Method and device for screwing and unscrewing threaded pipe connections

FIELD: mechanical engineering, particularly drilling string and casing pipe connection equipment.

SUBSTANCE: method involves stopping one pipe and rotating another pipe for screwing and unscrewing of above pipes with the use of hydraulic drive and braking system to transmit differently directed torques with the same data along with reactive moment reduction by drive and braking system. Device comprises two coaxial power tongs. Each power tong includes body and pipe squeezing mechanism. The power tongs have common drive including high-speed reducer and differential block kinematically connected one to another. Differential block comprises body with outer and inner toothed crowns, planet carrier with three satellites installed on the carrier, the first tong arranged in body, driven gear kinematically connected to planet carrier and the second tong installed in the body and adapted to cooperate with corresponding gears of pipe squeezing mechanisms. Pipe squeezing mechanism of the first tong is fixedly secured to braking pulley of braking system installed on the first tong body. The braking system comprises four pressing shoes and cylindrical case with hydraulic cylinder for shoe pressing arranged so that cylindrical case may rotate with pulley and pipe squeezing mechanism of the first tong relative pipe squeezing mechanism axis. The cylindrical case is additionally provided with two rests. One rest is fixedly connected with cylindrical case and cooperates with two hydraulic cylinders, which are adapted for thread tightening/unfastening. Another rest is connected with cylindrical case by hinged axis and also cooperates with two other hydraulic cylinders, adapted for thread tightening/unfastening, which provides elimination of reverse reaction and increase of pipe squeezing mechanism torque and locking moment.

EFFECT: possibility to use one drive provided with differential gear to perform screwing/unscrewing operations.

2 cl, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to a drilling technique and can be used on existing rigs, working both at sea and on land to connect the drill or casing string.

Existing methods of screwing or unscrewing the threaded connections based on the operations of retention of the stationary pipe and the rotation of the strand or decoupling with different tubes with different drives, as a rule: for rotation of the upper pipe used motors or electric motors, and for locking the lower pipes of the cylinders, which are kinematically connected with the rotational drive (1).

The principle of operation of the actuator (1) is reduced to the following: included hydraulic actuator, simultaneously or separately (does not matter), dried trubobetonnykh devices converge on the pipe. Because the second key has a fixed Cam ring, and covering its top and bottom disks, in turn, connected through circuits through a mechanical drive shaft with the motor, have a limited angle of rotation, the hinge-bonded disks robotainua mechanisms with crackers (rule wedge) are closed on the tube, creating a spacer efforts, through which the tube is held from rotation, and hydraulic motor drive switches the pump, resulting in a constant working pressure. In your on ered the first key, with the actuator, causes the rotation of the toothed wheel placed inside jaw surfaces, provides clip trubozahvatnym mechanisms of the first pipe and its further rotation.

As any additional forces of resistance in the threads of the connections working pressure in the hydraulic system flowing into the hydraulic motor of the first key, it increases torque and friction forces is turn robotizing mechanism of the second key, producing zakreplenie or unfastening of the first pipe with the second. Without the presence of the second actuator in the second key operations by screwing or unscrewing would be impossible.

In U.S. patent No. 4445402 (figure 4) indicated the hydraulic drive of the second key, which has a total mechanical shaft with sprockets to provide rotation of the disk relative to the stationary Cam ring, and there is no connection of this shaft with a rotating toothed wheel of the first key. Quenching of the reactions from the torque produced via the pins on the stationary frame of the device. The combination of one drive clamp and rotate the pipe first with key clip and locking of the tubes of the second key would be the device (design) in an unusable state.

A device for screwing or unscrewing of resibo the x compounds (2), selected as a prototype of the proposed system, which includes spaced coaxial two driven key, mounted on a common frame. Mechanisms for clamping pipes in both keys are mounted in the gear wheels in the gear with the gear overall drive, consisting of high-speed gearbox and differential unit.

The differential unit includes a housing and a carrier and placed inside of both keys. The housing of the differential block having inner and outer sprockets located in the housing of the drive key and the shaft drove with him in engagement driven by the gear - casing holding the key.

The housing of the differential unit is installed on the supporting bearings in the bores of the housing of the drive key recorded from drop caps, and drove differential unit is built on ball bearings into the internal bore of the housing unit, through which passes a vertical shaft connected by gearing in the lower part of the driven gear speed reducer, and in the upper part with the satellite gear carrier differential unit.

The design of the prototype also has drawbacks:

- has a limited ability in creating high torque and locking points when re-tensioning operations-unfastening the threaded connection is s;

- the impossibility of use of this device on drilling rigs domestic production, do not have rigid guides towers for their perception of the reactive forces from the torque generated by the actuator, and, as a consequence, the impossibility of their installation in suspended version for flexible connections.

These problems have stimulated the search for new technical solutions. The technical result of the invention is expressed in the use of a single drive with differential transmission to perform operations for screwing or unscrewing tool joints of the pipes, increasing the reliability of operation gripper elements trubobetonnykh devices automatically with the regulation of torque depending on the resistance forces arising from the operations of the screwing-unscrewing or re-tensioning-breaking threads. Way of screwing or unscrewing the threaded pipe joints is that the locking of one pipe and the rotation for screwing or unscrewing the other pipe is carried out simultaneously with the use of self-regulated hydraulic drive and brake system with transfer pipes multidirectional torque of the same magnitude with the provision of the damping reactive moments actually drive and brake system without over the ACI them on the external elements of the drilling rig.

The device in this way has two gears, each of which by means of bearings installed in the housing of the corresponding key with the opportunity to interact with a corresponding clamping mechanism and pipes and two intermediate gears, each of which is installed in the housing of the corresponding key with the opportunity to interact with a corresponding toothed wheel, the drive keys are made common and consists of kinematically connected shaft speed reducer and block differential, consisting of a body with external and internal involute teeth, drove with it set three satellites placed in the body of the key pipe rotator, driven gear, kinematically connected with the planet carrier and installed in the body of the stopper key interoperable with the corresponding intermediate gear, and the outer involute teeth of the block differential are located in the body of the key pipe rotator with the ability to interact with its intermediate gear; a clamping mechanism and key pipe rotator is rigidly connected with the brake pulley brake system, which in turn is installed on the body of the key pipe rotator and contains four brake pads and a cylindrical holder with built-in cylinders clamp the brake pads can be rotated cylindrical casing together with the pulley and clamping mechanism and pipe rotator key relative to the axis of the clamping mechanism and pipes, in addition cylindrical ferrule provided with two lugs, one of which emphasis is rigidly connected with a cylindrical yoke and installed with the possibility of interaction between the two cylinders re-tensioning-breaking threads, and the other stop is associated with a cylindrical ferrule through the hinge axis and is mounted for cooperation with the other two cylinders re-tensioning-breaking threads, thus providing damping of the reverse reactions and the increase in torque and locking moments mechanisms Chuck.

The proposed device screwing or unscrewing the threaded connections of the pipes provides:

- use one drive for rotation of the upper tube and the lower locking tube with damping reverse reactions inside its own housing key action of the screwing-unscrewing of the threads, which allows to use the key as in the suspended version, and installing it in the column of the drilling rig;

- creation of high moments and torsion locking through the use of a separate brake system equipped with an additional device re-tensioning-breaking threads, which can significantly reduce the load on the gear elements of the rotator and the locking key.

Figure 1 presents a view of the device in section.

Figure 2 presents a top view n the brake system.

The device comprises a housing 1 coaxially key pipe rotator, building 2 locking key, in which are mounted the gears 3 and 4 with the built-in mechanisms for clamping pipes 5 and 6, the bearings 7 and 8, the intermediate gear 9 and 10 and mated with them the involute gearings driven gear 11 and the block of the differential 12.

Block differential 12 is mounted on antifriction bearings 13 in the body 1 of the pipe rotator and secured from falling out of the top cover 14 and bottom cover 15.

On the upper base of the housing 1 has a built-case speed reducer 16, containing the driven gear 17, and the drive gear 18, the intermediate gear 19 and two actuator 20.

Block differential, comprising: a housing 21 with external and internal involute teeth 22 and 23 with the splined bore 24 in the lower part and embedded in the body 21 of the led 25 are installed on the axles 26 three satellites 27.

In turn drove 25 mounted on ball bearings 28 in the inner bore of the housing 21.

The internal bore drove 25 built a vertical shaft 29, in the lower part having involute teeth 30 through which it is in engagement with 27 satellites of block differential 12 and the slotted hole 31 in the upper part, through which the vertical shaft 29 is engaged with the driven gear 17 of the gearbox 16.

On the top of the base housing 1 a brake system, consisting of a casing 32, with radially placed inside wosu the cylinders 33, four brake pads 34 and the brake pulley 35, rigidly fastened by dowels 36 with the clamping mechanism and the pipe 5.

In turn, the mechanism of the Chuck 6 is rigidly fastened by dowels 37 case 2.

The yoke 32 in the lower part of the base has two slots 38, which have built-in stops 39 and 40, and the stop 39 is rigidly fastened with the base of the cage 32 and the stop 40 is installed on the housing 1 through the hinge axis 41 with the possibility of rotation about the axis 41. The projecting ends of the lugs 39 and 40 are fixed by the hydraulic cylinders 44 and 45 mounted on the upper base of the housing 1.

The device operates as follows.

Since the supply of pressure to the actuator 20 (motors GM and GM) rotation through the wheel gear 18 and the intermediate gear 19 is transmitted to the driven gear 17 of the gearbox 16. The actuator 20 has a different direction, and the gear 17 receives the rotation in one direction, thus providing damping of the reactive moments from operation of the actuator 20.

Simultaneously pressing the brake pads 34 to the brake pulley 35, stermaria him, and through him, and a gear wheel 3 pipe rotator.

As the resistance to rotation of the rotator is higher than that of the locking key, the first descent of the crumbs of the clamping mechanism of labor is 6 to the pipe 42. The rotation of the gear 17 through the slotted hole 31 is transmitted to the vertical shaft 29.

The shaft 29, upon receiving the rotation, passes it through the involute teeth 30 27 satellites, which in turn results in rotation of the carrier 25, and through him and slotted the bore 24, the driven gear 11 and the intermediate 10, result in rotation of the toothed wheel 4.

Built-in gear mechanism 4 clamp pipe 6 is driven, it crackers converge on the lower pipe 42 and locked it.

After the lower clamping mechanism and the pipe 6 is closed on the pipe 42, the rotation wheel 4, gears 10, 11, and led 25 is stopped, while maintaining the clamping biscuits pipe 42 and the rotation of the shaft 29, which, in turn, rotating through satellites 27, causes the rotation of the housing 21 of the block differential 12, and through him, and the intermediate gear 9 to rotate the toothed wheel 3.

Gear wheel 3, having a rotation in the opposite direction to the wheel 4, actuates the clamping mechanism and the pipe 5, it crackers converge on the upper pipe 43, to hold her and passed her the rotation. The process of screwing or unscrewing locking connections.

When you touch the ends of the tubes 42 and 43 there is a sharp increase in resistance, which increases torque and the resulting reactive moments. The damping of these moments is what exploits lugs 39 - and 40, from which the stop 39, rigidly attached to the yoke 32, transmits the response to the housing 1 via the hydraulic cylinders 44 with one sign (+ or -), and the stop 40, pivotally connected to the housing 1 axis 41, and transmits the response to the housing 1 through the cylinder 45 with the opposite sign to the stop 39 (+ or -), the housing 1 remains stationary.

Sources of information

1. U.S. patent No. 4445402, class 25 In 17/00, 1984

2. RF patent №2086400, class 25 In 17/00, 1997 (prototype).

1. Way of screwing or unscrewing the threaded joints of pipes, which produce non-rotation of one pipe and the rotation for screwing or unscrewing it the other pipe, characterized in that the locking of one pipe and the rotation for screwing or unscrewing the other pipe takes place simultaneously with the use of automatically controlled hydraulic drive and brake system with transfer pipes multidirectional torque of the same magnitude and providing the damping reactive moments actually drive and brake system without transferring the latter to the external elements.

2. Device for screwing or unscrewing the threaded joints of pipes containing two coaxial drive key, each of which includes a housing and a clamping mechanism tube, actuator for rotation of the upper tube and the lower locking tube, characterized in that it Snab is prohibited two toothed wheels, each of which, by means of bearings installed in the housing of the corresponding key with the opportunity to interact with a corresponding clamping mechanism and pipes and two intermediate gears, each of which is installed in the housing of the corresponding key with the opportunity to interact with a corresponding toothed wheel, the drive keys are made common and consists of kinematically connected shaft speed reducer and block differential, consisting of a body with external and internal involute teeth, drove defined therein three satellites placed in the body of the key pipe rotator, driven gear, kinematically connected with the planet carrier and installed in the housing of the locking key is interoperable with the corresponding intermediate gear, and the outer involute teeth of the block differential are located in the body of the key pipe rotator with the ability to interact with its intermediate gear; a clamping mechanism and key pipe rotator is rigidly connected with the brake pulley brake system, which, in turn, mounted on the body of the key pipe rotator and contains four brake pads and a cylindrical holder with built-in cylinders clamp brake pads can be rotated cylindrical Wallpaper is s together with the pulley and clamping mechanism and pipe rotator key relative to the axis of the clamping mechanism and pipes, in addition cylindrical ferrule provided with two lugs, one of which emphasis is rigidly connected with a cylindrical yoke and installed with the possibility of interaction between the two cylinders re-tensioning-breaking threads, and the other stop is associated with a cylindrical ferrule through the hinge axis and is mounted for cooperation with the other two cylinders re-tensioning-breaking threads, thus providing damping of the reverse reactions and the increase in torque and locking moments mechanisms Chuck.



 

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