Method for dry storage of spent fuel assemblies in container

FIELD: transport and storage of spent nuclear fuel.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes placement of fuel assemblies in transport package incorporating container and split damping casing designed so as to minimize lift of container when inserting it in split damping casing. Transport package is conveyed to storage place where container is freed of casing, whereupon spent fuel assemblies are kept in storage place. In the process spent fuel assemblies are first placed in container and then the latter is inserted in vertical position into split damping casing made in the form of removable drum with butt-end covering and base that functions as end lid of this drum. Charged container is installed on base, covered on top with removable drum, and the latter is fastened to base. Then split damping casing is secured to container, whereupon transport package is conveyed in transport position to storage place.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability of storage and transportation.

6 cl, 5 dwg

 

The invention relates to nuclear engineering, in particular to the storage of spent fuel, and more particularly, to a dry container storage of spent fuel assemblies (SFAS) nuclear power plants (NPP), and can be used to improve the reliability when handling the SFA.

Known dry storage of spent nuclear fuel (Reference nuclear energy technologies. TRANS. from English. Fran, Adamantiades, Jukendo, Cbraun /edited Vaigach. M.: Energoatomizdat, 1989, s-496). There is a method of dry storage assumes a certain initial period of exposure in the pool of water. After this spent fuel is loaded into the container, which is stored in the storage location. It can be a mine on the surface, a dry well or chamber with air cooling.

If the method of dry cask storage to consider ukrupnennom, it may be noted that in the General case, it implies the following set of operations:

- SFA withstand a certain time into the pool of water;

- load the fuel in the container;

- loaded container is transported to the interim storage at the NPP or in the near to her store). The use of intermediate storage allows you to get a deferment in respect of a decision on the final disposal of SNF (Enberg K. Storage is their spent fuel in Germany. The magazine "Teploenergetika, No. 11, 1996, p.70-76);

- keep the container in place interim storage within 20-50 years;

container with SFAS transported to the place of final storage;

container with SFAS set in place the final storage (disposal).

It can be noted that the operation of transporting the fuel to the storage location is always inherent in the process forming method of dry cask storage, i.e. the concept of "way of the dry cask storage SFAS" includes "transportation of spent fuel assemblies for storage.

In comparison with other approaches to the storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) dry storage has the potential economic benefits. With such a storage based on passive cooling, use a very simple system that does not require significant maintenance. Power plants on the dry storage can be increased gradually, in small portions with minimum initial capital costs.

The disadvantage of this method is that in the construction of the AFR storage of spent fuel is required to ensure safety during transport, i.e. to increase radiation-protective properties of the container and lowering loads in possible emergencies during transport is irowiki, you need to consider in accordance with IAEA recommendations. This, in turn, causes an appreciation of the way. Large capital investments and requires the construction of special facilities for the storage of containers, such as mines on the surface, wells or underground chambers.

The known method of the intermediate and final storage of the fuel elements of a nuclear reactor (patent DE No. 3500999, G 24 19/32, 19/06, 1986), namely, that the spent fuel elements are inserted into the metal sleeve and retain cooled in a shielded chamber. If this spent fuel elements are inserted into bushings in the reactor and with them transported to the input of the technological position of the specified camera in the transport tank mounted on the truck, allowing the rotation of the tank in a vertical position, in which the upper end side of the tank is on the top floor of the truck. Fuel elements are transported with bushings and transferred to the store, available to boot the machine that hosts the camera.

The disadvantage of this method of spent fuel storage is that it assumes construction of on-site storage. The concentration of nuclear fuel in one place, and the location of the NPP, as a rule, industrial centers with conc what Tracia population and consumers, reduces the safety of nuclear power plants. In this capacity prereactor stores limited. In addition, the construction of special equipment is expensive and causes a relatively large timing of the creation of the repository.

There is a method of dry storage of radioactive high level waste (patent DE No. 3708234, G 21 F 9/34, 1988). The known method provides for the storage of radioactive waste is loaded into the chill mould by keeping the moulds in wells, calculated for individual chills and made in the place of final disposal of waste, and includes transport chills to the storage location. The method consists in the fact that radioactive waste is loaded into the moulds, the latter in some circles set in a metal shipping container, after by means of ground transportation mentioned containers delivered to the region final disposal, where the chill mould portions are loaded into metal operating containers and transported them to the places of final disposal, calculated for individual moulds. After unloading the moulds in place of final disposal of operating return containers to load the next portion of the moulds from the shipping container.

The disadvantage of this method of dry storage is relatively large, the intensity and need for special construction of wells under the mold, that requires a large investment. In addition, in the known method of storage, including operation of transportation chills with radioactive waste to the place of storage, the latter is relatively time-consuming. Mentioned operation involves the use of two types of containers - transport and maintenance and handling of fuel from one container to another, which in itself complicates the process. When applied to long spent fuel assemblies using multi-tiered transportation seems inappropriate for constructive reasons.

The known method of container storage of radioactive waste, in which radioactive waste is stored or transported in a steel container, surrounded by walls several containers made of concrete, steel and lead (patent GB No. 2132814, G 21 F 9/34, 5/00, 1984). The containers are inserted into one another, and each sealed at least one cover. When this outer container perform the split in the form of the Foundation, which has consistently set the removable coaxial rings and end overlap. This embodiment of the outer container (casing) allows downloading to minimize the height of the other containers, inserted one into the other and thus allows visit the safety of radioactive waste management, placed in a steel container. The outer container, in essence, represents a set each other concrete blocks with the ends overlapping, which are the means of additional shielding from radiation. The division of the outer container part due to the requirement of ease of installation.

However, the known method the container store does not imply in the transportation of radioactive waste, the provision of a damping steel container with radioactive waste in possible emergencies, i.e. steel container is not protected from shock loads, which reduces radiation safety, for example, during transport.

There is a method of dry cask storage of spent nuclear fuel and similar materials, in which a steel container with OAG during the period of interim storage at the NPP in the vertical position is placed in a protective and cooling housing that can be built from the annular reinforced concrete elements mounted one on the other (US patent No. 5852643, G 21 F 005/00, 1998). When this steel container with spent fuel set on round base, on which, after consistently set coaxial annular reinforced concrete elements and the round cover (gable roof). Referred to the base and to laamrani elements are equipped with guides, so when convergence of the elements and ventilation protective casing around the steel container is formed an annular channel of given width. This channel contributes to the creation of defocusing geometry in case of contact with the protective cover shaped charge (for example, anti-tank armor-piercing projectile). Thus, protective and vent cover protects from possible radioactive contamination in case of terrorist attacks on nuclear power plants.

However, protective and cooling housing in the known method does not ensure protection of steel container during transport of the latter, because the elements of the casing are not bonded together and the cover is not fastened with a steel container.

There is a method of dry container storage of long (up to 14 m) of the SFA, in which case (inner tank) with SFAS placed in a detachable cover (patent RU No. 2148864, G 21 F 5/008, 2000). According to a known method SFAS first withstand a certain time into the pool of water, and then the fuel assemblies are loaded into a container for transportation and long term storage (up to 50 years). The container has an outer housing with cover (detachable hood), pouch with slots for long SFA and dampers. At this time the container has an internal casing (inner tank) with a lid covering the cover with the slots for the FA, containing means for mounting the outer housing (plug housing) and relies on shock absorbers that are evenly spaced and fixed on the bottom horizontally installed external body (split cover) and on the inner surface of the cover of the outer casing. Container loading is as follows. The tilter seize the container and set in a vertical position on the Assembly platform. Otstegivayut the cover of the outer casing (split cover), gear valve inner housing (inner tank) and transferred to the site to download the cover. Otstegivayut the cover of the inner case, download the case of long SFA and produce drying SFAS hot air. After drying SFAS sealed inner case (inner tank) cover and is filled with an inert gas through the valve. Return the inner housing into the container, sealed outer casing (detachable hood) and the container is installed in the horizontal position. In this position the container is transported by rail to the place of storage.

There is a method of dry storage of long SFA involves taking measures to ensure the minimization of the height of the loaded container (inner tank) when attached is it in a protective casing. However, in a well-known source of information is the solution to this problem is not solved.

There is a method of dry cask storage, which ensures the minimization of the height of the loaded container (inner tank) when placed in protective damping tube (patent RU No. 2105364, G 21 F 5/008, 1998), which casing is carried out in a split drum with end walls and sides, including a Central element and leaf items (parcels adjacent to the end walls). When this shell is divided into four parts: two cylindrical adjacent to the respective end walls and two half. As a result of the subdivision damping shroud embodiment is of separable design, consisting of a base, a top cover and two end caps respectively interconnected by means of flange connections. According to a known method before transporting the container with spent fuel from the NPP for further storage or disposal first on the supporting Foundation or a special frame store is installed in a horizontal position, made in the form of a semicylinder the basis of the damping housing. Then by lifting means on the supports mentioned base install in horizontal laid and the inner tank with the fuel. Thus the height of the tank above the floor does not exceed 300 mm, i.e. the permissible values under the terms of a possible emergency drop tank. Then install the top cover of the damping casing, which is connected with the said base. Then the inner tank is fixed inside the damping casing with threaded lugs. After that consistently set the two end caps of the damping casing, which is connected with its base and top cover. Then the inner tank is fixed in the axial direction with the respective threaded lugs. Then carry out the installation of the container containing the inner and outer tanks on the vehicle. The transport container is carried out in a horizontal position.

However, in the known method the installation of the container with spent fuel in a protective damping casing is carried out in a horizontal position, which assumes that the tipping of the container with spent fuel and complicates the handling of the container when it is placed in protective damping casing. In addition, a relatively large number of connectors protective damping casing increases the complexity of the method of dry cask storage.

The closest to the invention by the combination of essential features is the way ohoho storage of spent fuel assemblies in the patent RU No. 2097848 (G 21 F 5/008, 1997). The known method includes the following operations:

a) metal and concrete container (inner tank) is placed in the supplied end cap damping detachable casing (outer tank). While specified shroud perform split in such a way as to minimize the required height of metal and concrete containers (IBC) when placed in a vertical position in the casing and to release from the casing. Thus, IBC (internal tank), together with the damping cover (outer tank) form a shipping container. Along with providing protection MBq from destruction in case of emergency during transportation and provide additional radiation protection during transportation IBC, the damping casing makes it possible to reduce the weight and to reduce the manufacturing cost of the IBC, and because IBC is the main (basic) and replicable element for container solutions "dry" storage, thanks to the placings for the period of transportation in the damping housing, as a result, reduced the cost method of dry cask storage as a whole;

b) download the SFA in a shipping container (SFAS load in MBq placed in the damping casing).

In an embodiment of the method each SFA before loading IBC is placed in the case and the latter is the second seal;

C) close the transport container, comprising an outer (damping casing) and internal (IBC) containers and tanks.

In the embodiment, the method of the damping casing and IBC rigidly fastened to each other;

g) loaded shipping container is transported to the storage location;

d) IBC (internal tank) released from the damping casing (outer tank);

e) MBC set at the storage location;

g) transporting the container to return for subsequent loading (after putting in the damping casing unloaded MBq, in the above-mentioned storage location). This ensures protection of the IBC from destruction in possible emergencies during transportation in an unloaded condition. The damping casing, being designed for protection from destruction downloaded MBq, especially protects empty IBC.

There is a method of dry storage SFA allows for the use of metal and concrete containers for transportation and/or storage of SNF to provide protection of a container with SFAS from destruction in possible emergencies during transportation to the place of storage that must be considered in accordance with the IAEA recommendations, and increases the radiation protection of the personnel during transport.

However, placing metal and concrete containers in the damping casing to the operation of the load in the container SFAS significantly increases the size accepted (i.e. loaded) structure (container Assembly with damping cover). Given that the container loading spent fuel assemblies, usually performed in the transport corridor reactor plant NPP, the dimensions of which are limited, in terms of providing the ability to move it above structure it is necessary to reduce the dimensions of the damping housing and, accordingly, the dimensions of the container. This reduces the number of fuel assemblies placed in the container. In total this leads to the necessity of increasing the required number of containers and the cost of implementing the concept of dry cask storage of spent fuel. In addition, used in the known method the damping casing has a relatively large number of connectors, which increases the complexity of the way dry storage of spent fuel assemblies.

The present invention solves the problem of providing in terms of existing infrastructure the possibility of using metal and concrete containers with proper dimensions mass (from the point of view of the amount placed in the container SFA) while ensuring that before the storage of containers with spent fuel assemblies from damage during possible emergencies during transportation to the place of storage.

The problem is solved due to the fact that in the method of dry cask storage of spent fuel assemblies, including the placement of fuel assemblies in the transport and packaging, consisting of a container and detachable damping casing made detachable so as to minimize the height of the container when it is placed in the split of the damping housing, and transportation transport and packaging to the storage location where the container is released from the casing, after which the spent fuel assemblies stored in the storage location, according to the invention first load of spent fuel assemblies in the container, whereupon the container in a vertical position is placed in a detachable damping housing is in the form of a removable drum with the ends overlapping (upper lid) and the Foundation of the role of the end (bottom) of the removable cover of the drum. When the loaded container is mounted on the base, the top covered with a removable drum (as cap), which fasten to the base, and then split the damping fasten the cover with the container, after which the transport packaging in the transport position is transported to the storage location.

Along with this embodiment, the front loading of spent th is emitting Assembly in the container they are placed in multi pencil case.

In another embodiment, prior to installation of the loaded container on the basis of the last set in the recess made at the site of the work place.

In addition, in the above embodiments, executing on the storage location after the release of the container from the casing of the container is released from the spent fuel assemblies.

With this in another embodiment, upon release of the container from the spent fuel assemblies reinstall them in another container (the container store), intended only for the storage of spent fuel assemblies.

In an embodiment, when spent fuel assemblies are installed in multi pencil case, after loading spent fuel assemblies into the canister its internal cavity seal.

The technical result of the use of the invention is that it permits the use of metal and concrete containers for transportation and/or storage of SNF to provide protection of a container with SFAS from destruction in possible emergencies during transportation to the place of storage that must be considered in accordance with the IAEA recommendations, increases the radiation protection of the personnel during transportation and at the same time allows in terms of existing infrastructure the ES to use metal and concrete containers with proper dimensions and its mass from the point of view of the quantity placed (loaded) SFA, that allows to reduce the required number of containers and thereby makes it possible to reduce the cost of implementing the concept of dry storage of spent nuclear fuel using IBC for transportation and/or storage of spent fuel.

1 schematically shows the overload of canisters with spent fuel assemblies from the pool soaking in metal and concrete container mounted on the fixed trolley within the transport corridor reactor plant NPP, in figure 2 - fixed unloading trucks on site interim storage containers with SFA; figure 3 - metal and concrete container with SFAS placed in the damping casing, and lifting means for tilting device on site interim storage before loading, transport and packaging on a railway platform (railway Transporter); figure 4 - installation transport and packaging on a railway platform (railway Transporter); figure 5 - split damping casing with placed in a metal and concrete container, a longitudinal section.

In an embodiment of the invention the method is carried out using the transport container 1, which contains the inner and outer tanks 2, 3. The inner tank 2 and the container is designed for loading spent fuel assemblies 4 and carried in the form of cilin the historical metal and concrete constructions with two sealed covers: external 5 and 6, located one above the other and mounted on a single base 7. Caps 5 and 6 form two circuit (barrier) protection. In addition, the design of the inner tank 2 (i.e. proper container) allows the installation of additional sealing cover (for example, in the form of a sheet), which is on the perimeter of the weld to the base 7 (not shown). Extra sealing cover due to the possibility of reducing the tightness of the seal of the lids 5 and 6 in terms of long-term radiation and thermal Cycling effects during storage of SNF and - demand reliability and ecological safety of the method of dry cask storage.

The outer tank 3 is a damping casing of the detachable elements. In General, the casing is designed as a removable drum 8 with the ends overlapping and the base 9, which is intended for supporting a removable drum 8 and fulfilling the role of bottom end cap removable drum. In the embodiment of the invention the drum 8 with the ends overlapping and base 9 contain drogenfirme elements, for example, in the form of a set of pipes with sufficient strain energy. The mounting base 9 with the drum 8 is made in the form of bolted flanged connections, with the inner cylindrical surface the drum 8 is associated with a corresponding mating surface, done on the ground. This prevents loading of the bolts 10 mentioned flange shear (transverse) efforts at impact. In the cylindrical wall of the drum and end overlapping drum set interacting with the housing inner tank 2 screw elements 11 to prevent movement of the inner tank 2 (the actual container relative to the outer tank 3 (damping casing) when the effects of congestion in the transportation period. Thus, thanks to the screw elements 11 eliminates the possibility of collisions of the container and the damping casing during transportation.

The proposed method for dry storage of spent fuel assemblies is as follows.

Spent fuel assemblies 4 can withstand a certain time into the pool 12 with water. In the embodiment, the method of SFAS placed (installed) in multiple canisters 13, which simplifies the handling of the SFA.

In an embodiment, after installation of the SFAS in the case 13 of the last seal, for example by means of "scalding" his cover. Sealing the canister can significantly improve environmental safety in possible emergencies during transportation and storage of SNF. The use of multiple pins the crystals compared to single cases can reduce the total number of boxes and sealing elements.

After a certain period of aging in the pool of water and consequently, reduction of the level of activity SFAS them unloaded from the pool 12 extracts and loaded into the container 2 for further storage. Download SFA in the container can be made when the container 2 in the transport corridor 14 reactor workshop on special fixed to the carriage 15 having the minimum height of the cargo area. Canisters 13 with SFAS installed in the corresponding slot of the spacer grid 16, which is pre-placed in the container 2. Is it possible to download SFAS directly into the container 2, or - in installed in the loading chamber spacer bars 16, which then together with SFAS installed in the container 2. In the latter case (no pencil boxes) socket spacer grids can be performed isolated from the internal space of the cavity of the container and can be closed by covers (not shown). Loading, internal transportation of the container 2 and the storage container at nuclear power plants are in the upright position of the container. After loading the container it is closed, as a rule, two sealed covers 5,6 and loaded container is transported to the interim storage 17 (NPP area or in adjacent kept the school). During this movement of the container and set the container in place of the intermediate storage is implemented with a speed limit of movement and height of the container, as well as the use of additional safety means, which eliminates the possibility of emergency situations that could be destroyed loaded in the container SFA and could be broken or leaking container.

In place of intermediate storage 17 loaded container may be a long time. Then loaded the container 2 to be transported to the place of final storage.

Before transporting the container with the fuel assemblies from nuclear power plants to the final place of storage (for example, at regional storage or reprocessing plant for processing SNF) container 2 is placed in a detachable damping casing 3. At this time the container 2 with SFAS through regular lifting means mounted on horizontally exposed base 9, and then covered with a removable drum 8, which by means of, for example, bolted joints rigidly fastened with the base 9. Then use the screw elements 11 of the damping housing 3 is fastened to the container 2. This eliminates the possibility of movement of the latter within the casing during transportation. The screw elements 11, the crimping dangerousi the casing with the container are at the same time the spacer and absorber elements, and in addition, act as thermal bridges. This technical solution provides reliable protection of the container 2 when any emergency falls, increases radiation protection due to the additional shielding and reduces the structural strength margin of the container, which, in turn, reduces the cost of the container. Thus the performance of the damping casing 3 with detachable detachable base 9 when the container with SFAS mounted on the base 9 of the casing and covered with a removable drum 8 with the ends overlapping, allows to minimize the height of the container when placed in the casing and to release from the casing, allowing safe handling of fuel (SNF). In another embodiment (not shown), further reducing the height of the container with SFA when it is placed in the damping casing can be achieved by setting the base 9 of the housing in the hollow (the hollow, performed at the site of the work place, in particular, in place of intermediate storage).

After the container Assembly with damping cover (transport packaging) by means of the lifting means 18 and the tilting device 19 is transferred to the horizontal position. In this position of the transport packaging (TUK) mounted on the vehicle for example, railway platform (railway Transporter) 20 and fix the position of the TUK relative to the last.

Transport packaging (damping casing with the container) in the transport position is transported to the place of final storage (disposal). Split the damping casing, equipped with shock-absorbing elements (e.g., pipes, set of ribs in the form of frames and stringers, etc.), reduces congestion, acting on the container, to an acceptable level in all possible emergency situations regulated by the normative documents of the Russian Federation and IAEA recommendations, if any, including the most unfavorable angles of incidence TUK (for example, fall on the corner TUK). Together with this, the location of the container in the damping housing significantly increases the strength characteristics of the transport packaging at the drop of a pin, thermal protective properties when injected into the zone of fire and radiation-protective properties.

After transportation of the container in the regional store release it to the storage location from the damping housing is in the reverse sequence. Then the damping casing return on NPP for subsequent transportation of the container with the fuel assemblies and the container with SFAS set in the storage area.

Alternatively, the filling up of the invention in the storage location after the liberation of the container 2 from the damping casing 3, the container is released from the spent fuel assemblies 4. In this embodiment, the SFA 4 on the storage location of the container 2 overload (reinstall) in another container that is intended only for the storage of fuel (storage container), the requirements for which can be significantly lower than to the container 2, intended for storage and/or transportation (excludes requirements associated with potential emergency transport situations). This significantly simplifies the storage container and to reduce its cost in comparison with the container 2 and, respectively, to reduce the cost of implementation of the method of dry cask storage.

Thus, due to the peculiarities of performance, the proposed method allows for the use of metal and concrete containers for transportation and/or storage of SNF to provide protection of a container with SFAS from destruction in possible emergencies during transportation to the place of storage that must be considered in accordance with the IAEA recommendations, increases the radiation protection of the personnel during transportation and at the same time allows in terms of existing infrastructure NPP to use metal and concrete containers with proper dimensions and its mass from the point of view of the quantity placed (loaded) SFA, thereby reducing the required number of containers is thereby possible to reduce the cost of implementing the concept of dry storage of spent nuclear fuel when using MCS for transportation and/or storage of spent fuel.

1. Method of dry cask storage of spent fuel assemblies, including the placement of fuel assemblies in the transport and packaging, consisting of a container and detachable damping casing made detachable so as to minimize the height of the container when it is placed in the split of the damping housing, and transportation transport and packaging to the storage location where the container is released from the casing, after which the spent fuel assemblies stored in the storage location, wherein the first load of spent fuel assemblies in the container, whereupon the container in a vertical position is placed in a detachable damping housing is in the form of removable drum end overlap and the Foundation of the role of the end cap removable drum, while the loaded container mounted on the base, the top covered with a removable drum, which fasten to the base, and then split the damping fasten the cover with the container, after which the transport packaging in the transport position is transported to the storage location.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that before loading spent fuel assemblies into the container they are placed in multi pencil case.

4. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the storage location after the release of the container from the casing of the container is released from the spent fuel assemblies.

5. The method according to claim 4, characterized in that upon release of the container from the spent fuel assemblies reinstall them in another container.

6. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that after loading spent fuel assemblies into the canister its internal cavity seal.



 

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25 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: safety facilities for handling radioactive materials.

SUBSTANCE: proposed internal container designed for long-time storage and transport of high-radioactivity materials such as plutonium dioxide has container body closed with sealed cover and specified-volume charging box placed in this body and provided with its respective cover. Container body has cylindrical passage for charging box that mounts additional internal cover provided with gas filtering device and hermetically installed relative to its surface for axial displacement. External cover of container body is provided with shut-off valve accommodating gas filtering device installed therein between inner space of container and valve seat. Such mechanical design of container enables reducing irreparable loss of plutonium during its long-time storage and transport.

EFFECT: enhanced safety and reliability , enlarged functional capabilities of container.

7 cl, 2 dwg

The invention relates to the field of nuclear engineering

The invention relates to the field of storage and transportation of spent nuclear fuel

The invention relates to the field of processing, transportation and disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF), in particular to a method of loading spent fuel in the transport of the radiation-shielding container ships nuclear technology maintenance (ATO) or on floating bases storage of spent fuel for further transportation

FIELD: safety facilities for handling radioactive materials.

SUBSTANCE: proposed internal container designed for long-time storage and transport of high-radioactivity materials such as plutonium dioxide has container body closed with sealed cover and specified-volume charging box placed in this body and provided with its respective cover. Container body has cylindrical passage for charging box that mounts additional internal cover provided with gas filtering device and hermetically installed relative to its surface for axial displacement. External cover of container body is provided with shut-off valve accommodating gas filtering device installed therein between inner space of container and valve seat. Such mechanical design of container enables reducing irreparable loss of plutonium during its long-time storage and transport.

EFFECT: enhanced safety and reliability , enlarged functional capabilities of container.

7 cl, 2 dwg

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