Method for land reclamation in the case of land corruption by opened deposit development

FIELD: mining, particularly reclamation of surface-mined areas in agriculture and building industry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves selectively mining, moving and accumulating ground layer and overburden in separate strip dumps; excavating open-pit field; smoothing thereof and ground layer laying. After open-pit field excavation the excavated space is filled with building waste up to high ground water layer. The building waste has composition close to that of natural minerals with different fraction dimensions. The building waste is laid in several layers each having thickness of 40-60 cm. Each layer is compacted with soil compactors or compacting mechanism. Then draining layer is laid. The draining layer is layer of gravel-sand ground with particle dimensions of not more than 200 mm and has thickness of not less than 0.6 m. The draining layer is compacted by vibratory plates. Then two parallel spiral channels are excavated along each pit perimeter from slope side. Coil of each channel starts at pit slope top and terminates at bottom thereof at upper ground water level. Both channels are filled with building waste having particle dimensions of not more than 150 mm. After that holes for trees planting are dug out, wherein the holes are arranged between channel coils. Drainage layer is located on hole bottoms so that the drainage layer is connected with building waste of the channels and holes are filled with fertile ground. Then perennial grass, bushes and trees are planted in the reclamated land.

EFFECT: reduced labor inputs and reclamation work costs, improved land protection against wind erosion and scouring.

2 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to the mining and processing industry and can be used to restore disturbed lands in agriculture, construction and energy industries.

There is a method of recovery of disturbed soils (1) in surface mining, including mining, moving and storage in separate tape stockpiles of topsoil and overburden, mining career fields, moving, and packing overburden and topsoil. However, restoration of disturbed lands in this method occurs over a very long period, and the soil exposed to wind and water erosion.

The closest technical solution, selected as a prototype, is the way of restoration of disturbed lands in open field development (2), including separate recess, moving and storage in separate tape stockpiles of topsoil and overburden, mining career fields, mined-out space and its alignment in the overburden with the subsequent placement of the topsoil. The disadvantage of this method is the extraction of large volumes of soil to create a fertile layer, which, in turn, leads to the formation of large areas of disturbed land, rising labor costs and C is acetelene increase the cost of the rehabilitation works.

The proposed solution reduces the labor and cost of the rehabilitation works, also protects the soil from wind and water erosion.

For this method of reclamation of lands disturbed by surface mining fields, includes separate recess, moving and storage in separate tape stockpiles of topsoil and overburden, production career field, its alignment and placement of the topsoil. After developing career fields pre-produce the mined-out space to the border of the upper level of groundwater construction waste, similar in composition to natural minerals with different particle size fractions, layers with a layer thickness of no more than 40-60 cm, with each layer alternately compacted by rolling sealing machines or mechanisms, then stack the draining layer thickness of not less than 0.6 m from the sandy-gravel soil particle size fractions not exceeding 200 mm with subsequent densification by compaction, then the contour of each career, from the side of the slope, in a spiral, lay two channels parallel to each other. And round each of the channels begin to lay on the top of the slope of the quarry, and finish at the bottom of the upper boundary of the groundwater level, then both channels clog construction waste with largest the STU fractions not exceeding 150 mm, after this downward spiral between channels produce the digging of planting holes for planting trees and piling on the bottom of the planting pits drainage associated with construction waste channels, and drainage layer, the slopes of the pits and planting pits for planting trees occiput potentially fertile soil layers with subsequent formation of perennial grasses and planting trees and shrubs. The formation of perennial grasses produced by the method of filling a layer with a minimum thickness of 5 cm from the fertile mixture, which, in turn, contains the seeds of perennial grasses, fertilizers, stabilizing material and a filler.

Implementation of the present invention reduces the cost of rehabilitation services, through the use of construction waste that is constantly forming as a result of reconstruction, demolition and repair of buildings and structures, and there is no need to retrieve large amounts of soil, the proportion of creating fertile layer. Given the fact that is constantly generated construction waste taken to landfills for household and industrial waste, the implementation of the present invention will improve the ecological situation. Applying a layer of fertile mixture allows in a short time and with little cost to solve the problem of coating Nude slopes pits t is aveneu vegetation, and means to increase the stability of the soil to water and wind to erosion.

The drawing shows the circuit implementation of this method.

The method is as follows. First on the area of disturbed land perform planning work. The mean absolute elevation (ground level) shall be established with consideration of the feasibility study. Area planning is performed with the legend of the planned surface of the slight slope toward the General lowering of the earth's surface. Then proceed to the mined-out pits (1), stacking layers (2, 3, 4) construction waste with different particle size fractions. As construction waste use of fired bricks, concrete, reinforced concrete, battle of ceramic tiles. Each stacked layer should be no more than 40-60 see Layers compacted by the method of compacting sealing machines and mechanisms. Stacking layers produced sequentially until then, until they reach the upper boundary of the groundwater level (5). Then stack the draining layer (6) of sand and gravel soil particle size fractions of 150-200 mm and a thickness of not less than 0.6 meters, followed by compaction with compaction. Drainage layer may also be laid from construction waste, pulverized to a particle size of the fight in the range of 150-200 mm, Then along the contour of each of the Carew is a top down, from the slope, spirally laid parallel to each other two channels (7) and hammer their construction waste, with the particle size fractions not exceeding 150 mm - 200 mm When using the construction waste should be prevented from getting them organic waste in order to eliminate Geenie and the release of gases. On the formed between the two channel continuous track down in a spiral to produce the digging of planting holes (8) depth of 1-2 m and a diameter of 1.5-2 m below the planting of trees. At the bottom of each planting hole (8) stack drainage (9) of the mulch material and the gravel layer is not less than 30 cm, Then the slopes of the quarry (1), a drainage layer (6) and holes (8) for planting trees occiput layer (10) of the potentially fertile soil of a certain thickness. After filling the planting hole (8) fertile soil make planting trees with the subsequent formation of perennial grasses. Vertical channels (7), associated with drainage from multimedia material of pebbles at the bottom of the planting hole (8), are the drives moisture. Such a device planting holes (8) provides for the accumulation and preservation of autumn-winter rainfall and hot dry hot summer season, due to the temperature difference on the surface and inside of the pit, promotes condensation of vaporous moisture atmosphere in the root zone of the soil. Salug is of perennial grasses produced by the method of loading layer, thickness not less than 5 cm from the fertile mixture, which contains the seeds of perennial grasses, fertilizers, stabilizing material and a filler. Fertile mixture is prepared as follows. The water is injected fertilizers, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, polyacrylamide, triethylene glycol in a certain ratio. The mixture is stirred until complete dissolution of the components. Then enter the seeds in the soil with sand, after which the mixture is again stirred and applied to the surface of the soil. In this mixture of particles of soil and seeds'm entwined Studenicani solutions of polymers and due to this, stick to each other and to the soil surface. The polymer film also protects each piece from water, wind and sun.

Sources of information

1. USSR author's certificate No. 1062392, class E 21 41/00, 1983

2. Patent of Russia №2109427, class. And 01 In 79/02, 1998.

1. The way the reclamation of lands disturbed by surface mining fields, including separate recess, moving and storage in separate tape stockpiles of topsoil and overburden, production career field, its alignment and placement of the soil layer, characterized in that after forming a career field pre-produce the mined-out space to the boundaries of the upper level of groundwater construction waste similar in composition to natural minerals with different particle size fractions, layers with a layer thickness of no more than 40-60 cm, with each layer alternately compacted by rolling sealing machines or mechanisms, then stack the draining layer thickness of not less than 0.6 m from the sandy-gravel soil particle size fractions not exceeding 200 mm with subsequent densification by compaction, then the contour of each career, from the side of the slope, in a spiral, lay two channels parallel to each other and turn each of the channels begin to lay on the top of the slope of the quarry, and finish at the bottom of the upper level groundwater, then both channels clog construction waste with particle size fractions not exceeding 150 mm, then from top to bottom in a spiral between channels produce the digging of planting holes for planting trees and piling on the bottom of the planting pits drainage associated with construction waste channels, and drainage layer, the slopes of the pits and planting pits for planting trees occiput potentially fertile soil layers with subsequent formation of perennial grasses and planting trees and shrubs.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the formation of perennial grasses produced by the method of filling a layer with a minimum thickness of 5 cm from the fertile mixture, which, in its PTS who lived, contains the seeds of perennial grasses, fertilizers, stabilizing material and a filler.



 

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