Soil desalination method

FIELD: agriculture, in particular, desalination of agricultural lands.

SUBSTANCE: method involves feeding water to land to be desalinated; cutting slits therein; irrigating strips between slits; removing salt from slit wall surfaces and spilling soil thereon, with slits being provided at distance from one another which does not exceed doubled value of capillary transfer of soil moisture at land under desalination process and slit cutting depth being set so that it exceeds value of capillary lifting of moisture by soil at land under desalination process; forming ridges with two sloping surfaces on strips between slits; placing pipelines with droppers thereon, said pipelines being connected to water supply main; covering strip surfaces with water-impermeable shields made from hydrophilic material; fastening shield edges in upper part of slits; supplying water from droppers up to termination of desalination procedure, with following interrupting of water supplying process; moving soil layer with salt from slit walls onto slit bottom and forming water-impermeable layer of hydrophilic material above said soil layer; leveling slits.

EFFECT: reduced consumption of washing water, increased efficiency in soil desalination, decreased consumption of labor and costs for extraction, conveyance and disposition of salts settled on slit walls.

3 dwg

 

The present invention relates to agriculture and can be used for desalinization of saline agricultural lands.

There is a method of desalinization of the soil, implemented using reclamation system for washing heavy saline lands (Ed. St. USSR №1358848, IPC E 02 In 13/00, BI No. 46, 1987).

This method of desalinization of the soil includes a bookmark deep subsurface drainage, cutting of the supply channels, slots and additional trenches located on prezrennyh bands parallel drains, followed by feeding in fresh elements, gaps and additional trench wash water and discharge it along with the dissolved salts in deep drainage. From the drainage of the washing water received in the receiving water. As the latter are specially selected depressions, which formed a lake mineralized water, or rivers, in which the flow of drainage water causes an increase in salt content. This method makes it possible to remove salt from the soil, increasing in this way its fertility. The quality of the desalinization of the soil depends on the amount of fresh water, served in the wash network. Average leaching requirement varies from 20 to 60 thousand m3per hectare.

The disadvantages of this method are the large capital investments for the construction of private drainage and cutting open the wash network, the high cost of fresh water for leaching, large areas of land under lake drive, salinization of adjacent lands or increase of water salinity in the rivers of waters.

The closest analog of the present invention is a method of desalinization of the soil, including water supply to wash the area, cutting it cracks, the water supply to mislevy strip and subsequent removal of salts from the walls of the slits (Ed. St. USSR №1428297, IPC E 02 In 13/00, BI No. 37, 1988).

This method allows for the desalinization of the soil without the construction of deep subsurface drainage, reduce leaching of fresh water for leaching and eliminate the diversion of saline waters.

The disadvantages of this method is low efficiency desalinization, because after the filing of mislevy strip of water even when mulching their surface evaporation and salt accumulation occurs not only on the walls of the cracks, but at the same time and on the surface of the bands, especially in the ridge part of the rollers. In addition, there is the problem of removal and disposal of salts removed from the walls of the cracks.

The present invention is to increase the efficiency of the method of settlement of the soil by preventing the accumulation of salts on the surface of mislevy bands, as well as the problem of safe disposal remotely the salts.

The solution of this problem is achieved in that in the method of desalinization of the soil, comprising an inlet for assalaamu the stretch of water, cutting it cracks, irrigation of mislevy bands, removal of salts from the surface of the wall and backfill, according to the invention the gap is performed through a distance not exceeding double the amount of capillary moisture transfer soil abandoned area, and the depth of their cut set larger than the maximum capillary rise of soil moisture assalaamo plot, on the surface of mislevy strips form a gable ridges, on which place the pipelines with droppers connected to the power network, and the surface of mislevy bands cover waterproof screens from a hydrophobic material, the edges of which are secured in the upper part of the slit, and then produce a flow of water from a dropper until the end of the desalinization process, after which the water supply stop, a layer of soil with salt from the walls of the cracks move at their bottom and form over it waterproof layer of hydrophobic material, and cracks zaravnivayut.

The positive effect of the application of the proposed method of desalinization is achieved through continuous capillary movement of salts under the action coming from drips of water on the walls of the slots to full desalinization mishelevka space, and the savings with the lei in the upper soil layer is excluded due to condensation on the inner surface hydrophobic waterproof screen and constant infiltration through the top layer of soil to the depth of wash layer with subsequent movement of salts to the walls of the slits, a portion of the condensate flows down along the inclined inner surface of the hydrophobic screen and washes off the salt from the walls of the openings at their bottom. However after washing the produce mechanical movement residues of salts from the walls to the bottom of the slots, the depth of which is greater than the capillary rise of moisture, and closing them with a layer of hydrophobic material with subsequent alignment of the slits. These operations allow for the disposal of salts within assalaamo area with the exception of their negative impacts on crops that will be grown at the site after completion of works on desalinization.

The invention is illustrated in the drawing, in which figure 1 gives a General view of assalaamo section; figure 2 is a section along a - a during the desalinization of the soil; figure 3 is a section along a - a after completion of the desalinization of the soil.

The proposed method of soil desalinization implement in the following order.

At site 1 cut slots 2 through a distance not exceeding double the amount of capillary moisture transfer. This value varies from 3 to 1.5 m depending on the mechanical composition of the soil. The depth of the slits 2 exceeds the amount of capillary rise of moisture and ranges from 2 to 1.5 m When cutting slits form a gable ridges 3, in the upper part of the stack which is Truboprovod 4 5 droppers. This pipeline is connected to the power line 6 and the surface of the gap space is covered by a screen 7 of waterproof hydrophobic material, the edges of which are secured in the upper part of the slit 2. As such material may be used a polymer film. After fixing the screen 7 water from the pipe 6 serves in the pipeline 4. From drippers 5 water comes to the surface of the ridge 3 dropwise consumption, precluding the formation of puddles. Soak into the soil, the water dissolves the salt and moves through the capillaries in the direction of the slit 2. Since the width of mishelevka space less than the double value of capillary moisture transfer in assalaamu the soil, due to the evaporation of water from the surface of the walls of the slits is formed of a constant current of wash water with salt on the surface of the walls of the cracks. At the same time under the screen 7 of water evaporation from the surface of mislevy bands. While the evaporated moisture in the form of steam accumulates under a waterproof screen, and then at night condenses on its inner surface. Due to the hydrophobic properties of the screen 7 is dripping water from its surface to the surface of the soil mislevy strips and under the action of capillary forces move to the sides of the slots 2 with the removal of salts from the upper soil layers. Part of condens is that flows along the edges of the screens 7, fixed in the upper part of the slit 2, and washes away the salt from their walls to the bottom, forming a zone of high concentration of salts 8. The zone of leaching equal to twice the magnitude of capillary moisture transfer in the soil is formed in 2-3 days. Leaching duration will depend on the degree of salinity of the soil and a given level of soil desalinization. The depth of leaching will not exceed the amount of capillary rise of moisture (1-1 .5 m). Due to the small depth of leaching, as well as the continuity of the water supply amounts of wash water are reduced in comparison with the equivalent of 30-50%. After stopping the water flow from the site removed the screens 7 and 4 pipelines and produce a mechanical displacement of the residues of salts from the surface of the walls of the slit their bottom in zone 8, then form on the surface of the waterproof layer 9 of the hydrophobic material. This material can serve as the testing of fuels and lubricants. After the formation of the screen cracks zaravnivayut and the area planted in the plant 10. Along their rows can be accommodated pipelines 4 5 droppers. In this case, irrigation is done with the use of drip irrigation and the maximum depth of moisture will not exceed the depth of the desalinization, which will eliminate the danger of the rise of the buried salt. Screen 9 excludes rise of salts in the washed soil in the case of penetration on the loubinoux burial autumn-winter rainfall or under irrigation washed soils traditional irrigation methods.

Thus the application of the proposed method of desalinization of the soil can significantly reduce the amount of wash water, to increase the efficiency of desalinization and eliminate labor costs and funds for the removal, transportation and disposal of salts released on the walls of the cracks.

The method of desalinization of the soil, comprising an inlet for assalaamu the stretch of water, cutting it cracks, irrigation of mislevy bands, removal of salts from the surface of the walls of the cracks and filling, characterized in that the slit is performed through a distance not exceeding double the amount of capillary moisture transfer soil assalaamo plot and the depth of their cuts set to a larger value of capillary rise of soil moisture assalaamo plot, on the surface of mislevy strips form a gable ridges, on which place the pipelines with droppers connected to the power network, and the surface of mislevy bands cover waterproof screens from a hydrophobic material, the edges of which are fixed in the upper side slits, and then produce a flow of water from a dropper until the end of the desalinization process, after which the water supply stop, a layer of soil with salt from the walls of the cracks move at their bottom and form over it waterproof layer of hydrophobic material, and cracks zaravnivayut.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: agriculture, in particular, desalinization of saline soil of agricultural lands.

SUBSTANCE: method involves cutting slits on plot to be desalinized; feeding rinse water onto strips between slits; removing salt from slit surfaces and spilling soil therein, with slits being cut to depth exceeding depth of season soil wetting with precipitation; providing cavities on strips between slits; closing cavities with shields of hydrophobic water-impermeable material, said shields being equipped with perforations extending along their central axes and float members; fastening shield edges in upper part of slits; providing soil desalinization facilitated by precipitation. Upon precipitation, rain water flows over walls of cavities to infiltrate through perforations and fill cavities bottom part, with the result that salt is washed into depth of soil to be desalinized. Moisture will be preferably moved by capillary force and due to evaporation of moisture from slit wall surfaces toward slit walls, accompanied by accumulation thereon of salts. Washing process may be accomplished during one or several seasons depending upon precipitation intensity and salt concentration. After completing of desalinization processes, shields are removed, salts are buried by spilling soil into slits, and soil on desalinized plot is mellowed to depth of season soil wetting. Burying of salts at the level below depth of season soil wetting and destruction of capillaries by deep mellowing of desalinized soil layer protect it from secondary salinization.

EFFECT: increased fertility of agricultural areas on unirrigated agricultural lands in the absence of potable water sources without the necessity of constructing expensive water feeding systems.

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FIELD: agriculture, in particular, desalinization of saline soil of agricultural lands.

SUBSTANCE: method involves cutting slits on plot to be desalinized; feeding rinse water onto strips between slits; removing salt from slit surfaces and spilling soil therein, with slits being cut to depth exceeding depth of season soil wetting with precipitation; providing cavities on strips between slits; closing cavities with shields of hydrophobic water-impermeable material, said shields being equipped with perforations extending along their central axes and float members; fastening shield edges in upper part of slits; providing soil desalinization facilitated by precipitation. Upon precipitation, rain water flows over walls of cavities to infiltrate through perforations and fill cavities bottom part, with the result that salt is washed into depth of soil to be desalinized. Moisture will be preferably moved by capillary force and due to evaporation of moisture from slit wall surfaces toward slit walls, accompanied by accumulation thereon of salts. Washing process may be accomplished during one or several seasons depending upon precipitation intensity and salt concentration. After completing of desalinization processes, shields are removed, salts are buried by spilling soil into slits, and soil on desalinized plot is mellowed to depth of season soil wetting. Burying of salts at the level below depth of season soil wetting and destruction of capillaries by deep mellowing of desalinized soil layer protect it from secondary salinization.

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