mechanism 10 for rotationally oscillating motion of the tripod 2, and the switching clutch 11. The separation module 3 is made in the form of a hollow rotating cylindrical rotor 12, the shaft 13 and the bearing unit 14. The internal cavity of the rotor is designed to contain a removable cups 6 with the separation of the cover 7. The rotor 12 is equipped with non-rotating annular chamber (manifold) 15 with drain fitting 16 and a removable collection of extract 17. Figure 2 presents accommodation separation of mo is Ulya axis of rotation of the ring tripod, i.e. tripod is coaxial rotor separation module, and the tripod is in the lower part 24 of the housing 1, and the separation module occupies the upper part 23, which is chosen device made in the form of a rotating annular chamber 15 and the fixed Adonai tube 25 and a removable collector extract 17. Extractor-separator temperature-controlled, heated tripod 2 and the separation unit is a fan heater 18. To increase the intensity of the extraction process in the apparatus (figure 2) provides a mechanism for giving removable glasses additionally fluctuations relative to the tripod in the radial direction, for example, in the form of a Cam mechanism comprising fixedly mounted on the housing of the disk 19 with rollers 20 for each removable cups.
Primary execution unit without a Cam mechanism.
Figure 3 presents the design of the apparatus when the rotor is constructed with the possibility of installing it coaxially of one or more removable cups, and in the annular chamber is placed a corresponding number of replacement collections extract with fixing the drain hole 26 in the separation of the cover relative to the collection of the extract 17. Ring the camera provides in this case the rotation of the removable collections of the extract together with the rotor separation of mo is Ulya.
Extractor-separator (figure 1) works as follows.
Removable cups filled with samples and pour solvent in predetermined amounts and proportions of phases in accordance with the method of analysis, close separation cover and set in sockets of rolling tripod and close the lid. Include the drive tripod, and there is intense mixing in the whole volume of the sample without stagnant zones at the expense of the rotational-vibrational motion of the tripod, i.e. fluctuations tripod circumference and vibration removable cups in the radial direction of the tripod, get glasses when they come in contact with the roller Cam mechanism. When moving around the circumference of the removable cups in contact with the rollers and are rejected on the vertical axis, and passing through the roller, the Cup oscillates under the action of its own weight, and thus removable glasses subject to the following motion: rotational and vibrational in the direction of the circumference of the tripod and vibrational - radius tripod. The amplitude and frequency of oscillations are electronic block.
In case of carrying out the extraction at elevated temperatures include the block temperature. Time is the reference time on the remote control, which automatically disables the device. Upon completion of the extraction remove cu is the Cabinet tripod, take out removable cups of tripod and alternately installed in the rotor of a separation module for separating the extract from the sample. Switch clutch and include the drive rotor. Under the action of centrifugal force separates the extract from the solid phase. The solid phase as a more heavy pressed against the inner surface of the removable Cup, and the liquid phase is discharged into the separating cover through cracks and holes and gets inside it, through the hole where the separation of the cover merges into an annular chamber, then through the drain fitting is adjudged to be in an interchangeable collection of the extract. Figure 2 shows a variant of the selection of the extract using Adonai tube. The device is similar.
Figure 3 illustrates the case of simultaneous selection of the liquid phase from all removable cups. In this case, carrying out extraction similar to the first occasion, then after the extraction, the actuator switch on the rotation of the rotor with annular chamber and replaceable collections of the extract. Under the action of centrifugal forces in a solid sample is pressed against the peripheral (relative to the rotor axis) parts replacement glasses, liquid phase through holes and cracks fall into the internal cavity of the separation of the cover, where through the drain hole falls into a removable collection of the extract, which is set so that when the rotation is Sri liquid was poured. After a predetermined time the device is switched off automatically. Open the lid, take out the removable glasses, then take out the removable collections extract and pass on further work in accordance with the method. Installing a new set of replacement glasses and collections extract and close the lid. The instrument is ready for operation. The cycle repeats.
Lightweight extraction of drum and submission of the rotational-vibrational motion to the periphery of the drum simplify the design of the drive and significantly reduce power consumption:
Testing of this design in the methods of analysis in the system of ecological monitoring, veterinary and plant protection have shown high efficiency of the extractor: the increase in the percentage extraction of up to 20% and decrease extraction time of 40 min to 30 min and manual separation with 6 min to automatically up to 30 seconds.
As described in the application, the device provides the following benefits:
- improving the efficiency of mass exchange process;
- increase performance up to 1.5÷2 times;
- weight loss and energy consumption in 20÷30 times.
Extractor-separator for conducting heat and mass transfer processes, comprising a housing, the extraction module and the actuator, characterized in that the apparatus further what about the contains of the separation module, coaxially fixed in the housing, and the control unit and temperature control, and the extraction module and separator module installed in the housing movably on poles in parallel in the vertical plane, the extraction module is made in the form of an annular tripod socket for removable cups, the separation module includes a rotating hollow cylindrical rotor to accommodate removable cups and is equipped with a replaceable collector extract and annular chamber with drain fitting, removable cups made with a separator lid, this group, the actuator provides rotational-vibrational motion of the tripod in the mode of extraction and rotational movement of the rotor in the mode of separation.
FIELD: centrifugal apparatus or machines.
SUBSTANCE: filtering centrifuge comprises bed, vertical rotor mounted in the bearing unit, actuator, casing, and charging, discharging, and valving members. The rotor is provided with a filtering member and is composed of cylindrical and conical sections. The shaft of the rotor is hollow and abuts against the conical section of the rotor from below. The shaft of the screw is coaxially mounted inside the rotor in the bearing unit with a spaced relation to the cylindrical and conical sections of the rotor. The screw shaft is provided with the screw blades and kinematically connected with the motor. The bearing unit of the screw shaft is mounted on the pillars. The bearing unit of the rotor shaft is mounted on the transverse beams in the bottom section of the pillars. The filtering unit is made of segments made of a flexible sheet polymeric filtering material. The segments are connected with the rotor through wedges which are set in the horizontal slot openings in the segments and slot openings in the rotor wall . The wedges are provided with heads from the side of the segments. The heads are made of dovetail members. The slopes of the wedges in the zones, where the adjacent segments abut against each other, face each other and are mounted for permitting interaction with the corresponding bevels of the slot openings in the rotor wall. Each of the wedges is provided with a slot opening in the vertical plane which is oriented radially with respect to the rotor to allow an additional wedge to be set in this opening and cooperate with the outer side of the cylindrical section of the rotor.
EFFECT: simplified structure and enhanced reliability.
FIELD: devices for separation of liquid heterogeneous media.
SUBSTANCE: proposed centrifuge has housing, drive, rotor and solid and liquid phase receiver. Located in circular cylindrical liquid phase receiver on inner side of its wall are circular plates with arched slots; deflector is mounted on bottom above liquid phase discharge branch pipe. Provision is made for avoidance of penetration of liquid phase aerosol into solid phase receiver.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency; improved quality of products.
FIELD: equipment for separating liquid non-homogenous systems in centrifugal force field, possibly in mining, chemical, food making, paper and pulp, other industry branches.
SUBSTANCE: centrifuge includes housing having receptacle for liquid and solid phases; apparatus for feeding suspensions, drive unit, shaft and mounted on shaft cone filtering rotor. Inside rotor acceleration-distribution apparatus provided with trap is coaxially mounted. Centrifuge is also includes stabilizing cone embracing said trap and having annular lips on inner surface. Acceleration-distribution apparatus has acceleration cup rigidly secured to cone trap inside it and ring arranged between trap and stabilizing cone.
EFFECT: enhanced quality of ready product.
FIELD: filtering centrifuges with vertical axis of rotation of rotor for separation of suspensions into solid and liquid phases.
SUBSTANCE: proposed centrifuge has shaft, housing made in form of sleeve and rigidly mounted on shaft and cover. Housing has liquid phase discharge hole in side wall and cover is provided with central hole for delivery of suspension; centrifuge is also provided with filter element made in form of disk and located in housing dividing it into upper and lower parts; it is rigidly connected with cover and is mounted on shaft for axial displacement and is provided with mechanism for axial motion of filter element. This mechanism has circular chamber located under bottom of housing coaxially relative to shaft and partition made in form of disk and located in circular chamber on shaft for axial displacement; it is rigidly connected with filter element; centrifuge is provided with passages for delivery of working medium to circular chamber under partition and to above-partition space.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency due to avoidance of mixing of phases.
FIELD: chemical industry; methods of extraction of fullerenes.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of chemical industry, in particular, to the method of extraction of fullerenes. The method provides that the fullerene-containing soot is mixed with the natural vegetable essential oil. The preferable ratio is 1:(50-200) accordingly. It is possible to use a turpentine oil, camphoric or menthol oil. The mixture is placed in the ultrasonic bath and in the volume of the indicated mixture find a resonant frequency, for example, within 20-50 kHz. It is possible to use the ultrasonic radiation with the sinusoidal, rectangular or sawtooth form of impulses and to affect on the mixture by the selected frequency for no less than 20 minutes at the temperature of 40-80°C. The formed slurry is subjected to centrifuging, preferably, during 30-40 minutes at 20 000-40 000 g, where g is the acceleration of gravity. The supernatant liquid is filtered through the membrane filter with the pores diameter of no more than 0,2 microns. The solution is subjected to evaporation up to a permanent weight, for example, at the temperature of 130-140°C. The invention allows to extract effectively fullerenes, using nontoxic natural extractants.
EFFECT: the invention ensures effective extraction of fullerenes using the nontoxic natural extractants.
11 cl, 2 dwg, 4 ex
FIELD: leather industry.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises extracting tannins from oak raw using hot water and subsequent drying of plastic-state product at temperature not higher than 90°C until crystalline state is attained. Extraction is carried out at 75-85°C when using pulsar and thickening membrane filter.
EFFECT: enabled environmentally appropriate preparation of tannins at lowered power consumption and avoiding use of chemicals.
FIELD: methods of materials treatment by the multiple extension-compression of a dissolvent in different processes.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the methods of materials treatment by the multiple extension-compression of a dissolvent in processes of recrystallization, extraction, deposition of coatings, sedimentation, impregnation, removal of contaminants and at realization of various chemical reactions. A liquid consisting of a dissolvent, a soluble substance and a gaseous fluid is expanded by its passing through a retaining medium containing a filtering screen, which holds the undissolved particles of the soluble substance. Let the gaseous fluid to dissolve up to concentration at which the liquid extends until it will not lose its capacity to dissolve the soluble substance, which at that is settling. The settlings are held by the retaining medium containing the filtering screen. Then the pressure in the liquid is reduced up to the pressure, at which the main amount of the gaseous fluid may leave it and so forming the liquid possessing a capacity to dissolve a soluble substance. The produced liquid may be optionally added with some amount of a soluble matter. In the result of repetition of the cycles of the extension and compression the mixture of the dissolvents and the gaseous fluids is transformed from the dissolvent into an antidissolvent at the minimal losses of the dissolvent. At that one and the same dissolvent is used multiply. The invention allows to treat a big amount of the soluble material by the minimal amount of the dissolvent.
EFFECT: the invention allows to process a big amount of the soluble material by the minimal amount of the dissolvent.
26 cl, 5 ex, 10 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: chemical industry; methods of an extraction and realization of reactions with utilization of the supercritical fluids.
SUBSTANCE: the invention presents the method of removal of a miscible material from the various substrates, which may find application in the processes of extraction and at realization of the catalytic reactions. The method provides, that a substrate containing a miscible material is affected by a supercritical fluid, in which the indicated material practically is completely dissolved, and the substrate does not dissolve, and the pressure of the supercritical fluid is periodically modulated between two or several pressure levels, which are chosen so, that the relative difference between the maximal and minimal values of the density of the fluid at these pressure levels make no more than near 30 %. The method ensures an upgrade of efficiency of the extraction process, the raised rates of the catalytic reactions and preservation of the catalyst activity at the appropriate level.
EFFECT: the invention ensures an upgrade of efficiency of the extraction process, the raised rates of the catalytic reactions and preservation of the catalyst activity at the appropriate level.
43 cl, 9 ex, 7 tbl, 3 dwg
FIELD: chemical, food-processing and pharmaceutical industry, in particular, equipment for providing mass exchange processes in solid body-and-liquid system.
SUBSTANCE: pulsed extractor has casing, cylinder coaxially arranged within casing and provided with dividers, and perforated plates. Lower plate serves as support for cylinder and upper annular plate is equipped with bars for keeping said plate in position perpendicular to casing axis. Extractor has casing cover with solid phase charging hatch, extractant pouring branch pipe, infusion discharge branch pipe, and device for generation and delivery of compressed gas pulses from generator to cylinder. Cylinder consists of two pipes having different diameters, and has float and turbine on stem protruding beyond cylinder cover. Hatch cover is formed as sectioned shutter. Lower plate perforations are formed as radial slots having bent edges at both sides of plate. Annular plate bars are coupled through rocker arm equipped with jack-type moving mechanism.
EFFECT: reduced consumption of power, increased efficiency of extraction process in solid body-and-liquid system, and improved quality of alcohol-based infusions used in alcoholic beverage industry.
SUBSTANCE: one should perform the following stages: a) removal of contaminants out of plant; b) plant's reducing; c) treatment of reduced plant with laser radiation; d) suspending the mixture obtained at stage c) in water; e) maceration of suspension obtained at stage d) and f) separation of liquid developed. Composition should be obtained due to this technique. It should be applied at treating hepatitis C as an aqueous extract. It should be applied as aqueous extract as immunostimulant. Pharmaceutical preparation includes aqueous extract as an active constituent.
EFFECT: increased biological activity of the product.
43 cl, 16 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes evacuation of hermetic chamber 1 and filling it with helium. Then voltage is supplied to cathode 4 and anode 5 located respectively in cathode lead-in 2 and anode lead-in 3. Cathode lead-in 2 moves in longitudinal direction and anode lead-in 3 is immovable. After burning of anode 5, its replacement is performed automatically from rod loader 11. Anode 5 and cathode 4 are enclosed in metal casing 6 with open ends; it is mounted coaxially relative to electrodes. Casing 6 is turnable and its longitudinal axis coincides with axis of upper flange 7 and lower flange 8. Upper flange 7 is provided with axle with piston 9 for forcing fullerene-containing black to storage chamber 10 mounted on lower flange 8. Black thus obtained is subjected to treatment in Soxlet apparatus with aromatic solvent-toluene. To this end, use is made of excessive amount of black relative to saturated solution of mixture of fullerenes in toluene. Extract containing up to 95% of C60 settles on hot bottom of apparatus. Solution above sediment is enriched with C70 up to 70%. Then fullerence C60 and C70 are separated independently and in parallel in chromatographic columns with use of activated charcoal as immovable phase. Toluene or chlorobenzene is used as movable phase. Target product is crystallized and is additionally cleaned by re-crystallization or sublimation in vacuum, thus obtaining C60 at purity of 99.9% and C70 at purity of 99.5%.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability and facilitated procedure of method.
4 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: food industry and other branches of industry; designs of mass exchange apparatuses.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of food industry and other branches of industry, in particular, to designs of mass exchange apparatuses and may be used in the food-processing industry for extraction of a target component by water from the grinded vegetable raw material or for extraction from the solid bodies in other industries. The extractor vibrational contains: a vertical body with devices for phases feeding in and withdrawal; a rod mounted in the body with a capability of longitudinal reciprocal motion and with fixed on it plates with perforated free holes for pass of the phases; two devices located in the lower and middle parts of the apparatus used for a liquid phase continuous feeding in the extractor; an inclined feeding auger for continuous feeding of a solid phase into the downward part of the apparatus; a device for a simultaneous withdrawal of phases located in the upper part of the apparatus. At that the plates are rigidly fixed on the rod and supplied with the wall sides directed to the side opposite to the phases motion. The invention allows to improve intensity of the extraction process, to increase productivity and to improve operational performance of the vibrational apparatus.
EFFECT: the invention ensures improved intensity of the extraction process, increased productivity and improved operational performance of the vibrational apparatus.
FIELD: food industry; pharmaceutical and other industries; production of mass exchange apparatuses for realization of processes of an extraction in the "solid body-liquid" systems.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to production of mass exchange apparatuses for realization of processes of an extraction in the "solid body-liquid" systems and may be used in food industry, pharmaceutical and other industries. The mass exchange apparatus contains a central vertical cylindrical hollow column, which is a loading branch-pipe for a solid phase and is supplied by a window located at the level of the bottom. On the outer surface of the column there is a fixed spiral operational tool with radially located partitions having a shield along the whole length of the spiral operational tool. In the end of the upper turn of the operational tool there is a discharge chute and on the upper turn of the operational tool there is a stream divider with a capability of turning around of the vertical axis. The apparatus contains unions for delivery of an extractant and withdrawal of the extract. The unions are mounted with their outlets located on the last but one turn of the operational tool and in the lower part of the apparatus accordingly. The spiral operational tool of the apparatus is made solid with the radially located partitions along the whole length of its surface, which height does not exceed a vertical component of an amplitude of oscillations of the vibration exciter. The invention ensures an increase of the value of mass transfer coefficient.
EFFECT: the invention ensures an increase of the value of mass transfer coefficient.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technology for producing agent used for biological protection of plants and concerns a method for producing composition used for treatment of plants. Method involves hydrolysis of biomass of micromycetes of family Mortierella or Pythium, its extraction with a liquid extractant taken among group including lower alcohols, saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbons comprising up to 10 carbon atoms in their molecule, their halogen-derivatives, inert gases, nitrogen, nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and their mixture, separation of extract and addition to extract inactive components to obtain the end product. In hydrolysis process pressure value in reaction mixture is dropped periodically to value providing boiling up extractant and then pressure is increased to the parent value. Invention provides reducing energy consumptions and intensifying the process.
EFFECT: improved producing method.
SUBSTANCE: method involves using air-dried vegetable raw. Hollow horse-mint (Monarda) raw treated by steam is extracted with vegetable oil in the ratio raw : extract = 1:10 at heating for 5 h on water bath at temperature 60-70oC followed by filtration. Method provides the possibility for year-round manufacturing the hollow horse-mint (Monarda) oily extract eliciting with the high antibacterial and expressed anti-fungal activity.
EFFECT: improved preparing method.
1 tbl, 1 ex