Composite superconductor

FIELD: applied superconductivity.

SUBSTANCE: proposed composite superconductor that can be used to manufacture superconductors for superconducting windings suffering heavy mechanical loads (at operating pressure across conductor higher than 100 MPa) as well as for superconducting windings and devices operating under variable conditions, such as superconducting inductive energy storage devices, dipole and quadrupole magnets for charged particle accelerators, has superconducting material fibers, matrix of high-conductivity metal, such as copper and rare-earth intermetallide possessing high thermal capacity at low temperatures. Composite superconductor is provided with metal sheath accommodating rare-earth intermetallide; mentioned wires and conductor are welded together. Metal sheath can be made in the form of hollow cylindrical conductor or flat strip with hollow interlayer, their hollow spaces being designed to dispose rare-earth intermetallide. Composite superconductor is made in the form of a few multiple-fiber composite superconducting wires twisted around hollow cylindrical conductor accommodating rare-earth intermetallide. Composite superconductor can be made in the form of flattened single-lay strand of several multiple-fiber composite superconducting wires and several hollow cylindrical conductors of same diameter accommodating intermetallide which alternately vary within strand. Rectangular-section conductor is made of high-conductivity metal and has longitudinal groove.

EFFECT: enlarged functional capabilities.

7 cl, 8 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of applied superconductivity and can be used in the manufacture of superconductors for highly mechanically loaded superconducting windings (with the voltage of the conductor is greater than 100 MPa at work), and superconducting windings and devices operating in variable modes, for example a superconducting inductive energy storage, dipole and quadrupole magnets for particle accelerators.

Known composite superconductor consisting of several wires, containing fibers of superconducting material in the copper matrix and twisted around a Central copper with a certain step, which is usually used in the form of subcubes for the manufacture of more complex and high-current superconducting current-carrying elements (Keilin V.E., Kovalev I.A., Really S.L., et al., The conductors of the 50 kA Superconducting transformer for Samsung Superconductor Test Facility, Physica C354 (2001), p.105-109).

Known composite superconductor, representing some of superconducting multi-fiber and several wires of metal of the same diameter, alternately twisted with a given step around a Central copper rod (see ibid.). Wires made of metal, depending on the purpose of the combined superconductor can perform various functions. In this case they are made of stainless steel is steel and serve to increase the mechanical rigidity of the composite superconductor and reduction in the electric losses in variable modes.

The disadvantage of composite superconductors is limited ability to work in variable modes at speeds of change of magnetic field is greater than or of the order of 1 T/C. these modes in time-varying magnetic field in the superconductor is heat that must be absorbed either by the superconductor due to its own heat, if the winding is tight with no channels for the passage of refrigerant, or refrigerant. Since the heat-absorbing ability of the superconductor is limited up to the critical temperature of the superconductor, and the refrigerant in the channels, respectively, critical phenomena in heat transfer on the surface of the heated superconductor, especially in narrow channels (crisis mode boil with sharp, in tens of degrees, increasing temperature), hence there are temporary restrictions on the work of superconductors in variable modes.

Known composite superconductor, in which the wire fibers superconducting material to be soldered in the groove of the conductor with a rectangular cross-section made of metal with high conductive properties (M. Wilson, Superconducting magnets, Moscow, Mir, 1985, s-363). Such superconductors are usually used in the windings, magnetic resonance imaging, where high mechanical stresses due to ponderomotive forces.

Not the balance of the known composite superconductor is defined (non-zero) probability of violation of the balance between current and valid (critical) energy perturbation mechanical origin, for example cracking in connecting the coils of the insulating material, the friction at the interface between a conductor and nepravednim or between neprohodnymi etc. This imbalance leads to costly training process - a gradual improvement of the characteristics of the magnet after a few transitions winding in the normal state.

Known composite superconductor, representing tapered odnoobemnoe twist of several wires with fiber superconducting material (flat transposed cable Rutherford-type - name of the laboratory where this design was developed) (M.N. Wilson, Hassenzuhl W.V., Moritz G., et al., - Cored Rutherford Cables for the GSI Fast Ramping Synchrotron, IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, Vol.13, No. 2, June 2003, p.1704-1709). Within this twisting is a thin strip of steel or brass, which is designed to reduce the shielding currents between the layers of wires in variable magnetic fields parallel to the wide side twisting. However, the alternating magnetic field perpendicular to this side, lead shielding currents between the wires in the layers, which leads to heat generation from this component of the electrical losses, and therefore also to the restrictions when working in variable modes.

The closest technical solution is combined superconductor containing wires made of fibers of superconducting material in a matrix of metal with high conductive properties, and the rare-earth intermetallic with extremely high heat capacity at low temperatures (United States Patent 4, 623, 862, 1986, class H 01 F 7/22).

The disadvantages of the known composite superconductor are almost insurmountable difficulties in manufacture, namely a uniform dispersion (distribution) by volume of the composite superconductor of rare-earth intermetallic when it is used in the form of fine powder, in standard operation seamless transfer of unwinding with simultaneous twisting of the workpiece wires to the desired cross sectional dimensions in the case where the rare-earth intermetallic, as well as the superconducting material is placed in a copper matrix in the form of rods, due to significantly different mechanical properties, same thing, only without twisting when intermetallide placed in the copper matrix in the form of concentric layers, the same when the rare-earth intermetallic itself performs the function of a matrix, and in it placed the terminals of the superconducting material.

The technical result is to increase functionality.

The technical result is achieved by the fact that the combined superconductor provided with a conductor comprising a metal shell, which is a rare earth intermetallic, and these wires and Explorer SP is Yana, and the metal shell is made either in the form of a hollow cylinder, the inner cavity of which is intended for location of rare-earth intermetallic, or in the form of a flat belt with an inner layer for the location of rare-earth intermetallic, and several wires with fiber superconducting material twisted with a given step along the perimeter of a hollow cylindrical shell, and a few wires with fiber superconducting material and several conductors located inside the rare-earth intermetallic alternately twisted in tapered odnoobemnoe twist, in addition, the composite superconductor contains a conductor made of metal with high conductive properties such as copper or aluminum, in which the groove with a rectangular cross-section with soldered in her wire with the fibers of superconducting material and a conductor of rare earth intermetallic inside, and several wires twisted around a flat belt with an internal cavity and a layer of rare earth intermetallic.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, where figure 1 is a cross-section of the three samples combined superconductor, two of which are rare-earth intermetallic compounds with extremely high heat capacity at low temperatures, while the third is not significant; figure 2 presents the electrical scheme of the experiment with electromagnetic perturbations applied to the samples (induction eddy currents), and the cross-section of the mandrel with the samples under different conditions cooling: no cooling (adiabatic conditions typical for dense superconducting windings) and direct cooling with liquid helium in a vertical channel; figure 3-4 shows curves stored in the capacitor energy electromagnetic disturbance, in which the superconducting samples are transferred in the normal state (critical energy) from the current sample at different durations of the perturbations, as well as different cooling conditions.

Figure 5-8 presents the cross-sectional variations of the structural design of composite superconductors containing rare-earth intermetallic compounds with extremely high heat capacity at low temperatures.

Manufactured and tested three samples combined superconductor, see figure 1, two of which are rare-earth intermetallics HoCu2(holmium-copper) 4 and CeCu6(cerium-copper) 5. The samples consisted of a wire with a diameter of 0.85 mm fiber superconducting material 1 (total 2970 fibers of Nb-Ti with a diameter of 10 μm) in the copper matrix 6 and welded wire conductor: either copper 3 also diameter is ω 0.85 mm in the control sample;

- either in the form of a hollow cylindrical shell 7 with an outer diameter of 0.85 mm and 0.6 mm internal, which is a rare earth intermetallic HoCu2(holmium-copper) 4;

- either in the form of a hollow cylindrical shell 7 with an outer diameter of 0.85 mm and 0.6 mm internal, which is a rare earth intermetallic CeCu6(cerium-copper) 4.

The 8 samples were pasted inside the hollow cylindrical mandrel 9 (see figure 2) of an insulating material, and the inner cavity was either completely filled epoxy adhesive 11 to simulate adiabatic conditions, or was free for the passage of liquid helium 12. The mandrel 9 is wound an excitation coil 10 made of thin copper wire ⊘ 0.125 mm, containing 600 turns, see figure 2.

Electromagnetic disturbance simulate the discharge of the capacitor 13 by means of the key 14 to the excitation coil 10 (see figure 2). This raises the electromagnetic oscillations of a frequency of 320 Hz, which lead to induction heating of the sample circular eddy currents. Sample 8 with the transport current is placed in an external magnetic field of 3 Tesla. The characteristic discharge time is 550 μs. Fig 3-4 compare the dependence of the energy of the perturbations, which converts the samples in the normal state (critical energy) on the magnitude of the transport current, for samples containing rare-earth inter is etallica, and one that did not contain.

Figure 5 presents the design containing the rare-earth intermetallic composite superconductor, typically used in the form of subcubes for the manufacture of more complex and high-current superconducting current-carrying elements. This combined superconductor is a few wires with fiber superconducting material 1 in the copper matrix 6, convolved with a given step along the perimeter of the metallic hollow cylindrical shell 7, inside which include rare earth intermetallic 4 or 5. Wire and sheath are soldered between the solder 2.

Figure 6 presents the design containing the rare-earth intermetallic composite superconductor in the form of odnoobemnoe tapered twisting of the alternately twisted wires with fiber superconducting material 1 in the copper matrix 6 and a hollow cylindrical conductors inside of the metal shell 7 which is a rare earth intermetallic 4 or 5. Conductors and wires soldered between a lead-tin solder 2.

Figure 7 presents the design containing the rare-earth intermetallic composite superconductor comprising a conductor made of aluminum or copper with 6 groove of rectangular cross-section, in which by means of solder 2 soldered the wire is d with the fibers of superconducting material 1 in the matrix of copper 6 and the conductor with a hollow cylindrical metal shell 7 with rare-earth intermetallic 4 or 5 inside.

On Fig presents the design of a combined superconductor containing rare earth intermetallic, in which multiple wires with fiber superconducting material 1 in the copper matrix 6 twisted around the metal shell 7 in the form of a flat belt with an inner layer for the location of rare-earth intermetallic 4 or 5. Wire and tape soldered by the solder 2.

The use of rare-earth intermetallic compounds in the composition of the combined samples significantly increases their resistance pulse thermal perturbations (see figure 3). Even with the direct samples are cooled with liquid helium in a vertical channel (best case for heat transfer from the heated sample) does not blur effect significant differences resistance pulse thermal perturbations for samples with rare-earth intermetallic compounds and without them (see figure 4).

The introduction of substances with extremely high heat capacity (for example, when the boiling point of liquid helium at 4.2 K the heat capacity of rare earth intermetallic HoCu2450 times greater than that of copper) part of the combined superconductors significantly (about 5-10 times) increases the average volumetric heat capacity. Accordingly, in the same time increase their heat-absorbing ability and the ability to cope with the betrayal is the second magnetic field and a pulsed local heat mechanical origin without heating of the superconductor below the critical temperature of transition to the normal state.

The proposed design implementation allows the use of conventional design combined superconductors and standard technological operations for the manufacture of superconductors with enhanced performance in variable modes, such as superconducting inductive energy storage or for dipole and quadrupole magnets in particle accelerators. Also for the manufacture of superconductors with high resistance to pulsed heat when they are used in superconducting windings with large mechanical stresses in the superconductor (˜150 MPa), such as in superconducting windings medical magnetic resonance imaging.

1. Combined superconductor containing wires made of fibers of superconducting material in a matrix of metal with high conductive properties of the rare-earth intermetallic with extremely high heat capacity at low temperatures, characterized in that it is provided with a conductor comprising a metal shell, which is a rare earth intermetallic, and these wires and the conductor is soldered.

2. Composite superconductor according to claim 1, characterized in that the metal shell is made in the form of a hollow cylinder, the inner cavity of which is dedicated to superior quality products is Chen for the location of rare-earth intermetallic.

3. Composite superconductor according to claim 1, characterized in that the metal shell is made in the form of a flat belt with an inner hollow layer for the location of rare-earth intermetallic.

4. Composite superconductor according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that several wires with fiber superconducting material twisted with a given step along the perimeter of a hollow cylindrical shell.

5. Composite superconductor according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that several wires with fiber superconducting material and several conductors located inside the rare-earth intermetallic alternately twisted in tapered odnoobemnoe twist.

6. Composite superconductor according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that it contains a conductor made of metal with high conductive properties such as copper or aluminum, in which the groove with a rectangular cross-section with soldered in her wire with the fibers of superconducting material and a conductor of rare earth intermetallic inside.

7. Composite superconductor according to claim 1 or 3, characterized in that several wires twisted around a flat belt with an internal cavity and a layer of rare earth intermetallic.



 

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