Sensor-moisture meter

FIELD: the invention refers to measuring technique and may be used for example in industry, medicine, agriculture for definition of humidity of grain in a flow at its drying.

SUBSTANCE: a sensor-moisture meter for a drain drying machine has two parallel metallic plates 1 forming a condenser and a measuring block transforming values of condenser capacities into an analog signal according to the specified grain culture. The metallic plates 1 provided with dielectric columns 2 fastening it to the body of the grain drying machine in the grain flow subjected to drying with the aid of a cover 3 to the body 4 which in its turn is fixed to a flange 6 with a washer. At that the values of grain humidity are defined in accordance with the meaning of the analog signal of the sensor-moisture meter according to the formula: Vi = K (WI - WMIN), where Vi - a current value of the analog signal, B; K - a coefficient of transferring humidity into an analog signal, B/%; WI - a current value of humidity of a measured culture, %; WMIN -a minimal value of humidity of a measured culture, %. The sensor- moisture meter is characterized with correlation of the width of the "B" flow of grain subjected to drying to the width of the " b" coverage of the flow of grain with the metallic plates 1 equal for example , B/b= 10/1.

EFFECT: increases reliability characteristics of a sensor-moisture meter and provides possibility of using it in a grain flow and also increases accuracy of measuring humidity in a grain flow.

1 cl, 6 dwg

 

The invention relates to measuring technique and can be used, for example, in industry, medicine, agriculture to determine the moisture content of the grain in the stream when it is drying.

From the patent literature known humidity sensor containing a plate of porous glass coated on two opposite edges of the metal contacts (see prototype - lined application No. 93039720, 1995).

The disadvantage of this sensor is the low strength and the possibility of fracture during use, for example, in the flow of the grain during drying.

Achieved by the invention of the technical result is to increase the strength characteristics of the sensor hygrometer and the possibility of its use in the flow of the grain during the drying process, as well as to improve the accuracy of humidity measurement in the flow of grain.

The essence of the invention.

The sensor is a moisture meter for grain, containing two parallel metal plates 1 forming the capacitor and the measuring unit, which converts the values of the capacitor to an analog signal by a given crop, the metal plate 1, provided with a dielectric struts 2 that secures it to the body of grain in the grain flow subjected to drying, using the cover 3 to the housing 4, which in turn is attached to the flange 6 with a gasket, with values of moisture grain is determined by the value of the analog sensor signal-hygrometer according to the formula:

Vi=K·(Wi-Wmin), where:

Vi- the current value of the analog signal, In;

K - conversion coefficient of humidity in the analog signal, In/%;

Wi- the current value of the humidity measured culture, %;

Wminthe minimum humidity value measured culture, %.

The sensor is a humidity meter is characterized by the ratio of the width "B" of the flow of grain being dried, the width "b" of the scope of flow of the metal plates 1, equal, for example, A/b=10/1.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, where:

Fig. 1 - install the sensor hygrometer in the stream, view from above;

Fig. 2 - the same, top view;

Fig. 3 - this is the same view As in Fig. 1;

Fig. 4 - mount sensor hygrometer;

Fig. 5 cable;

Fig. 6 - node (enlarged) in Fig. 1.

The sensor is a moisture meter for grain contains two parallel metal plates 1 forming the capacitor and the measuring unit, which converts the value of the capacitance of the capacitor in the analog signal information on this crop. The metal plate 1, provided with a dielectric struts 2 that secures it to the body of grain in the grain flow (not shown), subjected to drying, are fastened by means of the cover 3 to the housing 4 sensor hygrometer, which in turn is attached to the flange 5 with the gasket 6 and the return flange 7, 8 - cable connector.

In Fig. 3: 9 - external to the was guh; 10 - clipper; 11 - platform carousel. In Fig. 4: 12 - fastening (bolts). In Fig. 5: 13 - cable.

Sensor-grain moisture meter is designed to measure the mass fraction of moisture (humidity) crops: wheat, barley, rye, oats, buckwheat, sunflower, canola, soybean, flax (Dolgano) and flax (oil).

Sensor-hygrometer can be used to measure humidity in the drying process in the drying rotary, shaft type and the other with the harvesting and processing of crops in the industrial sector and food industry.

The sensor is a moisture meter can also be used for measuring the moisture content of other grains and grain products, as well as particulate solids with additional calibration. The list of measured crop or solids can be increased to 13 or replaced by other upon customer's request.

Technical characteristics of the sensor hygrometer.
Resolution0,1%
Measuring range humidity of grain crops -(see Table)
Limits of basic absolute error±1,5%
Limits additional absolute error of measurement
from the ISM is maintaining the temperature at 10° From the main (20±2)°±0,5%
Analog input load impedance is not less than 1.0 ohms,
proportional to the measuring range humidity culture0-1,0
(see Table)
Measurement range temperature grainfrom 5 to 80°
Limits of basic absolute error of temperature measurements±1,0°
Operating temperature:
sensorfrom 5 to 80°
the unit indicatorfrom 5 to 50°
Manual correction of relative humidity in increments of 0.2%±0,8%
Powered by AC voltage (220±22), frequency (50±1) Hz power consumption5·A.
The settling time mode15 min
Modecontinuous
Dimensions:
sensor420×65×80 mm
the unit indicator185×124×64 mm
Weight:
sensor480 g
Blo is and indicator 455
Cable lengthnot less than 10 m
Average MTBFnot less than 25,000 hours
Full average lifeat least 12 years

Sensor-hygrometer implements electric (capacitive) method of measuring humidity and represents a microprocessor unit (not shown), providing a display of the values of humidity, temperature and names of controlled grain or oilseed crops, the introduction of automatic temperature compensation and manual correction of the results of measurements of humidity to compensate for the influence of external factors, the choice of the control cultures, the output analog signal proportional to the value of the measured humidity to build systems of automatic control of the drying process.

Structurally, the sensor hygrometer consists of two parts - the sensor unit indicator, connected by a cable.

Sensor-hygrometer consists of two parallel metal strips forming the capacitor and the measuring unit. The capacitance of the capacitor is functionally connected with changes in humidity controlled culture. The measuring unit converts the value of the capacitor in analog the signal measurement information, which through the connecting cable is passed to the indicator unit.

Indicator unit contains a microprocessor and transducer elements (not shown). On the front panel is the display selection button controlled crops "Choice" and two buttons "Correction" "+" and "-" to enter the correct readings of moisture content. On the right side of the unit is the power switch. On the bottom wall of the connector of the connecting cable, input power cord and fuse holder.

Where are the sensor and indicator unit must be protected from precipitation.

With high stability, it is recommended that the indicator unit to be placed in the Cabinet with a transparent window (door).

The sensor is a moisture meter provides a measurement with a normalized error in the control of grain with trash content within a limited range according to the norms of tolerance for the procurement and delivery, full load of grain sensor cavity, and at the steady state values of the temperature of grain.

When using sensor hygrometer in technological processes with hydraulic grain handling metrological characteristics are provided after binning grain duration of at least 6 hours

Preparation hygrometer for use.

Secure the sensor-hygrometer in the dryer to fit the accordance with Figure 1, when it is necessary to ensure close contact of the flow of grain from the surface of the sensing elements of the sensor and the absence of dead zones grains in the plane of the sensor.

To reduce measurement error, it is recommended that the sensor be installed in places where best ensures a constant flow of grain and its density.

Install the indicator block on the control panel of the dryer so that it was easily accessible to the operator during the operation.

For contrast, luminescence display moisture meter is recommended to ensure the absence of a direct hit by lighting.

Connect the sensor cable with indicator unit. To eliminate the possibility of damage to the cable mechanically, rodents and precipitation.

To check the availability of network fuse and connect the power cord to a wall outlet.

Connect the signal cable analog output of the display unit with an external device (for example, automatic control of the drying of grain), the input impedance of which is not less than 1.0 Ohm.

To turn on the power switch (not shown). After 15 minutes, the sensor is a moisture meter is ready for operation.

By pressing the button "Select" to set the desired culture (grain), whose name will appear on the display (not shown). Sensor-hygrometer when it comes to the mode of smartyvalidate established culture and its temperature in the region of the sensor. If the measured humidity value is greater than the upper limit of the measuring range, the display will be indicated by the symbolsor the value of the upper limit of the measurement, and at a humidity of less than the lower limit of the measuring range -

To compensate for external factors on the accuracy of the sensor, hygrometer, due to the speed of flow of grain through the cavity of the sensor, its grade, dirtiness, contamination, etc. to enter the adjustment press "Adjust "+" or "-". The value entered correction will be reflected on the display, and the value of the readings of moisture content changes on the value entered correction.

The magnitude and sign of the entered correction is determined by the difference in readings between measurements of moisture content of grain samples taken at the outlet of the dryer another hygrometer, such as sensor-hygrometer "Fauna", and value of humidity on the sensor-display-hygrometer dryers.

The process of entering a correction is recommended when reaching the conditioned grain moisture content at the outlet of the dryer and only in the steady state operation of the dryer when the grain temperature has stabilized and does not change during the 10 minutes

Set the name of culture and the correction value is entered automatically filled in the "memory" of the hygrometer, and the next time the dryer on the same culture in the same conditions (the mode of operation of the dryer) selection of culture and correction on the hygrometer to exercise is not required.

Table of measuring range humidity crops
CultureMeasuring range humidity
minmax
%In%In
Wheat80201,00
Barley100221,00
Rye90211,00
Oats120241,00
Buckwheat80201,00
Sunflower70181,91
Rape80201,00
Soy90211,00
Linen (flax)7 0of 17.50,87
Flax (oil)60160,83

On customer request the list of crops or solids can be increased to 13 or replaced by other types and measurement ranges are skewed towards the minimum or maximum limit.

The current value of the analog signal for each crop is calculated by the formula:

Vi=K×(Wi-Wmin), where:

Vi- the current value of the analog signal, In;

K - conversion coefficient of humidity in the analog signal equal to 0,08333/%;

Wi- the current value of the humidity measured culture, %;

Wminthe minimum humidity value measured culture, taken from the above table.

Symbol exceeding the upper limit of measurementis indicated only in those cultures, in which the upper limit of the measurement is equal to or exceeds 20%.

1. The sensor is a moisture meter for grain, containing two parallel metal plates 1 forming the capacitor and the measuring unit, which converts the values of the capacitor to an analog signal by a given crop, the metal plate 1, provided with a dielectric struts 2 that secures it to the chassis of a dryer in the flow of money is at, subjected to drying, using the cover 3 to the housing 4, which in turn is attached to the flange 5 with the gasket 6, and the values of the grain moisture content is determined by the value of the analog sensor signal-hygrometer according to the formula Vi=To·(Wi-Wmin), where Vi- the current value of the analog signal, In; K - conversion coefficient of humidity in the analog signal, In/%; Wi- the current value of the humidity measured culture, %; Wminthe minimum humidity value measured culture, %.

2. The sensor is a humidity meter according to claim 1, characterized by the ratio of the width In the flow of grain being dried, the width b of the scope of flow of the metal plates 1, is equal To/b=10/1.



 

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FIELD: chemical industry; methods of determination of acetic acid concentration.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of chemical industry, in particular, to the method of determination of acetic acid concentration in a broad band of temperatures. The technical result is an increased accuracy at determination of concentration of acetic acid within the range of temperatures from 0° up to 40°C. The offered method allows using the linear interpolation to determine dependence of density on the concentration and the temperature in 1°C within the range of temperatures from 0°C up to 40°C according to the known dependence of density from concentration over the range from 0 up to 100 % and on the temperature - from 0°C up to 40°C in 5; 10°C. Then they homogenize the solution and determine the temperature of the solution in the pressure tank with accuracy 0.1°C and the density. At the integer values of the temperature using the received dependence determine two values of density that are the most close to the experimental values and two values of concentration corresponding to them and determine the first derivative from concentration according to the density. If |dc/dp | ≤ 3.3*10, the concentration is determined by the linear interpolation method according to the received dependence of density on concentration with accuracy up to 0.1 %. If |dc/dp |> 3.3*103, then into pressure tank inject water in a such amount that to get into the zone of |dc/dp | <3.3*103 for determination of concentration of the acetic acid. In the case of non-integral values of the temperature it is necessary to conduct the following operations: for the most close to the experimental integer value of the temperature select two values of density the most close to the experimental value of density and corresponding to them two values of concentration. Using the received dependence of the density on the temperature find two values of density at the temperature of the experiment and determine the first derivative from concentration on the density, and then the operations are iterated as for the integer value of the temperature.

EFFECT: the invention ensures an increased accuracy at determination of concentration of acetic acid within the range of temperatures from 0° up to 40°C.

5 ex, 4 tbl, 3 dwg

FIELD: possible use for determining water presence level in product of oil wells.

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EFFECT: improved precision of measurements of mass concentration of water in liquid due to prevented influence of gas separation.

1 dwg

FIELD: the invention may be used for automated control of humidity of soil, seeds of grain cultures and other granular materials.

SUBSTANCE: the arrangement for measuring humidity of granular materials has a high frequency T-piece connected with its first branch pipe with the input of a stroboscopic reference arrangement, its synchronizing input is switched to the first output of a synchronizer; another branch pipe of the high frequency T-piece is connected to the output of a generator of outgoing impulses, its launching input is switched to the second output of the synchronizer; the third branch pipe of the high frequency T-piece is connected through a connecting cable with a primary measuring transducer. The output of the stroboscopic reference arrangement is attached to a regulated threshold arrangement whose output is switched to the inputs of the first and the second blocks of detecting impulse fronts; the output of the first detecting block is connected with launching inputs of a timer and a program-time arrangement and the output of the second detecting block - with the input of the initial installation of the program-time arrangement and a stopping input of the timer whose output is connected to a calculating arrangement with an indicator; the output of the generator of outgoing impulses is switched to a peak detector of impulses with memory connected with its output to the first input of a multiplier whose output is connected with the controlling input of the regulated threshold arrangement and the second input is switched to the output of the program-time arrangement.

EFFECT: allows automated measurement and control of humidity of granular materials.

2 dwg

FIELD: the invention refers to measuring technique and may be used for example in industry, medicine, agriculture for definition of humidity of grain in a flow at its drying.

SUBSTANCE: a sensor-moisture meter for a drain drying machine has two parallel metallic plates 1 forming a condenser and a measuring block transforming values of condenser capacities into an analog signal according to the specified grain culture. The metallic plates 1 provided with dielectric columns 2 fastening it to the body of the grain drying machine in the grain flow subjected to drying with the aid of a cover 3 to the body 4 which in its turn is fixed to a flange 6 with a washer. At that the values of grain humidity are defined in accordance with the meaning of the analog signal of the sensor-moisture meter according to the formula: Vi = K (WI - WMIN), where Vi - a current value of the analog signal, B; K - a coefficient of transferring humidity into an analog signal, B/%; WI - a current value of humidity of a measured culture, %; WMIN -a minimal value of humidity of a measured culture, %. The sensor- moisture meter is characterized with correlation of the width of the "B" flow of grain subjected to drying to the width of the " b" coverage of the flow of grain with the metallic plates 1 equal for example , B/b= 10/1.

EFFECT: increases reliability characteristics of a sensor-moisture meter and provides possibility of using it in a grain flow and also increases accuracy of measuring humidity in a grain flow.

1 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: measuring technique.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises heating the heat-shield structure from one side up to a high temperature, cooling the structure, applying marker dots on the section of the outer surface under study, cutting the axisymmetric specimens of the heat-shield structure, applying marker dots on the side of the specimen at a given distance from the inner surface, cutting the specimen over the planes perpendicular to its longitudinal axis and passing through the marker dots into pieces, subsequent heating of the pieces in the atmosphere of an inert gas, recording the change of weight of the pieces, recording the temperature of the beginning of the decrease of weight of each piece, and judging on the spatial temperature distribution from data obtained.

EFFECT: expanded functional capabilities.

5 dwg

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