Antenna

FIELD: antenna engineering.

SUBSTANCE: novelty is that proposed antenna is made of dielectric material in the form of regular pyramid whose prismatic base mounts converter.

EFFECT: simplified design.

8 cl, 21 dwg

 

The invention relates to a dielectric antennas directional.

A common design of the dielectric rod antenna is a dielectric rod with a constant or smoothly varying cross-section, which is a leader of the electromagnetic waves. Excited by the rod or metal pin located in a short-circuited segment of the waveguide, either directly docked to him waveguide (SMN. Gebbertstrasse "Antenna", part 2. M, Radio and communications, 1983, s-140). This device is taken as a prototype.

However, in many cases, the complexity of manufacturing technology and material design of the antenna associated with the use of the metallic waveguide and the artificial dielectric materials, leading to unnecessary cost.

The objective of the invention is the simplification of the structure of the dielectric antenna while maintaining the high energy parameters and the technology of its manufacture.

The problem is solved using the characteristics listed in the 1st paragraph of the claims, the antenna containing the sender of a dielectric material in the shape of a regular pyramid with a base in the form of a prism, which includes an energy Converter of the electromagnetic wave in the current.

Features of construction the th execution of leader are reflected in paragraphs 2-4, 7 and 8 claims, namely the angle of each face of the pyramid relative to the base is 40-60°; the leader has a height not exceeding the length of the base of the pyramid; the leader is made of material having a dielectric constant of >1, for example natural limestone; the faces of the pyramid have stepped zoned surface; the sender has the shape of a truncated pyramid.

In paragraph 5 of the claims described Converter antenna, which is a metal resonant vibrator.

In paragraph 6 of the claims, it is noted that the sender has centrelectro, which is made or in the form of a cavity in the shape of a hemisphere, or in the form of inclined planes.

When operating at wavelengths comparable with the linear dimensions of the antenna, the energy density of the incident wave at the phase center provides flat refracting surface located at an angle of 40-60° to the direction of propagation of the electromagnetic wave. As a result, the length of the rod antenna can be significantly reduced, and the metal waveguide excluded from it altogether. For linear polarized waves such flat refracting surfaces form a right pyramid with a height not exceeding the length of a side of its base. For waves of circular polarization of the plurality pastiprinajusi surfaces form a cone with height, not greater than the base diameter of the cone.

Thus, the technical result of the present invention is the simplification of the structure of the dielectric antenna while maintaining the high energy parameters and the technology of its manufacture.

The above features, each separately and all together, are aimed at solving the problem and are significant. The use of essential features in the tool the same purpose as the claimed invention in the prior art was not found, therefore the proposed solution meets the patentability criteria of "novelty".

One set of new essential features with a common, known, provides a solution to the problem - simplification of the structure of the dielectric antenna while maintaining the high energy parameters and the technology of its manufacture.

The invention is illustrated by description of a specific but not limiting example of implementation and the accompanying drawings:

figure 1 shows a General view of the pyramidal antenna; figure 2 - view of zoned pyramidal antenna: figure 3 - view of the antenna with the fracture faces, combining two antennas in one design; figure 4 is a view of the multi-frequency antenna; figure 5 - variation of the antenna 1 with restrictive low pass filter in the top of p is remedy; figure 6 - variation of the antenna 5 to the narrow frequency band; 7, 8A and 8b shows the change of position of the phase center when the angle of inclination of the faces of the pyramid; figure 9 shows a General view of the conical antenna; figure 10 is a view of zoned conical antenna; figure 11 is a view of a combined conical antenna; Fig - type multi-conical antenna; Fig - type antenna Fig.9 restrictive low pass filter in the top of the cone; Fig - type antenna Fig for the narrow frequency band; Fig - cut lightweight antenna 1, 9, with internal nepreemlemo surface; Fig shows the decrease of the electromagnetic wave on the conical surface of the antenna 1, 9; Fig shows the placement of contraflexure the sender; figa, b shows the scheme of the antenna as a reception and radiation; Fig shows the placement of the phase centers of the combined antenna; Fig shows the placement of contraflexure in the form of a hemisphere; Fig - swing beams of the antenna 5.

Position in the drawings represent: For the pyramidal antenna figure 1-8.

The antenna contains the sender 1 of a dielectric material, made in the shape of a regular pyramid with a base in the form of a prism 2, and the phase center of the antenna F is placed at the intersection of the height of the pyramid and the plane of its Foundation, is hosting the Converter 3 of the energy of electromagnetic waves in a current of electric charge. The radius-vectors of the magnetic flux - 4; refracting surface 5. The swing beams antenna design as figure 5 is reflected on Fig.

For conical antenna Fig.9-16.

The antenna contains the sender 1 of a dielectric material, which is made in the form of a cone with a base in the form of a cylinder 2, and the phase center of the antenna F is placed at the intersection of the height of the cone and the plane of its base, in which you installed the Converter 3 of the energy of electromagnetic waves in a current of electric charge. The radius-vectors of the magnetic flux - 4; refracting surface - 5; napilasya surface - 6; dielectric centrelectro - 7 (Fig, 20).

The antenna consists of a dielectric guiding equipment and transducer fields in the current, which is a metal resonant vibrator installed in the phase center of the antenna. As the case material used any dielectric with a relative permittivity ε>1, for example natural limestone with ε=4,78, δ=10-3and the absolute refractive index of √ε.

The basis of the principle of operation of the antenna based on the law of refraction (the law of Snell's law), which determines the dependence of the angle of refraction of an electromagnetic wave from the corner of her falling on the boundary of different dielectric environments. The concentration of the phase center of energy of the electromagnetic wave occurs in the result of the unequal refraction of the areas of the refractive surface penetrating into the dielectric antenna of the magnetic flux of the wave, resulting antenna has a phase center of the sine wave nature of the changes in the electromagnetic field. The angle of 40-60° tilt faces of the pyramid and the generatrix of the cone is optimal, if we take the angle is less than 40°then the phase center moves down and the antenna would be unreasonably long, if the angle to take more than 60°it will be inefficient use of the planes of the faces of the pyramid and the generatrix of the cone due to the refraction.

The antenna can work at the reception and emission of electromagnetic energy in the direction a and direction B (figa, b) due to the presence of two phase centers F1 and F2 and, as a consequence, two directional diagrams, oriented in opposite directions. For radiation in the direction of a phase center F1 is below the top near the base of the pyramid or cone, for radiation in the direction of the B phase center F2 coincides with the top of the pyramid or cone.

The antenna allows changing the width and direction of the main lobe of the radiation pattern by changing the position of the phase centers F1 and F2 in the corresponding plane.

To improve the efficiency of the antenna can be zoned refractive surface (2, 10).

The antenna allows combining two or more antennas in one design by fracture of the refractive surface in an arbitrary cross-section (Fig 3, 11). is this case the antenna is for each surface independent of the phase center (F 1'and F2'on Fig ). A necessary element of the sender is centrelectro 7 Fig, 20, placed at the phase center in the form of a cavity having the shape of a hemisphere or inclined planes.

Changing the directivity characteristics and polarization, frequency and phase characteristics of the antenna is: the change of linear dimensions of a pyramid or cone, and the size of the prism or cylinder at the base; the change in the dielectric constant of the pyramid or cone; the change in the angle of inclination of the refracting surfaces, the geometry change of the base; cut the top of a pyramid or cone, as well as changing its position, angle and configuration.

The proposed solution will be widely used as a receiving or transmitting antenna, including decimeter, centimeter and millimeter wavelength ranges.

Technologically, the antenna can be manufactured by pressing a powder of synthetic or natural insulator, or a mixture thereof, providing an extremely low cost for mass production while maintaining high energy performance.

1. The antenna containing the sender of a dielectric material in the shape of a regular pyramid with a base in the form of a prism, which has change the spruce energy electric wave in the current.

2. The antenna according to claim 1, characterized in that the angle of each face of the pyramid relative to the base is 40-60°.

3. The antenna according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the sender has a height not exceeding the length of the base of the pyramid.

4. The antenna according to claim 1, characterized in that the leader is made of material having a dielectric constant of >1, for example natural limestone.

5. The antenna according to claim 1, characterized in that the transducer is a resonant metal vibrator.

6. The antenna according to claim 1, characterized in that the sender has centrelectro, executed or in the form of a cavity in the shape of a hemisphere, or in the form of inclined planes.

7. The antenna according to claim 1, characterized in that the faces of the pyramid have stepped zoned surface.

8. The antenna according to claim 1, characterized in that the sender has the shape of a truncated pyramid.



 

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