Method for land reclamation in the case of land corruption by opened deposit development

FIELD: mining, particularly reclamation of surface-mined areas in agriculture and building industry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves selectively excavating, moving and accumulating ground layer and overburden in separate strip dumps; excavating open-pit field; filling and smoothing thereof and ground layer laying. After open-pit field excavation the excavated space is filled with building waste up to high ground water layer. The building waste has composition close to that of natural minerals with different fraction dimensions. The building waste is laid in several layers each having thickness of 40-60 cm. Each layer is compacted with soil compactors or compacting mechanism. Then draining layer is laid. The draining layer has particle dimensions of 150-200 mm and thickness of not less than 0.6 m. The draining layer is compacted by vibratory plates. Draining layer is covered with fertile ground so that fertile ground layer having thickness of not less than 0.3 m is created. Then straw layer in which chemical fertilizers and perennial grass seeds are added is formed over fertile ground layer. The straw layer is smoothed and sprinkled with dispersions containing water-soluble polymeric substances and synthetic water-soluble phosphates, wherein synthetic water-soluble phosphates are taken in amount of 1-4% by ready dispersion weight.

EFFECT: reduced labor inputs and reclamation work costs, improved land protection against wind erosion and scouring.

4 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to the mining and processing industry and can be used to restore disturbed lands after doing open development. Known way to restore disturbed lands [1] in surface mining, including mining, moving and storage in separate tape stockpiles of topsoil and overburden, the mined-out space in layers dry material with penetration in the roof backfilling excavations with subsequent detachedly hardening mixture. The disadvantage of this method is the high complexity, high cost and low effectiveness.

The closest technical solution, selected as a prototype, is the way of restoration of disturbed lands in open field development [2], which includes a separate recess, moving and storage in separate tape stockpiles of topsoil and overburden, mining career fields, mined-out space and its alignment in the overburden with subsequent placement of a soil layer.

The disadvantage of this method is the extraction of large volumes of soil to create the fertile soil layer, which in turn leads to the formation of large areas of disturbed land, growth trudos the rat and a significant increase in the cost of the rehabilitation works.

The present invention provides reduced labor costs and the cost of reconstruction, and also protects the soil from wind and water erosion. For this method to restore disturbed lands in open field development includes separate recess, moving and storage in separate tape stockpiles of topsoil and overburden, production career field, tab, goaf, its alignment and placement of the topsoil. Moreover, the mined-out space to the border of the upper level of groundwater produce construction waste, similar in composition to natural minerals with different particle size fractions, layers with a layer thickness of no more than 40-60 see With each layer alternately compacted by rolling sealing machines or mechanisms, then stack drainage layer with a minimum thickness of 0.6 m and a particle size fractions of 150-200 mm with seal by compaction and on top of the drainage layer occiput layer of potentially fertile soil with a minimum thickness of 0.3 m, then put a layer of straw together with mineral fertilizers and seeds of perennial grasses, align it with subsequent spraying the soil with dispersions containing, together with water-soluble polymeric substances of natural and synthetic water-soluble phosphates. the rich, the proportion of water-soluble phosphates in the dispersions is based on the finished dispersion 1-4 wt.%. Dispersion have the ability to be absorbed into the soil and contribute to the formation of the bound, strongly held and resistant to rain and weather changes crusts. The latter contributes to a very good protective effect against erosion by rain and wind, as at the specified flow dispersion in the soil does not occur microscopic pores and is not observed obstacles to the development of plants, and a well-charged residual moisture. Introduction this technical solution dramatically reduces the cost of repair works due to the use of construction waste generated as a result of reconstruction, demolition and repair of buildings and structures, as well as eliminating the need for extraction of large volumes of soil to create a fertile layer. Given that the form of construction waste disposed to landfill disposal of household and industrial waste, the implementation of the present invention will improve the ecological situation. Spraying the soil with dispersions allows in a short time and with little cost to solve the problem of coverage of disturbed land herbaceous vegetation, and thus to increase the stability of the soil to water and wind to erosion.

The drawing shows the circuit implementation of this method.

The method is as follows.

Initially, the square is arachinovo plot perform planning work. The mean absolute elevation (ground level) shall be established with consideration of the feasibility study. The layout of the site comply with planned giving the surface a slight bias towards the General lowering of the earth's surface. Then proceed to the mined-out pits 1, stacking in layers 2, 3, 4, 5 construction waste with different particle size fractions. Each stacked layer compacted by the method of compacting sealing machines and mechanisms, and it should be no more than 40-60 see Stacking layers make up the upper boundary of the groundwater level 6. Then stack the draining layer 7 of the sand and gravel soil particle size fractions of 150 - 200 mm and a thickness of not less than 0.6 meters, followed by compaction with compaction. On top of the drainage layer occiput layer 3 of the potentially fertile soil thickness not less than 0.3 meters, depending on the future use of the restored site. For landscaping of this area on the top layer 8 is applied a layer 9 of the cutting wheat straw, which is applied together with mineral fertilizers and seeds of perennial grass plants. Then a layer of straw sprayed with the aqueous dispersion containing 30% synthetic substances and 2% blend of equal parts of sodium tripolyphosphate and sodium hexametaphosphate. Dispersed sin is eticheskoe substance, for example, is a copolymer product obtained from 40% vinyl acetate, 40% dioctylmaleate, 20% ethylhexyl acrylate. The result is this spectacular and durable bonding layer that over a long period of time, you can make the landscaping. As construction waste can be used scorched brick, concrete, reinforced concrete, battle of ceramic tiles. Drainage layer may also be laid from construction waste, pulverized it to the size of the fight in the range of 150-200 mm When using construction waste should be prevented from getting them organic waste in order to eliminate Geenie and the release of gases.

Sources of information

1. USSR author's certificate No. 1062392, CL E 21 41/00, 1983

2. Patent of Russia №2109427, class. And 01 In 19/02, 1998

1. The way of restoration of disturbed lands in surface mining, including separate recess, moving and storage in separate tape stockpiles of topsoil and overburden, production career field, tab, goaf, its alignment and placement of the soil layer, characterized in that the mined-out space to the border of the upper level of groundwater produce construction waste, similar in composition to natural minerals times the primary particle size fractions, layers with a layer thickness of no more than 40-60 cm, with each layer alternately compacted by rolling sealing machines or mechanisms, then stack drainage layer with a minimum thickness of 0.6 m and a particle size fractions of 150-200 mm with seal by compaction and on top of the drainage layer occiput layer of potentially fertile soil with a minimum thickness of 0.3 m, then put a layer of straw together with mineral fertilizers and seeds of perennial grasses, align it with subsequent spraying the soil with dispersions containing, together with water-soluble polymeric substances of natural and synthetic water-soluble phosphates, and the proportion of water-soluble phosphates in the dispersion is in based on the finished dispersion 1-4 wt.%.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the quality of construction waste use accidents burnt brick, concrete, reinforced concrete, ceramic tile.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the draining layer occiput construction waste.

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the draining layer occiput sand and gravel soil.



 

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