Method for recognition of signals with phase manipulation under conditions of multi-beam distribution

FIELD: technology for recognizing radio-signals, in particular, methods for detecting type and modulation parameters of radio signals.

SUBSTANCE: for realization of method during recognition received radio signal is digitized by time and quantized by level. Value of bearing and clock frequencies of signal are determined and cophased and quadrature components of radio signal are formed. These are then filtered and selection counts of cophased and quadrature components of radio signal are selected, taken in counting time moments, determined by value of clock frequency. After that, selection counts of cophased and quadrature components of radio signal are corrected in complex form, using gradient algorithm for adjusting corrector coefficients. Then estimate of selections is split onto given number of clusters, equal to position coefficient of recognized signals, and values of clusterization error functional are calculated, received values are compared and decision is taken about relation to class by minimum of error functional value.

EFFECT: increased probability of correct recognition under multi-beam conditions.

5 cl, 9 dwg

 

The invention relates to pattern recognition, and in particular to methods of detection of radio signals, in particular to methods of species recognition and modulation parameters of radio signals. The method can be used in automated technical means of detection of signals in conditions of multipath propagation of radio waves, noise and interference.

The claimed technical solution expands the Arsenal of tools for similar purposes.

The known method recognition signal [Omelchenko, VA Recognition signals on spectrum capacity in the optimal basis of karunen-Loyev. - Izvestiya vuzov MB and MDA of the USSR. Ser. Electronics, 1980, No. 12, page 11-18], which calculates the power spectrum of the signal, and then perform the conversion of karunen-Loev, based on the received indication first generate selection signals to the useful and interfering, and in the presence of the useful signal perform its assignment to one of the reference class.

The disadvantage of this method is the low probability of correct detection of signals with similar spectra, which is caused by low contrast features, formed in this way in recognition of such signals.

Also there is a method of recognition signals with phase shift keying (FM) according to the method of the higher harmonics which produce svedenie signal in varying degrees, perform the decomposition in the Fourier basis and make a decision on the presence and levels of spectral components at frequencies equal to the frequencies equal to the carrier frequency of the signal multiplied by the degree of conversion. [Vigilare. Methods and technical solutions for reception and processing of signals. -SPb.: VIKA them. Mozhaisk, 2000. - 533 S.].

The advantages of this method include the relatively small computational costs, focus on implementation with the help of computer technology and the possibility of automatic decision-making. The disadvantage of this method is the low probability of detection, due to the nonlinearity of the conversion on the signal and noise components and their mutual interference, and the deviation of the carrier frequency in the result of multipath propagation. Furthermore, the presence of interference and low signal/noise ratio is also significantly limit the scope of this method.

Closest to the proposed invention is a known method [USSR Author's certificate No. 832731. Method of adaptive processing of discrete signals and device for its implementation, published. 23.05.1981,], namely, that the received signal is automatically regulate the level, filtered, futurama, convert to digital, adaptive correct, demodulator take the decision is adopted on the signal.

This method potentially has immunity, due to the use of adaptive correction.

However, the disadvantage of the prototype is Methodist correction algorithm and, as a consequence, low probability of correct decision about the received signal in conditions of multipath propagation in the absence of information about the structure of the received signal.

The purpose of the claimed technical solution is to develop an automatic method recognition signal with phase shift keying in conditions of multipath propagation which would increase the probability of correct detection in multipath conditions, contributing as a major confounding effects of inter-symbol interference and fading, due to the precision of estimation of variance values of the phase signal from the linear law and the automation of the decision-making procedure.

This objective is achieved in that in the known method, namely, that accept analog signal, discretizing his time and quantum level of the quantized samples form the in-phase and quadrature components of the signal, correcting them and decide toiletries signal, additional sample of m quantized samples of the input signal determines the values of the carrier and that the postal frequencies, specify the thresholds dispersion error σthen({ξA}) envelope signal, and adjusting the in-phase and quadrature components perform in an integrated way using a gradient algorithm settings of the correction factors. When this correction will continue until such time as the error variance σ({ξA}) becomes less than a predetermined threshold value or not will stop falling.

Then, on the basis of the corrected in-phase samplesand quadraturesignals, calculates the variance value of the phase signal from the linear law in reading times by the formula

where ω0- carrier frequency signal

Next, the estimated variance of the phasedecide what sample estimates is divided into a specified number of clusters equal to positionnot recognizable signals, according to the method For intragroup medium and calculate the error function of clustering. Next, compare the values and decide on belonging to the class minimum values of the error function.

To configure the correction factors are applied one by the procedure determined by the method stohasticheskih the gradient updates. The coefficients are updated according to the expression

where Cn(k) are coefficients of the compensating channel distortion

ξAerror estimates envelope

Δ adaption factor.

The error in the estimate of the envelope of the signal at the reference time is calculated by the formula

where Xnand- the current values of in-phase and quadrature components of the received signal at the appropriate clock interval,

and- current reference values in-phase and quadrature components of the received signal at the appropriate clock interval.

The threshold dispersion error σthen({ξA}) set ratio

where Rmin- the distance between the reference points of the signal constellation of the detected signal maximum positionnot.

The value of the error function clustering is calculated by the formula

where N is the number of clusters partitioning,

- evaluation of the parameter

λz- the expected center of the cluster,

σz2- error variance, determining a trust is inuu region.

The number of samples of the quantized samples of the m-phase and quadrature components is chosen in the range m=100-10000.

Thanks to the new essential features in the proposed method reduces the influence of intersymbol interference and fading on the probability of detection of phase-shift keyed signals of different positionnot through sharing procedures adaptive correction and clustering when evaluating the quality of the features used for recognition of the denomination and the number of discrete values of the phase deviation of the signal from the linear law in the reading times, which allows to provide the necessary contrast characteristic in conditions of multipath propagation and, consequently, to increase the probability of correct recognition. In addition, the use of the error function clustering provides automated decision-making.

All this together allows you to renounce the use of different reference descriptions, to increase the probability of detection in a complex signal-to-noise conditions and multipath propagation, to automate the decision-making procedure.

The analysis of the level of technology has allowed to establish that the analogues, characterized by a set of characteristics is identical for all features of the declared technical re is to be placed, no, that indicates compliance of the claimed method the condition of patentability "novelty". Search results known solutions in this and related areas of technology with the purpose of revealing of signs consistent with a non-prototype signs of the requested object, showed that they do not follow explicitly from the prior art. The prior art also revealed no known effect provided the essential features of the claimed invention transformations on the achievement of the technical result. Therefore, the claimed invention meets the condition of patentability "inventive step".

The claimed method is illustrated by drawings on which is shown:

Figure 1. The generalized block diagram of recognition.

Figure 2. "Signal constellations" phase-shift keyed signals of different positionnot.

Figure 3. Drawings explaining the property of the contrast of the denomination and the number of values of the phase deviation of the signal from the linear law in reading times used as features for the recognition phase-shift keyed signals of different positionnot on the basis of a standard distribution of the estimated phase.

Figure 4. Structural diagram illustrating the process of recognition signals with phase shift keying different positionnot in terms of what mnogoluchevoi of the proposed method.

Figure 5. Drawings illustrating the process of formation characteristics and decision-making.

6. A plot of the variance of the estimate of the variance of the phase of the signal from the linear law in the reading times of the length of the analyzed sequence and the signal-to-noise ratio and the degree of destruction signal intersymbol interference.

7. Drawings explaining the decision-making process with the use of cluster analysis and the calculation of the error function on the sample signal FM.

Fig. Evaluation of the probability of correct recognition signals with phase shift keying different positionnot the proposed method from the SNR at different degrees of lesion signal to MCI.

Fig.9. Comparative assessment of the probability of correct detection of the proposed method and the method of the prototype from the SNR in terms of single-beam and multibeam distribution.

The claimed method can be implemented as follows.

The detection of radio signals is based on theory of pattern recognition [j. Tu, R. Gonzalez. Principles of pattern recognition. TRANS. from English. - M.: Mir, 1978. 411 S.] and represents the classification of the analyzed signal, specified as a set of observations to one of the classes.

The recognition process in General includes the following procedures (figure 1): the formation is of Reznikov recognition, the comparison of the obtained characteristic values with standards or threshold values and making decisions about the assignment to the class. The most important feature of real recognition radio is that observations S(t) is necessarily subject to random perturbations. At the same time, the various signs differently distorted under the influence of destabilizing factors. From this we can conclude that to improve the probability of correct recognition signals it is necessary that the signs of recognition were contrasting in terms of solving the problem, i.e. weakly depended on the effect of interference and noise.

The most common and reasonable approach to detect these types of signals is to measure the number and denominations of discrete values of the manipulated parameters [Naukowych A., Dovgy A.V. Methods of forming features for the task of recognition of signals by modulation. In proceedings: abstracts of the Congress "Fundamental problems of natural Sciences and technology. - St. Petersburg:St. Petersburg, 2002, v.4]. The feasibility of this approach due to the high contrast of the feature space relative to the classes of recognizable signals. For phase-shift keyed signals this parameter is the deviation of the phase of the signal from the linear law, retiring in reading times. Values on the accounts of the deviation of the phase of the signal in the absence of interfering influences tightly clustered around the true values, forming a constellation. This constellation is unique for recognized classes of signals (figure 2.).

When the influence of additive noise and the absence of other interfering influences in the distribution of estimated values of the signal constellation are always pronounced peaks in the region of their reference values (figa). As a result of distortion caused by multipath propagation, instead of one point of the signal constellation appears several adjacent centers "scattering". This is due to the predominance of one of the beams and the interference with other beams on random sections of the analyzed signal. Present smoothed peaks in the distribution of the timing deviation phase (figb) do not necessarily have a maximum in the region of the reference values of the signal points, which consequently reduces the probability of detection of radio signals in such conditions.

Thus, when detecting FM signals of various positionnot in conditions of multipath propagation occurs the necessity to solve the problem of estimating the number and denominations of such a parameter as the deviation of the phase of the signal from the linear law in conditions of multipath propagation causing as interfering factors the presence of fading and ISI.

The pic is BA is as follows (figure 4).

When detecting the received signal discretizing time and quantum level.

Then form the grounds on which made the assignment of the signal to classes phase-shift keyed signals of different positionnot (figure 5).

To do this, select the interval of m samples of the quantized samples and determine the value of the carrier and clock signal frequency [Grigoriev V.A. Synchronization in electronic systems. - L.: YOU, 1983, 78 S.]. Next, form the in-phase and quadrature components of the signal using the Hilbert transform (GHG).

Then perform low-pass filtering (LPF) in-phase and quadrature components of the signal with frequency filtering is not less than the clock frequency. From the filtered implementations allocate a set of samples sampling in-phase and quadrature components of the signal, taken at sampling times determined by the value of the clock frequency signal (figure 5).

Next, adjust the selected samples sampling in-phase and quadrature components of the signal in complex form, which uses a gradient algorithm settings of the correction coefficients, based on the minimization of standard deviation of the estimation error vector position signal determined by the values of in-phase and quadrature components of the reference points in time. To set the coefficients of the offset applied one by the procedure determined by the method of stochastic gradient updates. The coefficients are updated according to the value

where Cn(k) are coefficients of the compensating channel distortion, eAerror estimates envelope Δ adaption factor.

The coefficient adaptation is advisable to choose within [0,1 0,01...] depending on the degree of distortion: the more distortion, the smaller the value of the coefficient adaptation.

The convergence of this procedure is ensured by the fact that the mean square error is a quadratic function of the selected coefficients and represents the N-dimensional paraboloid [Woodrow, M. Ehoff "Adaptive switching circuit. IRE WESCON Conv., pt.4, pp.96-104, Aug. 1960].

However, to make use of this procedure is not directly possible, since it is not known what set of values and in what sequence can take a transmitted signal at a clock interval. Option for setting coefficients of the compensating channel distortion, could be the use of the properties of the constancy of the envelope signals with phase shift keying. Thus, instead of the gradient of the mean square error in the known procedure of stochastic updates use the error estimate is gebaude signal in a readout time:

Adjustments continue until such time as the error variance σ({ξAnd}) becomes less than a predetermined threshold value or not will no longer be reduced (6). The threshold dispersion error σthen({ξAnd}) set ratio

This ratio stems from the requirement on the probability of correct recognition, due to the contrast sign of recognition: for making decisions with probability not less than 0.95 necessary condition: the distance between the standards classes must be larger than the variance of the estimate of the sign not less than 3 timesThis border (line 1) is shown in (6) and characterizes the threshold variance value estimate, the attainment of which the decision positionnot signals FM, FM, FM can be accepted with a probability not less than 0.95.

The obtained estimates in-phase and quadrature signal components are desired estimate the values of the manipulated parameters such as the deviation of the phase of the signal from the linear law in the reference time on the basis of expression

To interpret the use of such functionality is possible as follows:

with increasing distance from an object to price the RA cluster or as one approaches the boundaries of the condence region increases the error, make this a pattern in a functional partitioning procedure clustering;

the fewer points (as a percentage of the total number contained in the splitting of the clusters is the cluster, the more likely it is that such a cluster when the true partition does not exist.

From split to determine the number and nominal values of the discrete values taken by the phase of the signal at the reference points in time.

At the final stage of the decision (figure 5). Solution consider splitting corresponding to the minimum value of the proposed functionality.

Analysis of the application of such a decision-making process shows a high probability of making correct decisions. Also found that the application of the proposed functionality provides decision-making under the influence of some residual degree of destruction signal of the MIS that allows you to make a decision with the required probability is smaller durations analyzed the implementation of sharing procedures correction and clustering (Fig.7).

Thus, the constructive solution of the problem in conditions of multipath propagation becomes possible through the use of as signs of the coordinates of points of the signal constellation and the application of feature selection methods adaptive correction and megapure eticheskoi optimization and cluster analysis to automate the decision-making procedure.

To analyze the efficiency of the developed algorithm to detect radio signals conducted simulation by the method of statistical tests of Monte Carlo. As an indicator of efficiency of the developed algorithm was chosen as the probability of correct detection Crasp. The dependence of the probability of correct detection of phase-shift keyed signals of different positionnot from SNR at different degrees of destruction of the MIS are given in (Fig).

Comparing the effectiveness of the proposed method with the method of the prototype, it is possible to draw the following conclusions:

when making decisions about the signal under conditions of single-beam propagation results are approximately the same and depend only on the signal-to-noise ratio, it also confirms the fact that in these methods, the signs are the same (figa);

when multipath propagation capabilities of the prototype method is significantly reduced, and the proposed method continues to provide the probability of correct detection is almost the same as in the single-beam distribution, which indicates the correct approach to the selection indication signal in conditions of multipath propagation (figa).

increasing the length of the selection and analysis for the prototype method in conditions of multipath propagation does not lead to a significant improvement due to the oscillating nature of the rays in different parts of the sample.

Thus, the proposed method has high noise immunity, does not require a priori information about the parameters of the signals, the characteristics of the channels and interference, provides a high probability of correct detection in conditions of multipath propagation. Its application will allow you to recognize the signals with phase shift keying different positionnot when SNR>15 dB with a probability of detection of 0.95.

The results of comparative calculations showed that the probability of making correct decisions announced by the method of multipath propagation is higher than the method of the prototype (Fig.9.), 10-15%.

1. The method of recognition signals with phase shift keying, namely, that accept analog signal, discretizing his time and quantum level of the quantized samples form the in-phase and quadrature components of the signal, correcting them and decide toiletries signal, characterized in that it further sample of the m quantum of samples of the input signal determines the values of the carrier and clock frequencies, set the threshold dispersion error σthen({ξAnd}) envelope signal, and adjusting the in-phase and quadrature components perform in a complex way using gradient algorithm setting the coefficient of the correction, moreover, the correction will continue until such time as the error variance σ({ξAnd}) becomes less than a predetermined threshold value or not will stop falling, then on the basis of adjusted samples the in-phase and quadrature components calculates the variance value of the phase signal from the linear law in the reading times, then on the obtained values of the phase deviation decide toiletries signal, for which the sample estimates is divided into a specified number of clusters equal to positionnot recognizable signals, according to the method By intra-group averages and calculate values of the error function clustering, compare them and decide on belonging to the class minimum values of the error function.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that for setting the correction coefficients using the error in the estimate of the envelope of the signal at sampling times:

where- the current values of in-phase and quadrature components of the received signal at the appropriate clock interval;

- current reference values in-phase and quadrature components of the received signal at the appropriate clock interval.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized who eat that threshold dispersion error σthen({ξAnd}) set of ratios:

where Rmin- the distance between the reference points of the signal constellation of the detected signal maximum positionnot.

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the error function is calculated by the formula

where N is the number of clusters partitioning;

- parameter estimation;

λz- the expected center of the cluster;

σz2- the error variance, which determines a condence region.

5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the signal discretizing with sampling frequency ƒ≥8000 Hz, and the number of samples m is chosen in the range m=100÷10000.



 

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