Method of producing high-speed ice

FIELD: refrigeration.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises freezing ice on concrete plate and allowing the ice to stand at a given temperature along a specified time interval.

EFFECT: enhanced rigidity and lowered friction coefficient of the ice.

10 cl

 

The invention relates to the creation of artificial ice and can be used in sports and construction when creating artificial ice rinks and skating tracks.

A known method of creating an ice rink by layer numerazione water, which before frosting the second layer of the ice making ink additive, and as an additive, a mixture of lime and blue pigment, the mixture is dissolved in water in the ratio of 2÷3 kg of lime and 3×10-3÷5×10-3kg of dry pigment per 10 l of water consumption and the resulting solution is 0.5÷0.75 l 1 m2the ice surface (1).

The disadvantage of this method of creating the ice rink is that any impurities (mechanical and chemical) for a long time to diffuse to the surface and thereby reduce the speed of the properties of ice, i.e. worsen conditions slip.

A method of obtaining ice by freezing water in which to improve conditions slip on its surface before freezing in water is injected high molecular weight linear polymer in the range from 10-6up to 10-2wt.%, and as polymer using polyethylene oxide(2).

The disadvantage of this method of obtaining ice is the fact that the introduction of any impurities in the ice pack makes orientation is efekty into the crystal lattice of ice and thus, reduces its strength and hardness.

A method of obtaining an artificial ice adopted for the prototype, which includes the preparation of an aqueous solution of a polymer is polyvinyl alcohol and its freezing, and the solution contains polyvinyl alcohol in a concentration of 0.5÷7.0 wt.%, and freezing of the solution is carried out at a temperature from -10°C to -60°and the resulting ice is maintained at a temperature of from -2,5°With up to a 6.5°C for 5÷7 days (3).

The disadvantages of this method of producing artificial ice can be attributed to the following:

1) any impurities introduced into an array of ice, reduce its hardness, and as their displacement on the surface reduce his speed properties;

2) the keeping of ice obtained at a temperature of from -2,5° to -6,5°not eliminates cracks and other local violating the integrity of the ice, which can occur when freezing ice over large areas.

The task of the invention is the development and creation of technology for ice, characterized by a minimal force to sliding resistance of the skate on the ice, i.e. ice, which had both high hardness and low coefficient of friction (high speed properties, i.e. improved conditions slip on its surface the property.

The technical result consists in obtaining a two-layer ice, one layer of which (the bottom) has a high hardness and the structure is close to a single crystal ice to prevent deep penetration of the blade of the skate in the ice, and the other (upper) layer of a thickness not exceeding 0.5 mm - soft (defective) ice with special ingredients to improve slip.

The technical result is achieved by the fact that the claimed method of using a freezing ice and keeping it at a certain temperature for a certain period of time, characterized in that:

1) carry out a preliminary treatment of the concrete technological plate before freezing ice with the use of special detergents (to increase strength and frost resistance of concrete technological plate);

2) to prevent structural failure of the concrete technological plates produce its cooling in the temperature range from 0°to 3°with speed reduction, not exceeding 0,5°With in the hour.

3) carry out the frosting in the bottom layer, which initially perform manual multilayer pouring of the concrete process of plates using hoses (without spraying) through a special, for example metal, nozzles. The temperature of water used gradually manufacture is between +10° C to +50°C, and the distance of the nozzle to the surface of the concrete technological plate in order to avoid additional aeration of the water must be extremely minimized, while in the interval from 0 to 5 cm

Used for the fill water passes through the treatment system by passing it through a mass filter and activated carbon, and goes deep deaeration.

Perform periodically at least once in 1 hour the temperature measurements of the ice surface, which must be maintained in the range from -4°-5°C.

Before the next stage of numerazione to relieve thermal stresses in namorona layer of ice consistently perform the following operations:

fill with warm water using a hose, purified as described above, the temperature of +45°C to +55°With the thickness of each layer 2,0÷2.5 mm;

deep machine planing ice to a depth of 1.0÷2,0 mm

The subsequent application of water is carried out manually by pouring ice water hoses temperature of +45°C to +55°held cleaning system by passing it through a mass filter and activated carbon, as well as deep deaeration with the inclusion of reverse osmosis systems. When this reached the ice thickness is in the range of 22÷26 mm

To achieve the desired final thickness of the ice (exceeding postignutog) put hose pouring ice a few extra layers, for example 3-6, the thickness of each layer 2,0÷2.5 mm with subsequent machine planing to a depth of 1.0÷2,0 mm

4) produce "annealing" of the received array of ice, which perform the following steps:

off refrigeration machines without shutting down the circulation pump on time to reach the ice surface temperature (0÷+ 0,5)°C;

- maintaining the ice surface at a given temperature from 8 hours to 24 hours.

In the case of increasing the temperature of the ice must include refrigeration machines to a temperature of the ice in the temperature range (0÷+0,5)°C.

5) perform compaction of the ice, performing the following steps:

after 6÷8 hours keeping ice at temperature "annealing" in parallel to produce a mechanical effect is intended to seal the ice.

At the same time as sealing agents for ice use manual rink, or mechanical vehicle with a wide and smooth tread tires, or device, such as a metal, with a smooth flat clean surface. The relative load on the ice should be in the range from 15 to 20 ATA or from 1.5 to 2.0 MPa. This load is identical to the local impact on the ice skate athlete (skater) different weights.

The process of "annealing" and seal the ice allow his art is TES "aging", i.e. to give the structure greater hardness, remove accumulated during the pouring of orientational defects in the crystal lattice and "squeeze" on the surface formed therein gas inclusions.

6) prepare the ice for the application of the top layer which requires:

to perform smooth lowering the temperature of the coolant at a speed of not more than 0.5°per hour, bringing the surface temperature of the ice up to 5°C;

- perform machine planing ice surface to a depth of 1.0÷2.0 mm (after operations "annealing" and seal ice).

To perform thin-layer machine fill the ice surface, increasing its thickness to the desired value, for example up to 35÷37 mm, for competitions in speed skating at the international level. The temperature of the water pouring from +45°C to +55°C.

Used for the fill water passes through the treatment system by passing it through a mass filter and activated carbon, and goes deep deaeration with the inclusion of reverse osmosis systems.

7) put the top layer of ice.

Immediately prior to use ice carry out lowering its temperature to -6°and then carry out thin-layer cut and fill, soft (defective) layer of ice with lowborough machines. The thickness of the cutting and re-expandable layer lies in p is adalah 0,2÷ 0.5 mm Temperature poured into lobaco water machine in the range from +45°C to +55°C.

An example of implementing the inventive method.

As an example, the routing phased numerazione artificial ice surface with an intermediate measures physical and chemical influences on the ice to increase its hardness and receive a given crystal structure.

Process map numerazione artificial ice on a cooled concrete surface speed skating track is designed for the performance of the process over 100 hours of continuous operation under the condition of readiness to perform the process on the part of all engineering and technological services indoor speed skating center in Krylatskoye (CCC) in preparing him for the world championship 2005

I stage. Treatment of the concrete technological plate.

The process numerazione artificial ice, preceded by a thorough treatment of the concrete technological plate.

Treatment of the concrete surface is performed using special detergents such as, for example, detergent "Ferrite" cleansing solution based emulsion of the ODE (0.1 mg/l)to remove from the surface of not only mechanical particles, but also eye-catching in the lane the first year of operation of the concrete monolith chemical additives, introduced into the concrete mixture during its preparation to increase strength and frost resistance of the concrete cooled technological plate.

Stage II. The concrete cooling process plate

The concrete cooling process plate carried by the initial temperature of the coolant and the concrete surface cooled technological plate +18°until a temperature of concrete in the center of the cooled process plate +5°C.

When the temperature of the cooled process plate +5°With further decrease of temperature of the coolant to run until a temperature of concrete in the center of the cooled process plate 0°C.

When the temperature of the cooled process plate values minus 3°to carry out packing with primorazhivaniem edge of ropes.

In all these stages the temperature drop of the coolant to run at a speed of not more than 0.5°With in the hour.

Stage III. The bottom layer of frosting.

First perform manual multilayer pouring of the concrete process of plates using hoses (without spraying) through a metal nozzle. The temperature of water used increases gradually from +10°to +50°C, and the distance of the nozzle to the surface of the concrete t is geologicheskiy plate in order to avoid additional aeration of water is chosen equal to 3, see

When used for this fill water passes through the treatment system by passing it through a mass filter and activated carbon, and goes deep deaeration.

Perform periodically at least once in 1 hour the temperature measurements of the ice surface, which should be in the range from -4°-5°C.

Before the next stage of numerazione to relieve thermal stresses in namorona layer of ice consistently perform the following operations:

- fill hose by hand with warm water temperature +50°With the thickness of each layer of 2.0 mm;

the first deep planing machine ice to a depth of 1.0 mm

The subsequent application of water is carried out manually, hose pouring ice water passing through the treatment system by passing it through a mass filter and activated carbon, and at the same time deep deaeration with the inclusion of reverse osmosis systems. When this reached the ice thickness is 25 mm

Perform fill ice using a hose 4 layer thickness of each layer of 2.0 mm with subsequent machine planing to a depth of 1.0 mm

IV stage. "Annealing" and the seal of ice.

To perform the operation "annealing" to carry out the following steps:

off refrigeration machines without shutting down the circulation pump until the time of the achievement of ice on top of the spine temperature (0÷ +0,5)°C;

- maintaining the ice surface at this temperature for up to 24 hours.

In the case of increasing the temperature of the ice must include refrigeration machines to a temperature of the ice in the temperature range (0÷+0,5)°C.

To perform the operation seal ice to carry out the following steps:

- after 8 hours of storage of ice at the temperature "annealing" begin the process of mechanical impact in order to seal the ice. Moreover, as a means of sealing apply ice manual ice rink, or mechanical vehicle with a wide and smooth tread tires or metal fixture with smooth clean surface. The relative load on the ice set to 18 ATA or 1.8 MPa. This load is identical to the local impact on the ice skate athlete (skater) average weight.

V stage. Preparing the ice for the application of the top layer.

To perform smooth lowering the temperature of the coolant at a speed of not more than 0.5°With an hour to bring the temperature of the ice surface to -5°C.

To perform a planing machine ice surface to a depth of 1.0 mm

To perform thin-layer machine fill the ice surface, bringing it to a thickness of 37 mm, While the temperature of the fill water is equal to +50°C.

Used for the fill water is about the leave the cleaning system by passing it through a mass filter and activated carbon, and also goes deep deaeration, including reverse osmosis systems.

VI stage. The application of the top layer of ice.

Immediately prior to use ice to perform lowering its temperature to -6°and then to carry out thin-layer cut and fill, soft (defective) of the top layer of ice with lowborough machines. The thickness of the cutting and re-expandable layer is 0.35 mm, the Temperature is poured into the tank lobanas machine water is equal to +50°C.

1. Method for the production of ice, including the freezing ice and keeping it at a certain temperature for a specified time, wherein before freezing ice on concrete slab is carried out by pre-treatment with the use of detergents and cleansing products, and then produce a cooling of the concrete slab in the temperature range from 0 to -3°With a speed of no more than 0.5°With an hour and a freezing ice is carried out in two layers, and initially must be the bottom layer, and then top with the frosting of the lower layer first perform manual multilayer fill without spray with a gradual increase in the temperature of water used from 10 to 50°and used to fill water is subjected to a preliminary cleaning and deep deaeration, and then perform multilayer fill the water hoses with what temperature from 45 to 55° From, then complete your deep machine planing to a depth of 1.0-2.0 mm, then the freezing ice carry out pouring ice water hoses, held cleaning system that deep deaeration and reverse osmosis, followed by the shutdown of the refrigeration machines without shutting down the circulation pump on time to reach the ice surface temperature 0÷0,5°and maintain the ice surface at this temperature for 8 to 24 h, and if the temperature of ice the temperature 0÷0,5°To carry out temperature control of ice in the range of 0÷0,5°With, then parallel to produce the seal of ice, after keeping it a certain time at a temperature of 0÷0,5°by means of the seal, then before applying the top layer of ice produce its preparation by a smooth lowering the temperature of the coolant at a speed of not more than 0.5°per hour, bringing it to a value of minus 5°and performing machine planing ice surface to a depth of 1.0-2.0 mm, and then produce a machine fills the surface of the ice water with a temperature of from 45 to 55°With, bringing the ice thickness to the desired value, then put the top layer of ice just before use, first lowering its temperature to -6°and then carry out thin-layer cut and fill, soft with the HHS ice lowborough machines.

Cab according to claim 1, characterized in that as detergents and cleaning agents are used, for example, detergent "ferry" and the cleaning solution on the basis of emulsions of the ODE (0.1 mg/l).

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that manual multilayer fill exercise without spraying, using hoses with nozzles, for example, a metal, and the distance of the nozzles to the surface of the concrete technological plate choose the minimum in the interval from 0 to 5 cm

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the pre-treatment of water used during numerazione layer of ice, carried out by passing it through a mass filter and activated charcoal.

5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that at the stage of numerazione the lower ice layer depending on the desired final thickness of the ice fill hoses perform in several, for example, 3-6, layers with thickness of each layer of 2.0-2.5 mm and the subsequent machine planing to a depth of 1.0 to 2.0 mm

6. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the temperature is poured into the tank lowborough water machines at the stage of creation of the upper layer is in the range from 45 to 55°C.

7. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the sealing ice begin after 6-8 hours of incubation at a temperature of 0÷0,5)°C.

8. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that as a means of seals used the manual rink or mechanical vehicle with a wide and smooth tread tires or device, for example, of metal, with a smooth flat clean surface.

9. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the unit load on the ice during its seal should be in the range from 15 to 20 ATA or from 1.5 to 2.0 MPa.

10. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that after the first stage of planing received ice water treatment, applied at the stage of numerazione the bottom layer of ice, carried out by passing it through a mass filter and activated carbon, at the same time exposing her deep deaeration and passing through the reverse osmosis system.

11. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that at the stage of numerazione the bottom of the ice layer is not less than 1 time per hour are monitoring the temperature of the ice surface, which must be maintained in the range from -4 to -5°C.



 

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EFFECT: enhanced rigidity and lowered friction coefficient of the ice.

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