Method for precast concrete and reinforced concrete building structure production and for cast-in-place concrete and reinforced concrete building structure erection

FIELD: building, particularly for concreting cast-in-place and precast reinforced concrete structures along with concrete curing temperature regulation.

SUBSTANCE: method involves laying and compacting concrete mix under continuous concrete mix curing temperature control; heating central concrete layers with heating reinforcement when outer concrete layers are in elasto-plastic state. Heating reinforcement is spaced a distance "a" from surface. The heating is carried out simultaneously with surface heat-shielding. Distance "a" is determined as a=δeq(tav-ts)/(ts-ta), m, where δeq - thickness of conditional equivalent concrete layer corresponding to surface thermal resistance, Rs, m; tav - time-average concrete temperature calculated by estimated time of heating directly in heating area, deg; ts - time-average temperature at concrete surface calculated by estimated heating time, deg; δeq is determined as δeq=Rs·λ·F, m, where Rs is heat resistance of rigging with form Rr including thermal resistance Ra of heat transfer from rigging to ambient air, h·deg/kcal; Rs=Rr+Ra=(δr/( λr·F))+(1/(α·F)), h·deg/kcal, where δr is thickness of rigging, m; λr is rigging heat conductivity factor kcal/(m·h·deg), α is rigging surface heat-transfer coefficient kcal/(m2·h·deg), λ is concrete(reinforced concrete) heat conductivity kcal/(m·h·deg); F=1m2 - rigging surface area for thermal resistance calculation, m2. Amount of heat Q used to heat part of member to be heated having length (height) of 1.0 m and cross-sectional width of 1.0 m is determined from Q=(tav-ts)(m+(τ·λ·F/a), where m is constant equal to 60-180 kcal/deg and τ is calculated heating time, hours. The heating reinforcement is heating wires or pipes adapted for hot water circulation.

EFFECT: reduced temperature stresses and prevention of crack formation during structure concreting, as well as possibility to regulate curing temperature.

4 cl, 1 ex, 4 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of construction and can be used in the concrete prefabricated and monolithic concrete and reinforced concrete structures with the subsequent regulation of the temperature of their hardening.

A known method of manufacturing precast and construction of monolithic concrete and reinforced concrete structures, which consists in laying and compacting of concrete mixture, followed by electrothermooptical outside. (Bchscheme "Building materials". M, State publishing house of literature on construction materials, 1952, s.257-258).

The disadvantage of this method is that the outer layers of concrete are heated more than the inner, and in that condition harden. After fabrication and alignment of the temperature over the cross section elements arise tensile stresses on the surface and, as a consequence, cracks.

Closest to the claimed technical essence and the achieved result is a method of manufacturing precast and construction of monolithic concrete and reinforced concrete structures, which consists in laying and compacting of concrete mixture, followed by electrothermooptical Central layer structure while the outer layers in elastic-plastic state (as the USSR # 422707, CL 04 In 40/02, 1974).

The disadvantage of this method is that when using the AI of modern cements, which quickly heats up and rapidly gaining strength, the temperature continues to rise even when the termination of heating only by ectothermy cement, which leads to the production stage to appear in the surface layers invalid tensile stresses and, as a consequence, cracks.

The invention solves the problem of reducing thermal stresses and prevent the formation of cracks in concrete structures by regulating the temperature regime during their hardening.

To achieve the technical result in the method of manufacturing precast and construction of monolithic concrete and reinforced concrete structures, which consists in laying and compaction of the concrete mix with the implementation of thermal regulation when it is cured in a period of stay of the outer layers of the structure in the elastic-plastic state by heating valves perform artificial warming of the middle layers of concrete structures, located between the center and the surface together with the regulation of the heat shield surface.

In addition, artificial warming of the middle layers is produced, having the heater valve on the distance "a" from the surface, while "a" is determined from the expression:

where δsub> EQ- the thickness of the conventional equivalent concrete layer corresponding to a thermal resistance on the surface of Ron, m;

tcpaverage time concrete temperature for the estimated time of heating in the place of heating, grad.;

tn- the average time the surface temperature of the concrete at the estimated time of heating, grad.;

tinaverage time air temperature for the estimated time of heating, hail.

The thickness of the conventional equivalent layer δEQcalculated by the formula:

δEQ=Ron·λ·F, m,

where Ron- thermal resistance Rcoresnap together with the formwork, including a thermal resistance of Randthe heat transfer from snap into the surrounding air, h·deg/kcal;

δcore- thickness snap-in, m;

λcore- coefficient of thermal conductivity snap, kcal/(m·h·hail);

α - the coefficient of heat transfer from the mould surface, kcal/(m2·h·hail);

λ - coefficient of thermal conductivity of concrete (reinforced concrete), kcal/(m·h·hail);

F=1 m2- the area of the mold surface, which is calculated thermal resistance, m2.

In addition, when implementing the proposed method is determined by the number of those who La Q, which is used for heating the portion of the concrete element length (height) of 1.0 m and a width of 1.0 m in cross section according to the formula:

where m=60÷180 kcal/deg - constant;

τ - estimated time of heating, the hour.

In addition, as the heating valves use a heating wire, a tube for the passage of hot water and other

The essence of the invention is illustrated by drawings, where

figure 1 shows the concrete (as an example) one of the possible types of structures - reinforced concrete wall, the cross section in the vertical plane;

figure 2 shows the temperature distribution across the section of the concrete structure at different points in time;

figure 3 shows the temperature distribution in the various elements of the massiveness;

figure 4 examples used to output the main dependencies.

The method consists in the following.

The design is laid concrete mix with a natural temperature of, for example, from +1°C to 40°and compacted With conventional methods. As an example, we design the selected concrete wall. The rack body 1 is installed on the Foundation 2, buried below the natural ground surface 3. Concreting is carried out in the mold 4, the design of which allows about speciate predicted time constant or variable in space and time thermal resistance R on. After laying and compaction of concrete mix using before concreting) laid and fixed the heating valve 5 is carried out to heat adjacent to the heater valve parts concrete for a particular mode. As heating valves can be used for the electrodes, heating wires, pipes for the passage of hot water, etc. After laying the concrete mix due to ectothermy cement this mixture is heated, and its temperature rises, and the temperature in the center section of tCalways higher than the surface temperature tp. Figure 2 reinforced concrete element (wall) thickness "δ1" combined with the coordinate system in which the vertical axis represents the temperature of the concrete, and on the horizontal dimensions in thickness. The following reasoning acceptable to the radial system. Position 6 shows the initial distribution of temperature tothe section at the time of placing of concrete. The temperature in the center section tOCequal to the surface temperature top. Position 7 shows the distribution of temperature t1in the cross section when the strength of concrete in the cold, having a minimum cross-section strength point (i.e. at the surface) R≅0,25R28where R28- strength of concrete at 28 days of age. At this point, t1n <t1ts. Position 8 shows the distribution of temperature t2the section at the time of maximum heating of the concrete. In the General case, Δto=tOC-top=0, Δt1=t1ts-t1H>0, Δt1≤t2=tC-t2P>0. Positions 9 and 10 show, respectively, the axis of symmetry and the surface of the concrete structure.

Temperature Δt1and Δt2specific requirements: first, the formation temperature difference Δt1it is desirable in principle, because after the end of the hardening process of concrete, cooling and equalization of temperature in the cross section in the surface layers of the element occur compressive stresses and reduces the risk of crack formation, and secondly, a suitable value of this difference is approximately 20-30°With (determined in each case depending on various factors); in the moment of the maximum heating design drop Δt2should not significantly exceed the difference Δt1(not more than about 5-7° (C)as in the surface layers occur tensile stress, and can develop cracks in the heating process.

Figure 3 positions 11 and 12 shows the curve of the temperature distribution over the cross section at the moment max is the first warming-up (General view of it is shown in figure 2, position 8), respectively, for low-mass element thickness "b" and a massive element thickness. In the case of low-mass element thickness "b" temperature differencetoo small, and massiveon the contrary, may increase to unacceptably large values compared to the values listed above.

In both cases (items 11 and 12 in figure 3) using the proposed method can be formed as required to ensure the fracture toughness distribution of temperature t1and t2i.e. can be obtained instead of 11 distribution temperature distribution 13 instead of 12 distribution - the distribution of 14 (see figure 3). This is achieved by adjusting two parameters: the additional heat input qSSin the middle part by means of a heating valve 5 and the heat insulating unit casing 4 thermal resistance Rop.

Because the adjustable non-linear process, the prediction of the temperature regime it is convenient to perform a numerical method using a computer, performing the step-by-step analysis of the state and corresponding to this condition, the calculation of heat input. During construction, the appropriate use of the controlling apparatus connected through the computer feedback with a heating valve. The practical feasibility of the technological process of thermal resistance the formwork is appropriate to assign a constant for the whole period of production of this design, although there are a number of technical solutions equipment for concreting in which you may change in time of thermophysical parameters. To output the fundamental analytical dependences for the method used averaged characteristics. For this purpose, figure 4 introduced the following additional notation.

The first is the introduction of the concept of equivalent layer 15 of a thickness of δEQ. The physical meaning of this concept is to replace thermal resistance of the heat transfer from air to the surface of the concrete thermal resistance of the layer of concrete, thickness δEQ.

where Rop- thermal resistance Rcoresnap together with the formwork, including a thermal resistance of Rαthe heat transfer from snap into the surrounding air, h·deg/kcal;

δcore- thickness snap-in, m;

λcore- coefficient of thermal conductivity snap, kcal/(m·h·hail);

α - the coefficient of heat transfer from the mould surface, kcal/(m2·h·hail);

λ - coefficient of thermal conductivity of concrete (reinforced concrete), kcal/(m·h·hail);

F=1 m2- the area of the mold surface, which is calculated thermal resistance, m2.

When BB is Denia equivalent layer temperature t inequal to the temperature of the outer surface of the equivalent layer (see figure 4), and at the time of maximum heating of the concrete, the temperature distribution within the concrete will be determined by curve 8, and within the equivalent layer - curve 16.

The second is the introduction of the concept of the "average time "τ" temperature distribution.

Curve 8 in figure 4 is characterized required to ensure crack resistance temperature distribution at the moment of maximum heat to account for the additional heat input Q of the heating valve 5, remote from the surface of the element at a distance "a", and pre-calculated thermal resistance Rop. The time after which achieves maximum heating of concrete, denote by "τ", hour. The second term is the average over time "τ" the temperature distribution, which is within the concrete section will be determined by the position 17, and within the equivalent layer - position 18. The average during the specified time, the temperature in the center of the element we denote by tCin place of the heating valve - tcpon the surface - tp.

Using the introduced concepts can be simplified thermal process to submit the following way. Average temperature tpon the surface (point 0) is formed entirely at the expense of the player who rmii cement, i.e. due to heat dissipation qp. Average temperature tcpat point b, is formed by ectothermy cement, i.e. due to heat dissipation qcpas well as due to additional heating of the heating valve 5, i.e. at the expense of heat Q. the Value of qpand qcpin the General case are not equal, because their dissipation occurs at different temperatures of the concrete at the points 0 and C. in Order to ensure the constancy of the temperature tp(i.e. the tasks stipulated above premise that rising temperatures tnon the surface is entirely due to ectothermy cement) requires that an outflow of heat q3in outdoor air was compensated by the inflow of heat q4from point:

From the equality q3and q4it follows that "a" can be calculated by the following formula:

In the General case can be formulated by other formulas for determining "a", in which q3≠q4and tnformed by several other laws, however, remains the necessity of placing the heating valve 5 between the center of the array and its surface at a distance "a" from the last.

Additional heating Q1during τ is determined from the fact that he really is reinem case, lead to a temperature rise at the point B by the value of Δ fo=tcp-tn. Taking into account that the heating valve 5 heats the concrete layer thickness of about 0.2 m to 1 M. in width and height (volume 0.2 m3you will need the amount of heat Q that is equal to

Q1=0,2·C·(tcf-tn)=m(tcp-tn), kcal,

where C is the volumetric heat capacity of concrete is equal to 600 kcal/(m3·hail);

m is a constant taken equal to 60÷180 kcal/deg.

At point "B" you must also ensure that the outflow of heat q4within the estimated time "τ" to the surface. The inflow of heat from the center to the point "b" from the center of the array in the stock of neglect.

With regard to the foregoing, the amount of heat Q required to heat the part of the concrete element in the cross-section width of 1.0 m and height (length) of 1.0 m, is determined from the expression:

Consider the following example.

Was concrete reinforced concrete wall, with the main design parameters were as follows:

- the width of the wall d=0.8 m;

- initial concrete temperature to=+20°C;

the air temperature during the concreting was equal to tin=+10°C;

- the maximum amount of heat t2cp=60°C;

- coefficient of thermal conductivity of concrete is assumed equal to

- concreting ASU who Estrelas in a metal casing with reinforcing ribs, therefore, the heat transfer coefficient is assumed equal to α=10 kcal/(m2·h·hail), a Rcore=0;

- heating was carried out by duration τ=24 hours;

- temperature Δtabout=tcp-tnaveraged 20°C.

The calculation of the desired temperature and the desired heat Q produced on the computer using programs based on the use of numerical method - a method of elemental balances. To heat one linear metre columns was necessary power W=280 watts. When the diameter of the circle, in which electrodes were installed, the total width of the heated zone is about 1.0 m When the heating duration τ=24 hours, the value of Q will be 6720 W h 5780 or kcal.

According to the formulae given in the description, calculate a and Q,

The value of

Average temperature tcp, tnand tinduring heating were respectively +50°C, +30°, +10°C.

In fact it was equal to 0.24 m, which coincides well with the design.

This also corresponds to the calculated data on the computer. With the obtained parameters was carried out concreting. On day 3 after the formwork has been removed, cracks are not detected.

Thus, at the same time, the second adjustment of two parameters - additional heat input in the middle part of the concrete structure by means of a heating valve and device insulation formwork helped to solve the problem of reducing thermal stresses in the implementation regulate the temperature of the curing concrete and thereby eliminate the occurrence of cracks in concrete structures.

1. A method of manufacturing precast and construction of monolithic concrete and reinforced concrete structures, which consists in laying and compaction of the concrete mix with the implementation of thermal regulation during its hardening, characterized in that during the stay of the outer layers in elastic-plastic state carry out the warming-up of the middle layers of concrete structures by heating valve, located at a distance "a" from the surface, together with the regulation of the heat shield surface, while

where δEQ- the thickness of the conventional equivalent concrete layer corresponding to a thermal resistance on the surface, Rop, m;

tcpaverage time concrete temperature for the estimated time of heating in the place of heating, deg;

tp- the average time the surface temperature of the concrete at the estimated time of heating, deg;

tthe average time air temperature for the estimated time of heating, deg;

and δEQis determined from the expression

, m,

where Rop- thermal resistance Rcoresnap together with the formwork, including a thermal resistance of Rαthe heat transfer from snap into the surrounding air, h·deg/kcal;

where δcore- thickness snap-in, m;

λcore- coefficient of thermal conductivity snap, kcal/(m·h·hail);

α - the coefficient of heat transfer from the mould surface, kcal/(m2·h·hail);

λ - coefficient of thermal conductivity of concrete (reinforced concrete), kcal/(m·h·hail);

F=1 m2- the area of the mold surface, which is calculated thermal resistance, m2.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the quantity of heat Q, which is used for heating the portion of the concrete element length (height) of 1.0 m and a width in cross section of 1.0 m, is determined by the formula

where m = 60 ÷ 180 kcal/deg - constant;

τ - estimated time of heating, including

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the heating valves use a heating wire.

p> 4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the heating valves use a tube for the passage of hot water.



 

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