Method of applying refractory lining and device for anchor fastening
SUBSTANCE: method comprises securing means of the anchor fastening to the surface, applying the lining material on the surface, solidifying the lining, AND drying the lining at a temperature sufficient to the melting of the coating at the means of anchor fastening. The device for anchor fastening is proposed.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
16 cl, 1 tbl, 3 ex
The invention relates to a method of providing the surface of the refractory and/or wear resistant lining, hereinafter referred to in this application simply facing, as well as anchor fastening used in this way. In the technique of distributed laying lining of refractory or resistant material on the surface which is exposed to high temperatures and/or intensive mechanical and/or chemical loads, as it happens, for example, in the case of surfaces of tanks, viscera separate tanks or tubular structures for connecting the tanks used, for example, in the cracking of petroleum products.
One of the main disadvantages of the presently used methods of laying a lining on the surface, is a commercial unattractiveness time of installation. For example, the time of laying of refractory and/or wear resistant lining, consisting of an anchoring system of hexagonal cells or outdoor steel structures in combination with ramming mass with phosphate binders up to 75 hours on m2. In addition, the cladding of this type may be sensitive to thermal shock, and difficult to repair. In addition, it is difficult to maintain consistent quality.
Less installation time, more attractive from the commercial is th point of view, can be achieved by using a cladding containing a single point anchoring system, such as described in document US-A-5353503. The problem in these large anchors, is that due to the difference in thermal expansion anchors and cladding may experience mechanical stress tension between the anchors and the cladding, leading to the formation of cracks in the lining. Cracking can occur even at relatively moderate temperatures applied during the drying lining. This issue should be given special attention as a facing material used so-called material, in whole or in part on a cement binder with a low resistance to abrasion.
In his article entitled "Alignment as a means of selection of the anchoring system of refractories (Equation helps select refractory anchor system"), published in the journal "Oil and gas (Oil & Gas Journal, August 30, 1982, s-125, Mstraple (M.S.Crowley) describes the application of the tape with mastic, wax and plastic coatings for coating the ends of the independent anchors before laying facing material. In accordance with this article, in the service process, i.e. during operation, the coating around the anchor fade, leaving around him a small free space is, so that he may undergo thermal expansion, without introducing mechanical stresses in the lining. This article, however, silent about the problems of cracking, which arise from the introduction of mechanical stresses in the lining while it is drying.
Due to the fact that the described means for anchoring weld to the surface, can be coated after the welding operation, in order to avoid any damage to the coating. This leads to the introduction of another operation in the process of installing, enlarging it and making it more time-consuming, resulting in increased installation time.
The present invention is to develop a less time consuming method of providing the surface of the refractory and/or wear resistant lining that allows you to obtain commercially attractive installation time and thus prevent the formation of cracks in the lining while it is drying.
This problem is solved using the method of providing the surface of the refractory and/or wear resistant lining, which includes the following operations, which
a) carry out mechanical fastening means for anchoring to the surface, and means anchoring pre-coating, made of paraffin wax, which melts at the temperature, m is the growing in the range from 40 to 100° With,
b) stack of cladding material on the surface, equipped with anchoring,
C) provide for the curing of the coating materials with obtaining a solid mass,
g) dry lining to a temperature at least sufficient to melt the coating on the media anchoring, with the production of refractory and/or wear resistant lining.
Found that the use of this method is to equip the surface of the refractory and/or wear resistant lining made from paraffin, which leads to less labor-intensive process and allows to obtain commercially attractive installation time.
Preferably, when the method further includes the operation
d) kiln lining.
Suitable fastening means anchoring on the surface carried out by means of the clamping parts.
Preferably the clamping part to be welded to the surface, and the element anchoring screw this based items.
Preferably the means for anchoring has a diameter of at least 3 see
Advisable when the tool anchoring has a bowl shape.
It is also desirable that the means for anchoring manufactured from stainless steel.
In a preferred embodiment, the anchor means crepe is possible apply the coating, made of paraffin wax, which melts at a temperature in the range from 60 to 90°C.
It is desirable that the coating consisted of a microcrystalline paraffin wax having a melting point in the range from 60 to 70°C.
It is also desirable that the coating consisted of a paraffin, characterized by the value of penetration at 43°With standard Di aoim comprising from 60 to 160 DMM.
Possible means of anchoring a pre-coated to obtain by immersing means anchoring in melted paraffin.
In a preferred embodiment, the facing material on the operation b) is a covering material, cement and/or phosphate binders.
While it is desirable that the facing material on cement and/or phosphate binders had abrasion loss measured in accordance with standard S less than 5.
Preferably fire-resistant and/or wear resistant lining applied to the surface cyclone.
You may also fire-resistant and/or wear resistant lining applied to the surface of the reactor, regenerator or cyclone used in the catalytic cracking process in the fluidized bed of catalyst.
The task is solved in that the means for anchoring coated aircraft is receiving, melting at a temperature in the range from 40 to 100°made with the possibility of mechanical fastening directly or with the use of clamping or clamping parts to the surface. Means anchoring mentioned in the description of the operation (a)may be in the form of a kind which is suitable for retention of cladding material. Suitable forms include (partially) Y-, V - or U-shaped or the shape of a bowl, optionally provided with holes through which the facing material can fall into the Cup.
Dimensions, i.e. height and diameter, means anchoring depend on the type of cladding material, target thickness of fire-resistant and/or wear resistant lining and form themselves means anchoring. Depending on these factors, the size of anchoring may vary within wide limits. Advantages of the invention are manifested, in particular, when the means for anchoring has a large diameter, i.e. the diameter of at least 3 see If the tool anchoring has Y-, V - or U-shaped, the diameter in this case is defined as the maximum distance between two extreme points at the top. If the tool anchoring has a bowl shape, the diameter in this case is defined as max is E. the distance between two points on the circumference of the bowl. The height is measured perpendicular to the diameter. In a preferred embodiment, the diameter is in the range from 3 to 15 cm, and the height is in the range from 1 to 15, see Cup-shaped means anchoring preferably have a height in the range from 0.5 to 5 cm, more preferably in the range from 1 to 2 cm and the diameter is preferably in the range from 3 to 10 cm, more preferably in the range from 3 to 7, see the wall Thickness of such Cup-shaped means anchoring is preferably in the range from 0.1 to 5 mm, more preferably in the range from 0.5 to 2 mm.
An example of a relatively large funds anchoring is Cup-shaped tool anchoring described in document US-A-5353503. Means anchoring described in document US-A-5353503 has a polygonal clamping part, a set of edge projections extending from the polygonal clamping parts at right angles to it, the aggregate end-to-end slotted holes formed in the said edge flange, and a threaded hole passing through the polygonal clamping part for screwing means anchoring in that the clamping part.
An example of such Cup-shaped means anchoring is the so-called "fast set cell" SELL SPEED (SPEED CELL - product is the first sign of the company "Silicon"). Another example of the Cup-shaped means anchoring anchors are TASO - trademark of "Plibrico".
The invention provides particular advantages when used in combination with such large Cup-shaped means anchoring. In the General case, the Cup-shaped means anchoring fully embedded in the lining material. Since the Cup-shaped means anchoring fully implemented, stress arising due to the difference in thermal expansion existing between the Cup-shaped means anchoring and facing material that is not absorbed or poorly absorbed by the environment, environmental funds anchoring. If not taken no action, the difference in thermal expansion existing between the Cup-shaped means anchoring and facing material, leads to cracks in the lining. The coating on the Cup-shaped means anchoring in accordance with the present invention prevents the formation of cracks in the lining.
Means anchoring can be made from any material suitable to withstand high temperatures during drying and/or firing and operation of the object, which must be equipped with fire-resistant and/or wear-resistant oblicovka the th. Means anchoring preferably made of a metal or alloy. In a preferred embodiment, the means for anchoring is made from stainless steel, preferably austenitic.
By means of anchoring pre-coated, making it before installation, i.e. before attaching it to the surface or, for example, to the clamping part, which is already attached to this surface. A suitable coating melts at a temperature in the range from 40 to 100°C, preferably in the range from 60 to 90°s, and more preferably in the range from 60 to 70°C. During the drying facing operations g) coating melts, and between the anchor and the hard facing material remains small space. This coating can be any coating known to the person skilled in the technical field as consumable in the operation d) drying. It is believed that the molten material will be absorbed by the porous cladding surrounding the anchor. The coating preferably consists of paraffin. In a more preferred embodiment, the coating consists of microcrystalline wax, because the coverage of these microcrystalline waxes are less fragile and better stick to the means for anchoring than normal paraffins. PR is doctitle is to carry anchors already a pre-coated. Melting point microcrystalline wax may be changed in the above-mentioned wide limits. Examples of suitable microcrystalline waxes include low molecular weight paraffins (NRM), weight paraffins (SMEs) and high molecular weight paraffins (VMP) of the company "shell". Most preferred are microcrystalline waxes with low melting point, i.e. melting temperature in the range from 60 to 70°C. Microcrystalline waxes with low melting point are also less fragile and better stick to the means for anchoring than microcrystalline waxes with high melting temperature. An example of a microcrystalline wax with a low melting point is paraffin family NML firm shell, having a melting point in the range from 62 to 66°C.
Paraffin, preferably microcrystalline, has a hardness, as determined by tests on penetration through wedges at 43°" ASTM 1321 American society for testing and materials, aim (ASTM D1321 "Test Method for Needle Penetration at 43°C (PEN43°C)″) component and from 70 to 160 DMM (1 DMM=0.1 mm). Paraffin coating having a hardness in this range are more elastic, that is valid during transport.
The coating can be applied by means of anchoring by any method known to a person skilled in the art. When coating is paraffin, the paraffin is mainly applied to the means for anchoring by immersion in molten paraffin wax or spray on them. In the most preferred embodiment, the wax is applied by means of anchoring by immersion in molten paraffin.
The coating preferably has a thickness in the range from 0.01 to 2 mm, more preferably in the range from 0.1 to 0.5 mm In the preferred embodiment, cover all means of anchoring as a whole.
Operations (a) means for anchoring a pre-coated directly or indirectly secured by another or others (based) parts on the surface. Means anchoring preferably attached to the surface by means of the clamping parts, such as the pin or stud. Means anchoring fixed mechanically, for example by screwing or snap. If the tool anchoring attached indirectly through the medium of the clamping parts, it means anchoring preferably screwed to such clamping details.
The anchor means kriplani is a pre-coated attach to another (based) items or other (clamping) the parts or to the surface by mechanical means, so that the coating remains essentially intact. The phrase "remains essentially intact" means that preferably 75% coverage, more preferably 90% or more coating remains intact during fastening means anchoring to another (based) items or other (clamping) the parts or to the surface.
If you install the clamping part has the form of a pin or stud. However, for the purposes of carrying out the invention may use more than one pin, or small plates, or springs, or other means that can attach to the surface and which can be attached and then anchoring. Dimensions, i.e. height and diameter, the clamping details depend on the type of cladding material and the target thickness of fire-resistant and/or wear resistant lining. The height of the clamping parts, defined as the distance that the clamping part is protruding from the surface mainly depends on the target thickness of the finished refractory and/or wear resistant lining. Note that feasible from a practical point of view, the height of the clamping parts is in the range from 0.1 to 10 cm, and in a more suitable option, it is in the range from 0.5 to 5 cm, the Diameter of the clamping parts may vary within wide limits. Note that suitable with prakticheskoi point of view, the diameter of the clamping parts is in the range from 0.2 to 2 cm, in the preferred embodiment, it ranges from 0.2 to 1 see the Clamping piece may be made of any material suitable to withstand high temperatures during drying and/or firing and operation of facilities, which provide fire-resistant and/or wear resistant lining. Suitable materials include metals or alloys. In a preferred embodiment, the clamping part are made of metal or alloy. In a more preferred embodiment, the clamping piece is made from stainless steel, preferably austenitic.
Installed on the choice of the clamping part means anchoring attached directly or indirectly via additional details on one side - to the surface, which must be applied veneer, and the other party to the tool anchoring. If the clamping part is made of metal or alloy of metals, it is preferably welded to the surface operations). If appropriate, the clamping part can also be attached to the surface by other means, and not by welding, for example by mechanical means, in particular by screwing or snap. Based on the detail you can apply or not to apply the coating. If the clamping part is made of metal or alloy and privas the s to the surface, in the preferred embodiment, this clamping part has no cover.
Means anchoring preferably attached to the surface as follows:
i) are welded to the surface of the clamping part having a threaded end, remote from the surface;
ii) screw means for anchoring based on the item.
Covering material transactions b) can be any material known in the art as suitable for this purpose. A suitable facing material is a monolithic refractory material. As a suitable example can be called traditional materials for phosphate binders, such as Resco AA22 (product firm "Resco Products, United Kingdom of great Britain and Northern Ireland) and Curas 90 PF "Gouda Vuurvast"; materials (cement binder), including conventional refractories, as well as the so-called free-flowing materials, such as "Sureflow 93 LC" (the product of the company "Resco Products, United Kingdom of great Britain and Northern Ireland); and the materials mixed with the binder, i.e. partially with cement, and partly with phosphate such as "Actchem" (a product of the company "Dramicon").
Advantages of the invention are particularly evident when using materials wholly or partly on a cement binder, which have excellent resistance to abrasion. The term"materials with excellent resistance to abrasion determines the materials, abrasion loss in which, measured in accordance with ASTM method C704, make up less than 5. Abrasion loss are preferably in the range of 0.1 to 3, more preferably in the range from 1 to 3. Lining material preferably contains less than 3% of phosphates.
Using the method according to the present invention, there is possibility to use the keyboard facing fully or partially on a cement binder, especially free-flowing lining cement binder, with Cup-shaped means anchoring, having a diameter of at least 3 cm to get the lining, essentially, without cracks. Therefore, the present invention also provides the ability to obtain fire-resistant and/or wear resistant lining, containing lining material completely or partially on a cement binder and a bowl-shaped means anchoring, however, means anchoring and facing material has a small free space.
The facing material may be reinforced with fibers, preferably metallic fibers, more preferably of steel fibers.
The target thickness of fire-resistant and/or wear resistant lining depends on the equipment in which it is used. Factors affecting the target is a woman, is the purpose of this equipment and its forms. A suitable thickness of the cladding is in the range between 1.5 and 15 cm, more preferably in the range between 1.5 and 3, see the Appropriate installation techniques cladding material includes forming methods, sketches manually casting, casting in the usual form or mould casting, subjected to vibration, as well as methods of filling and tamping. The temperature and pressure employed during the laying of the facing material transactions b), do not play a significant role, except that the coating on the anchors should not disappear on this operation. Preferred process conditions for the operation b) include atmospheric pressure and room temperature, and a suitable temperature is in the range from 0 to 40°C.
Transaction) is curing more or less fluid cladding material, preferably within 6 to 24 hours, to obtain a solid mass. Suitable temperature during curing is in the range from 0 to 50°s, and more preferably in the range of 0 to 40°C. the Pressure applied during drying, does not matter. For practical purposes it is preferable to atmospheric pressure.
Operation g) drying can be carried out by methods which are known with which ecialists in the art, for example, techniques that Subrata Banerjee described in the book "Monolithic refractories" ("Monolithic refractories"), c.54-56. The applied temperature is at least sufficient to melt the coating on the media anchoring. During this operation, water will evaporate from the coating, and the coating will melt. A suitable temperature is in the range starting from the 40°and should gradually increase up to 600°C. the Pressure applied during drying, does not matter. For practical purposes it is preferable to atmospheric pressure.
After operation d) lining - optional - can be fired at an elevated temperature, and suitable for this temperature is in the range from 600 to 900°or you can spend the firing at a higher temperature, due process, held at the facility, provided facing.
The invention also proposed a means of anchoring coated with a coating, melting at a temperature in the range from 40 to 100°made with the possibility of mechanical fastening directly or indirectly through another (based) items or other (based) parts to the surface. Preferred variants of such funds described above.
The medium is in anchoring preferably used in combination with the clamping part, therefore, the invention also offered a kit of parts containing:
a) clamping the item,
b) the above means anchoring made with the possibility of mechanical attachment to the clamping part.
Corresponding to the invention, the method of installation of fire-resistant and/or wear-resistant cladding on the surface can profitably be used in the repair or replacement of the existing lining in the equipment for refineries and chemical plants, or for repair of existing cladding that is damaged. The method corresponding to the invention, will cause the repair process will be less time-consuming, and the repair time will be reduced. Damaged existing cladding may be facing the type that is known to the specialist in the art and includes, for example, systems of hexagonal cells, outdoor steel structures or single point anchoring system with a facing material on the basis of the bricks, ramming mass phosphate or cement binder.
The method corresponding to the invention, mainly can be applied on all surfaces known to the person skilled in the technical field as intended for placement on them fire-resistant or wear-resistant lining. The use of fire-resistant and/or wear of the rack facing, laid on the surface in accordance with this method is particularly advantageous for curved or other non-planar surfaces, on which the traditional combination of systems of hexagonal cells or outdoor steel structures with materials on phosphate binder requires a very labor-intensive and flexible transformation of an anchoring system. Primary applications for refractory and/or wear resistant lining, corresponding to this invention, is, for example, equipment for refineries and chemical plants. Fire-resistant and/or wear resistant lining can profitably be applied to reactors, regenerators, especially cyclones, and in particular for reactors, regenerators and cyclones used in the catalytic cracking process in the fluidized bed of catalyst.
Now the invention will be illustrated by the following examples of non-restrictive.
On the Cup-shaped tool anchoring, described in the document USA-5353503, was coated with a thickness of 0.3 mm by dipping in molten microcrystalline wax with a low melting point (microcrystalline paraffin from the company shell, belonging to the family of the NRM and having a congealing point 62-66°C); typical values properties e is th coating are shown in Table 1.
Technical characteristics of microcrystalline wax
|Melting point, °With (ASTM D938)||64|
|Penetration at 43°C (0.1 mm) (ASTM D1321)||101|
|The oil content, % m (ASTM D721)||<0,1|
Made form of transparent Perspex (1 m2). The inner space between the front and rear plate form was 25 mm To the rear plate of Perspex attached anchors in the form of "quick set of cells corresponding to Example 1, using brass bolts in combination with the cushioning stainless steel tubes (round brass bolts). Means anchoring almost touching the front plate. For anchors in the form of "quick set of cells used, the gap size 8-10, see the form filled material Sureflow 93 LC (supplied by company "Resco Products England) with a grain size of about 2 mm.
After curing for 24 hours at room temperature, i.e. at a temperature of about 20°With, the front plate was removed and disconnected the anchors from the back plate. It was found that the means for anchoring were fully zapolneniya. After drying at a temperature of approximately 110°With the plate no cracks. The plate was annealed to a temperature of 815°C for 24 hours. In the control plate still completely absent cracks.
Comparative example (example 3),
Repeating Example 2, except that instead of anchoring to the floor, corresponding to Example 1 and used funds anchoring without coating, described in the document US-A-5353503 (SPEED CELL, the firm "Silicone"). After drying at a temperature of approximately 110°was observed With small cracks, and after firing to a temperature of 815°within 24 hours in the control plate showed significant cracking around means anchoring.
1. The method of providing the surface of the refractory and/or wear-resistant coating, comprising the following operations:
a) mechanical fixing on the surface of anchoring with pre-applied coating on them, made of paraffin wax, which melts at a temperature in the range from 40 to 100°C
b) laying of cladding material on the surface, equipped with anchoring,
C) curing the lining material to obtain a solid mass,
g) drying the cladding at a temperature at least sufficient the La melting of the coating on the media anchoring, with the production of refractory and/or wear resistant lining.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that it further includes the operation d) kiln lining.
Cab according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the fastening means anchoring on the surface is realized by means of the clamping parts.
4. The method according to claim 3, characterized in that the clamping part are welded to the surface, and the element anchoring screw this based items.
5. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 4, characterized in that the means for anchoring has a diameter of at least 3 see
6. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 5, characterized in that the means for anchoring is a bowl.
7. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the means for anchoring is made of stainless steel.
8. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 7, characterized in that the means for anchoring is applied coating that melts at a temperature in the range from 60 to 90°C.
9. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 8, characterized in that the coating is a microcrystalline wax having a melting point in the range from 60 to 70°C.
10. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 9, characterized in that the coating is a wax which is characterized by penetration with a 4° With standard Di aoim comprising from 60 to 160 DMM.
11. The method according to claim 10, characterized in that the means for anchoring with pre-applied coating obtained by dipping means anchoring in melted paraffin.
12. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 11, characterized in that the covering material transactions b) is a covering material, cement and/or phosphate binders.
13. The method according to item 12, wherein the facing material on cement and/or phosphate binders has abrasion loss measured in accordance with standard S less than 5.
14. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 13, characterized in that the refractory and/or wear resistant lining applied to the surface cyclone.
15. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 13, characterized in that the refractory and/or wear resistant lining applied to the surface of the reactor, regenerator or cyclone used in the catalytic cracking process in the fluidized bed of catalyst.
16. Means anchoring coated with a coating, melting at a temperature in the range from 40 to 100°made with the possibility of mechanical fastening directly or with the use of clamping or clamping parts to the surface.
FIELD: metallurgy; methods of the furnace relining and the furnace for realization of direct metals smelting.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of metallurgy and may be used for repair of the furnaces with the refractory lining used for realization of the direct metals smelting process. The method provides, that after a stopping of the direct metals smelting process the furnace is cooled and allows the possibility to get inside it through the inlet openings, reline the furnace and restart the furnace operational process in approximately 21 days or less. The furnace contains: the sub-hearth forming the furnace smelting hearth; the sidewall and the upper wall; the effluent gases channel; at least one passing through the sidewall tuyere for the solid materials injection; at least one tuyere for injection of the oxygen-containing gas in the upper part of the furnace; a refractory lining at least in the forehearth area of the furnace, in which the molten metal is gathered during the smelting process; and two diametrically opposite inlet openings in the sidewall in the forehearth area of the furnace; and also an inlet opening in the furnace hearth. The invention allows to reduce duration necessary for relining the furnaces, and also annually to reline it partially or completely.
EFFECT: the invention allows to reduce duration necessary for relining the furnaces, and also annually to reline it partially or completely.
25 cl, 3 tbl, 7 dwg
FIELD: ferrous metallurgy; method of hot repair of converter lining.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes delivery of air-placed concrete mass and oxygen on side surface of unit over separate passages and control of consumption of air-placed concrete mass and oxygen. Simultaneously with delivery of air-placed concrete mass and oxygen neutral gas is fed to converter bottom and slag of previous melt is blown. Lance proposed for realization of this method includes concentric tubes forming separate passages for delivery and discharge of water, delivery of air-placed concrete mass and oxygen to side surface of converter and tip with nozzles. Lance is provided with passage and end unit with Laval nozzles for delivery of neutral gas to converter bottom; axisymmetrical cylindrical nozzles for delivery of air-placed concrete mass and oxygen are secured in coaxial vertical units with bores between nozzles; radial bores are made in end unit between nozzles at lower and upper levels and are connected by means of vertical bore and bores of upper lever are connected by means of tubes with cooling water discharge passage.
EFFECT: enhanced stability of converter lining.
3 cl, 2 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: building materials, particularly heat-resistant concrete production.
SUBSTANCE: method involves preparing lining surface before special mix application on the surface; treating the lining surface with 50-70% orthophosphoric acid or acid phosphate solution; applying fine heat-resistant concrete mix; hardening it; impregnating the heat-resistant concrete mix layer with 50-70% orthophosphoric acid or acid phosphate solution; heat-treating the obtained layer at the first setting of heat plant in operation and bringing thereof to operational mode.
EFFECT: increased operational reliability, simplified technological process and reduced liming repair costs.
1 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for replacing refractory lining on arch of industrial furnaces designed for melting of metal, mainly, in furnaces with removable arches. Prior to removing, section with lining is turned over relative to supports so that, after placing of section of supports, its refractory lining should be from top, and metal framework, from bottom. New lining is placed from relative to section, and after placing a new lining, section is turned over to initial position. Device for replacing lining on furnace arch has two stationary supports secured on base and arranged on one line at a distance less than length of arch section provided with metal framework with projections on its outer side. Refractory lining is secured on its inner side. Additional support is arranged coaxially at opposite side relative to one of supports so that one of supports is in the middle. Height of supports is different relative to plane of base. Middle support is furnished with unit for fastening the section with possibility of its turning to arranged lining from top of metal framework.
EFFECT: reduced time taken for relining, improved conditions of making up and placing of new lining, prevention of clearances in lining in process of making up, simplified design of device.
6 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: molten metal purifying and degassing unit has element open for action on molten metal being treated and device imparting rotary motion to molten metal around practically vertical axis. During operation of device, at least part of surface subjected to wear is kept in temporary or constant contact with molten metal. Contacting molten metal is kept in motion relative to surface subjected to wear. Surface subjected to wear is covered with refractory protective coat applied as emulsion which is hardened in heat-resistant binder, inorganic colloidal and/or polymer binder for protection of surface against erosion, oxidation and corrosion. Refractory material is selected from borides of titanium, zirconium, vanadium, tantalum, nickel, chromium, copper and iron or oxides of aluminum, silicon, titanium and other above-mentioned elements or their carbides.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
43 cl, 3 dwg, 3 ex
FIELD: structural members of tube furnaces of the petroleum refining industry, in particular, construction of the lining of the smoke flue of the vertical multichamber radiant-convective furnace used in installation of catalytic reforming, hydrofining and aromatization.
SUBSTANCE: the construction has vertical walls: an inner wall engageable with the working space of the furnace radiant chambers and having holes for passage of flue gases, and an outer wall located on the side of the furnace jacket, made of tongued refractory products laid in rows in a broken joint and with expansion joints of the tongued refractory products and having on the side of the flue mirror-located projecting rows of supporting products positioned one under another in height of the flue, the connecting partitions are made of refractory shaped members installed on the projecting rows forming the horizontal tunnels of the flue, and a heat insulation adjoining the jacket. The novelty is in the fact that each member of the partitions is made in the form of two refractory shaped products installed for independent displacement relative to each other in the vertical axis of the flue at a thermal expansion of the lining walls and interconnected by means of L-shaped bulges made on the ends of the products, facing the flue axis and built in the vertical walls by other tongued ends laid on the supporting beveled products of the projecting row, the outer wall is made tied to the jacket for displacement in the vertical axis of the flue at a thermal expansion of the lining by means of successively engageable shaped members with holes positioned in rows in the lining of the outer wall at an interval of 6 to 9 rows, shackles with one end installed in the hole of the product, and with the other - in the hole of the angle piece welded to the jacket; all the products of the lining are dry laid, with the vertical expansion joints between each product. The outer and inner vertical walls with built-in refractory shaped members of the partitions are made of materials with a different coefficient of linear thermal expansion, larger one at the outer wall.
EFFECT: enhanced stability of the smoke flue lining due to enhanced building strength of it at a thermal expansion.
4 cl, 2 ex, 5 dwg
FIELD: processes to apply liquid or fluent material to obtain an anti-friction or anti-adhesive surface, particularly to produce siliconized wrapping paper.
SUBSTANCE: method involves mixing organopolysiloxanes-based silicone composition components; applying the obtained composition on movable paper substrate; heat-treating the obtained coating up to full coating hardening. Above paper substrate is wet-strength paper web with 6-8% moisture content. The paper is preliminary subjected to calendaring operation to obtain 1.0-1.1 g/cm3 density and 250-400 sec. smoothness. Silicone composition is applied by doctoring method, wherein silicone composition from local bath is applied on paper web moving between doctor blade and rear support. At least part of rear support surface in contact area between doctor blade and rear support is resilient. Degree of paper web bending during doctor blade introduction in the rear support is regulated by change in rear support surface resiliency. Unit for silicone composition application comprises doctor and rear support having changeable resiliency at least in contact area between rear support and doctor blade. Doctor blade is installed at acute angle to line perpendicular to rear support base and passing through contact line between rear support and doctor blade. Local bath is arranged in space defined by doctor blade and paper web.
EFFECT: increased application properties and strength of the paper, provision of reliable peeling force to paper separation from adhesive layer within wide temperature range, increased quality of composition application due to increased fullness of composition introduction in surface layer of paper web.
13 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: processes for applying fluent materials to surfaces to obtain anti-friction surface with the purpose to reduce hydraulic and aerodynamic friction of vehicle moving in liquid and to reduce friction in friction assemblies of machines and mechanisms working in aqueous medium.
SUBSTANCE: method involves obtaining and applying antifriction coating on vehicle body so that specific coating surface energy along liquid streamlines (streamline surface) has negative gradient.
EFFECT: reduced friction due to provision of friction resistance control.
FIELD: processes for applying liquids or other fluent materials to surfaces to obtain special surface effects, finishes or structures, particularly to obtain matte coating in optics, illuminating engineering, instrument-making and mechanical engineering, namely to create light-emitting diode matrix for display panel.
SUBSTANCE: method involves applying adhesive material layer on component surface; covering the adhesive material layer with microparticle layer and hardening the adhesive material. Silicon compound is used as the adhesive material. Dark powder dye is used as the microparticles. The microparticles are applied when silicon compound is in gelatinization phase. Shagreen RAL9005 dye is used as the powder dye.
EFFECT: improved manufacturability, reduced cost and increased uniformity of matte coating on component surface.
2 cl, 1 dwg