Liquid-propellant rocket engine operating on fuel containing helium additive

FIELD: rocketry, in particular, liquid-propellant rocket engines using helium as a cooler of the engine chamber body.

SUBSTANCE: the liquid-propellant rocket engine has an engine chamber consisting of a combustion chamber and a nozzle, having regenerative-cooling ducts, turbopump assembly including centrifugal pumps of oxidizer, fuel and helium, neutral gas generator fed from the pumps of oxidizer and fuel, and the outlet of the helium pump is coupled to the regenerative cooling passage of the combustion chamber, whose outlet is coupled to the mentioned gas generator, the outlet of the gas generator is coupled to the turbine of the turbopump assembly, whose outlet is coupled to the oxidizer supply line to the combustion chamber mixing head. Besides, cooling of the chamber nozzle is effected by fuel, which, having passed through the regenerative cooling ducts, is supplied to the mixing head. The combustion chamber of the engine chamber and the gas generator operate at a stoichiometric relation of the fuel components. Introduction of the helium additive to the combustion products of the main fuel components to the neutral gas generator and further to the engine combustion chamber makes it possible to enhance the engine specific thrust pulse approximately by 20S, and, with regard to denial of screen cooling, approximately to 30S and more.

EFFECT: enhanced engine specific thrust pulse.

1 cl, 1 dwg

 

The technical field

The invention relates to the field of engineering, specifically to the design of liquid propellant rocket engines.

The most important indicator of the excellence of liquid rocket engines is the value of specific impulse, which depends primarily on the energy capacity of fuel used, which is manifested, in particular, the temperature of combustion. However, it is known that the specific impulse depends substantially on the value of the molecular mass of the flowing combustion products.

The prior art.

In recent years, the development of oxygen-kerosene rocket engines is toward the use of closed circuit with afterburning of turbogas in the engine compartment (see, for example, the book: Kozlov A.A. and other Systems of power and control liquid rocket propulsion systems. M: mechanical engineering, 1988, pp. 115-125). Here turbopump turbine unit, fed by the working gas from the gas generator actuates the pumps components of the fuel in the gasifier and the combustion chamber, and the working gas from the gas generator after tripping on the turbopump turbine unit is fed into the combustion chamber, where it undergoes oxidation. Thus, the fuel energy is used as fully as possible. This decision is taken within the anal is,

However, this scheme has the disadvantage, because when it is used to drive the turbine high-temperature oxidative gas is stored in emergency situations the potential fire hazard of the flow channel of the turbine.

The prototype of the proposed technical solution is oxygen-kerosene rocket engine, protected by the RF patent 2148181, MKI F 02 K 9/48. The essence of this invention consists in the combined use of helium as the working fluid several turbines installed system components supply of fuel and the actual helium, and as the working fluid used for cooling the motor chamber. While helium is circulated through a closed circuit, which includes channels regenerative cooling chamber. Due to the high deployemnt properties of helium are able to refuse the use of Severnogo cooling chambers and to increase the specific impulse at 10-15 C.

The lack of such proposals should include the use of sophisticated multi-stage helium compressor significant (because of the very low density of the working fluid) power. The problem is ensuring the air-tightness of the closed helium loop, especially on the rotating shaft turbopump Assembly.

The present invention is who I further improvement of liquid-propellant rocket engine of the closed circuit through the implementation of all physical and thermodynamic advantages of helium, used as fuel additives.

This object is achieved due to the fact that in liquid-propellant rocket engine containing a combustion chamber with a nozzle, which is provided with channels regenerative cooling, turbopump feed system of oxidizer and fuel into the combustion chamber of the engine, helium circuit regenerative cooling chamber comprising a supply unit with turbine drive, the aggregate supply of the working fluid helium circuit used centrifugal pump, with the specified path is a consumable and on the output side channel regenerative cooling is connected to the generator neutral turbogas having a supply of fuel from the discharge highways of oxidizer and fuel, while the output of the gas generator connected to the input in the turbine, and its output is connected to the combustion chamber of the engine. In addition, helium circuit includes channels regenerative cooling of the combustion chamber, and channels regenerative cooling of the nozzle connected with the pressure line of the fuel. The generator neutral gas and the combustion chamber operate at a stoichiometric ratio of expenses the main components of fuel.

The technical result of the proposed solution is to increase the specific impulse of the engine by increasing the value of the gas constant is th products exhaust from the nozzle chamber with the introduction of helium supplements as well as to improve the reliability of the engine due to the refusal of the high-temperature oxidative turbogas and replacement of complex multistage compressor supply helium to a simple centrifugal pump.

A pneumatic diagram of the liquid-propellant rocket engine, containing the proposed solution is depicted in the accompanying drawing.

An example implementation of the invention.

Liquid propellant rocket engine includes a camera 1 of the engine including a combustion chamber 2, the mixing head 3 and the nozzle 4, and the combustion chamber and the nozzle is provided with channels regenerative cooling 5 and 6, respectively. In addition, the engine contains turbopump system 7 supply of oxidizer and fuel in the combustion chamber, the neutral gas generator 8 supplies helium circuit 9.

Turbopump system 7 filing contains a centrifugal pump oxidizer with the first 10 and second 11-speed, centrifugal fuel pump 12 and the turbine 13, mounted on the same shaft 14.

In the helium circuit includes a centrifugal pump 15, in which the claimed invention is mounted on the shaft 14, line 16, connecting the outlet of the centrifugal pump with 15 channels regenerative cooling 5 of the combustion chamber 2, and line 17 connecting the specified channels to the entrance of the neutral gas generator 8.

The oxidizer in gasag nerator 8 is output from the second stage pump 11 oxidant via line 18, and fuel - centrifugal fuel pump 12 through line 19.

The oxidizer in the mixing head 3 of the combustion chamber 2 is output from the first stage 10 of the centrifugal pump oxidizer through line 20, and fuel - also a centrifugal fuel pump 12 through line 21, the channels regenerative cooling 6 of the nozzle 4 and the line 22, the output of which is connected to a mixing head 3.

The output of the neutral gas generator 8 is connected to the input of the turbine 13, the output of which through the line 23 is connected to the line 20.

The operation of the device

The launch of a liquid-propellant rocket engine as follows. After opening the appropriate valves, the oxidizer and fuel tanks (not shown) enters the centrifugal pump fuel 12 in the first stage 10 and the second stage 11 of the centrifugal pump oxidizer. Further, the oxidizer and fuel from the outputs of these pumps come in a certain sequence in the neutral gas generator 8 and the mixing head 3 of the combustion chamber 2 where it is striking, for example, using electrosupply devices (not shown) or through the use of the starting fuel.

The oxidizer in the gas generator neutral gas 8 is output from the second stage pump 11 oxidant via line 18, and the fuel - centrifugal fuel pump 12 through line 19. In the gas generator is provided, the stoichiometric ratio (α=1) oxidizer and fuel, the necessary reduction of the neutral gas temperature (turbogas) to values permitted used structural materials of the turbine 13, achieved by ballasting turbogas the introduction of the gas generator 8 of helium from the helium circuit. While helium from the output of the centrifugal pump 15 through line 16 and enters the channel regenerative cooling 5 of the combustion chamber 2, and one of them heated helium through line 17 enters the neutral gas generator 8.

The oxidizer in the mixing head 3 of the combustion chamber 2 is carried out through line 20 from the output of the first stage 10 of the centrifugal pump oxidizer. Channels 6 regenerative cooling of the nozzle 4 are cooled by the main share of the fuel supplied by the centrifugal pump 12 through line 21 and line 22 into the mixing head 3. The resulting neutral gas generator is supplied to drive the turbine 13 through line 23 enters the highway oxidizer 20, acting, ultimately, into the combustion chamber 2. With increasing turbine speed liquid propellant rocket engine enters the main mode of operation.

Introduction helium additives in the products of combustion of the main components of the fuel gas generator is allowed to significantly increase the value of the gas constant product gas producing. The result can significantly increase the efficiency of the turbine of the turbopump Assembly, to raise the discharge pressure and, accordingly, the operating pressure in the combustion chamber when it is reliable cooling. On the other hand, the subsequent input helium component in the camera allows you to implement in the combustion chamber also stoichiometric combustion with a high value of gas constant exhaust products from the nozzle. As a result, even when markedly reduced (due to helium "ballast") the temperature of the combustion products for option 10% weight. supplements helium is possible to increase the specific impulse of the engine on ˜20, and given the refusal Severnogo cooling ˜up to 30 or more.

Industrial applicability

The claimed liquid propellant rocket engine can be used in rockets when using fuel with helium addition.

1. Liquid propellant rocket engine fuel containing helium additive comprising a combustion chamber with a nozzle, which is provided with channels regenerative cooling, turbopump feed system of oxidizer and fuel into the combustion chamber of the engine and helium circuit regenerative cooling chamber comprising a supply unit with turbine actuator, characterized in that as the aggregate supply of the working fluid helium circuit used centrifugal us is, moreover, the specified path is a consumable and on the output side channel regenerative cooling is connected to the generator neutral turbogas having a supply of fuel from the discharge highways of oxidizer and fuel, while the output of the gas generator connected to the turbine inlet and its outlet connected to the combustion chamber of the engine.

2. Liquid propellant rocket engine under item 1, characterized in that the helium circuit includes channels regenerative cooling of the combustion chamber, and channels regenerative cooling of the nozzle connected with the pressure line of the fuel.

3. Liquid propellant rocket engine under item 1, characterized in that the gas generator neutral gas and the combustion chamber operate at a stoichiometric ratio of the fuel components.

4. Liquid propellant rocket engine under item 1, characterized in that the pumping units of oxidizer, fuel, helium and turbine mounted on the same shaft.



 

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