Arrangement for measuring humidity of granular materials

FIELD: the invention may be used for automated control of humidity of soil, seeds of grain cultures and other granular materials.

SUBSTANCE: the arrangement for measuring humidity of granular materials has a high frequency T-piece connected with its first branch pipe with the input of a stroboscopic reference arrangement, its synchronizing input is switched to the first output of a synchronizer; another branch pipe of the high frequency T-piece is connected to the output of a generator of outgoing impulses, its launching input is switched to the second output of the synchronizer; the third branch pipe of the high frequency T-piece is connected through a connecting cable with a primary measuring transducer. The output of the stroboscopic reference arrangement is attached to a regulated threshold arrangement whose output is switched to the inputs of the first and the second blocks of detecting impulse fronts; the output of the first detecting block is connected with launching inputs of a timer and a program-time arrangement and the output of the second detecting block - with the input of the initial installation of the program-time arrangement and a stopping input of the timer whose output is connected to a calculating arrangement with an indicator; the output of the generator of outgoing impulses is switched to a peak detector of impulses with memory connected with its output to the first input of a multiplier whose output is connected with the controlling input of the regulated threshold arrangement and the second input is switched to the output of the program-time arrangement.

EFFECT: allows automated measurement and control of humidity of granular materials.

2 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of agricultural production, construction, biology, and other industries and can be used for automatic control of soil moisture, seed crops and other bulk materials, as well as sensors in automatic humidity control for technological purposes, for example in drying machines.

A device for humidity measurement (kN. Krichevsky BS, Benzar VK, anchor : M.V. and others; edited by Krichevsky Y.S. Theory and practice of rapid humidity control of solid and liquid materials. - M.: Energy, 1980, p.84)containing a primary Converter connected to a working generator via a connecting cable, the generator output is connected to the first input of the mixer, the second input is coupled to the reference generator, and the output through a low pass filter with frequency Converter - voltage, the output of which is connected secondary device.

Also known device for determining the moisture content of a variety of bulk materials, such as soils (Smolenova and other method of reflectometry time domain to determine the moisture content of soils // soil science", No. 10, 1996, s.1263-1270), containing a mixer connected to the output of the pulse generator, the input of the oscilloscope and through with denitely cable with a primary measuring Converter. Here, under the mixer refers to a device (kN. Technical description and operating instructions of the measuring heterogeneity lines P5-15", 1991), who actually functions branching electromagnetic energy and at the same time the device is sampling and extrapolation of the zero-order or sample - and-hold or strobing of the peak detector.

Revealing the essential features of the known device in his description of the said book, imagine mixer high-frequency connection of the tee, providing a branching signal, and the reporting device that converts a continuous signal into a discrete-speed signal, and included sampling oscilloscope scroll synchronizer, providing work reading device in stroboscopic mode, necessary for the observation of the pulse signals nanosecond duration, and simultaneously triggering the pulse generator.

Thus, the known device comprises a high-pass tee connected to the first tap input strobe reading device, the clock input of which is connected to the first output of the synchronizer, and the output to the oscilloscope, the other outlet of the tee is connected to the generator output pulse that triggers the input of which is connected to the second you is an ode synchronizer, the third tap of the high-frequency tee is connected through a connecting cable with a primary measuring Converter.

The principle of operation of this device consists in the determination of the moisture content of granular media related to a specific dependence of their dielectric constant, which is determined by measurement using a pulse domain reflectometers (TDR - Time-Domain Reflectrometry) the travel time of an electromagnetic pulse along the length of the primary transducer placed in the environment of the bulk material. The transit time of an electromagnetic pulse along the length of the primary transducer is usually determined by measuring the delay of the reflected pulse from the end of the primary measuring Converter since the reflection of the pulse from the beginning of primary measuring Converter arising from inequalities of its input resistance and wave resistance of the connecting cable. This time is determined by the so-called trace observed on the oscilloscope screen reflectometer.

Measured with an oscilloscope tracing the delay, which is directly proportional to the square root of the dielectric constant measured in a granular medium, find the last value, then the calibration g is the Afik dependence of moisture from the dielectric constant determines the measured humidity of the granular material.

Known devices have significant drawbacks associated with low efficiency and the presence of subjective errors in measuring the moisture content of bulk materials.

The technical result of the invention is to automate the measurement and control of moisture content of bulk materials.

This technical result is achieved in that in a device for measuring the moisture content of bulk materials containing high-frequency tee connected to the first tap input strobe reading device, the clock input of which is connected to the first output of the synchronizer, the other tap of the high frequency of the tee is connected to the generator output pulse that triggers the input of which is connected to the second output of the synchronizer, the third tap of the high-frequency tee is connected through a connecting cable with a primary measuring transducer, are adjustable Weir, two detection unit fronts of the pulse, the timer, the computing device with the indicator, program temporary device, a peak detector pulses with memory and multiplier and the output strobe reading device attached to an adjustable threshold device, the output of which is connected to the inputs of the first and second blocks table the fronts of the pulse, the output of the first detection unit is connected with the trigger input of the timer and program-temporary device, and the output of the second detection unit is input initial setup program-a temporary device and stopping the input of the timer, the output of which is connected to a computing device with a display; a generator output pulse is connected to the peak detector pulses with a memory attached its output to the first input of paramnesias, the output of which is connected with the control input of the adjustable threshold device, and a second input connected to the output of the program-temporary device. To increase the accuracy of the transit time of an electromagnetic pulse on the primary measuring Converter with automatic measurement is not determined relative to the pulse reflected from the beginning of the inverter and depending on the medium, and relatively formed a temporary marker that is associated with the time of radiation of the probe pulse.

With the aim of increasing the accuracy of the relative determination of the delay pulse in the primary measuring Converter reference mark should be placed as close as possible to the position of the reflected pulse from the end of the primary Converter.

As fiducial marks may, for example, used the recession is onderweg pulse. In this case, the duration of tithe rectangular pulse generator pulse and a lengthconnecting cable with respect to time tdthe maximum delay in the primary measuring Converter is determined from the condition:

where ky- ratio shortening of the wavelength in the cablek- permittivity dielectric cable),

C is the speed of electromagnetic waves in vacuum (speed of light).

If design considerations the duration of the probe pulse cannot be selected satisfying the specified value, the reference mark can be formed using the device of the formation of the reflected pulse, is connected to the third tap of the high-frequency tee. For example, the device forming the reference pulse may be in the form of additional RF cable, with a length of less than or equal to the length of the connecting cable.

The device (1) contains high-frequency tee 1, which is connected to the first tap input strobe reading device 2, the clock input of which is connected to the first output of the synchronizer 3, the other tap of the high-frequency tee 1 is connected to the output of g is nerator 4 probe pulses, the triggering input of which is connected to the second output of the synchronizer 3, the third tap of the high-frequency tee 1 is connected via a connection cable 5 with a primary measuring Converter 6. The strobe output reading device 2 is attached to the adjustable threshold device 7, the output of which is connected to the inputs of the first 8 and second blocks 9 detection pulse edges, the output of the first detection unit 8 is connected with the trigger input of the timer 10 and program-temporary device 11, and the output of the second detection unit pulses 9 - input initial setup program-temporary device 11 and stopping the input of the timer 10, the output of which is connected to a computing device with indicator 12, the output of the pulse generator 4 is connected to the peak detector 13 pulses with memory, connected to its output to the first input of paramnesias 14 whose output is connected with the control input of the adjustable threshold device 7, and a second input connected to the output of the program-temporary device 11.

If the power consumption measurement of humidity does not play a significant role, the duration of tithe rectangular pulse generator 1 pulse and a lengthconnecting cable with respect to time tdMaxi is a real delay in the primary measuring Converter 6 must be selected from conditions 1.

If the device for measuring the moisture content of bulk materials should have low power consumption, i.e. the duration of the probe pulse should be as short as possible, it is necessary to apply the device for the formation of the reference pulse. For example, to the third tap of the high-frequency tee you should connect the device forming the reference pulse in the form of additional RF cable 15 with a length less than or equal to the length of the connecting cable is connected to the input end of the input cable, and in this case the duration of the rectangular pulse generator probe pulse is determined from the condition:

The device operates as follows. From trigger pulse synchronizer generator of pulses forming the pulse of nanosecond duration, through the tee and connector cable stimulating primary measuring transducer, placed in the medium with a certain dielectric constant, depending on moisture content. The probe pulse through the tee passes through the connecting cable to the beginning of the primary transducer (which is in the form of a segment of a transmission line of the high-frequency signal), where it is partially reflected, due to incomplete according to the Finance impedances, then on the primary Converter goes through, where almost totally reflected in the direction of its sign (because the ends of the conductors of the transmission line open). The reflected pulse back, passes through the primary Converter, then through the connecting cable and through the tee to the input strobe reading device. The reflected pulse is arrested relative to the excitation pulse at a time determined delay times in the connecting cable and the primary measuring Converter. The delay time of the reflected pulse in the transmission line is directly proportional to the square root from the dielectric constant of the medium.

When scanning phase (delay) sync pulses from the first output of the synchronizer at the input of the threshold device is formed of a pulse voltage (trace process reflection), as a result of the taking of samples at the scan period of the synchronizing pulses. The parameters of the scanning pulse sequence on the first output clock relative to the pulse sequence at its second output (initial delay and the amplitude of the phase (time) modulation) are selected so that during one scanning period to get the count from the reference marks and otrazhennoj the momentum from the end of the primary measuring Converter.

If, for example, a long pulse that satisfies the relation 1, the decline of the probing rectangular pulse (reference mark) and the front of the reflected pulse from the end of the primary Converter form a temporary "gates". Their duration-dependent dielectric permittivity of the medium, is measured using a threshold device in the following way (figure 2).

Figure 2 shows the plot pulse voltage traces voltage) output strobe reading device for scanning period for the two cases (two values of humidity or dielectric permittivity εd1and εd2) W1>Wdd1and Wdd2)>W1where W1wave resistance of the connecting cable, Wdwave resistance of the primary measuring Converter.

Time ticorresponds to the decay of the probe pulse, and the time 2t1the reflection of the pulse from the start of the transducer, tp1(2)- the "time gate", ΔU = jump voltage due to the reflection of the pulse from the end of the transducer, U1the amplitude of the probe pulse. Times 2td1and 2td2match the delay of the pulse in the primary measuring Converter for TLD is mentioned cases.

Shows diagrams constructed using the formula describing the trace and analytically obtained in the idealized case:

where n=0, 1, 2, 3 ...,

the reflection coefficient at the input sensor

U1the amplitude of the probe pulse.

Formulas show that the trace in the ideal case is a stepped line with the values of stress at break points defined by the expression (2). In the intervals

where(L is the length of the transducer)

the function describing the trace constant.

The first voltage step ΔU for n=1, which is used when measuring the time delay of the reflected pulse, equal to:

For simplicity, further consideration of the principle of the proposed device will assume that the electrical losses in the measured bulk material is negligible. Then program-temporary device generates a voltage that does not depend on time, and means for regulating the input of the threshold device is set to the threshold voltage, proportional to the amplitude of the probe pulse U1which is formed at the output of the peak detector.

p> The value of the threshold voltage is shown in figure 2, the dashed line labeled Uthen.

The analysis shows that in most typical cases, the optimal threshold value is equal to

Uthen=0,48U1.

This threshold value is determined under the condition of measuring εvarying in a predetermined range ε=1÷εMaxgiven newnovelist stock exceeding the voltage of the first phase voltage above the threshold at the boundaries of the range humidity measurement.

At the output of the threshold device during the scan interval is formed a rectangular pulse of length tp1(2)leading edge of which corresponds to the time tiand the recession - the end of the interval tp1(2).

From the leading edge at the output of the first detection unit is formed by a pulse that starts the timer and program-a temporary device. The timer counts the time interval tp1(2)and program-temporary device generally programmatically generates the voltage constant until time 2t1and falling exponentially after its occurrence. The index exponent is determined depending on losses of electromagnetic radiation along the length of the primary measuring Converter.

The second detector of the pulse is triggered from the decline of the rectangular pulse at e what about the entrance, the result stops the expense of the timer and resets the program-temporary device in the initial state.

At the output of the timer is formed by a number equal to a time interval of length td1(2). The result of measurement of the delay time td1(2)the reflected pulse from the end of the primary measuring transducer relative to the time reference pulse computing device using calibration graphs automatically determines the measured humidity, direct reading which is displayed on the indicator.

Fiducial pulse, for example, can be formed by reflection from the end of the additional segment of the radio frequency cable with a length close to the length of the connecting cable, and connected to its input end. In this case, the functions of the detectors can be swapped (in comparison with the described case), i.e. the first detector front is triggered from a recession, and the second from the leading edge of the pulse at the output of the threshold device.

Stroboscopic sampling device allows you to watch fast periodic pulse processes, which include the sequences of the probe and reflected nanosecond pulses in the slow time scale.

The synchronizer of the present invention is a known device (see the specified book. "Tech is the resource description and operating instructions of the measuring heterogeneity lines P5-15", 1991). The scan delay time is performed periodically at a low frequency of about 20 Hz, so that during the period were made counts of the reflected pulses from the beginning and from the end of the primary Converter.

The proposed device allows to increase accuracy and efficiency humidity control, for example, soil SKO random component of measurement error humidity can be reduced to 0.5%.

1. Device for measuring the moisture content of bulk materials containing high-frequency tee connected to the first tap input strobe reading device, the clock input of which is connected to the first output of the synchronizer, the other tap of the high frequency of the tee is connected to the generator output pulse that triggers the input of which is connected to the second output of the synchronizer, the third tap of the high-frequency tee is connected through a connecting cable with a primary measuring transducer, characterized in that the output strobe reading device attached to an adjustable threshold device, the output of which is connected to the inputs of the first and second blocks detection of the fronts of the pulses, the output of the first detection unit is connected with the trigger input of the timer and program-temporary device, and the output of the second block is detected - input the initial installation of the software-temporary device and stopping the input of the timer, the output of which is connected to a computing device with a display, the output of the pulse generator is connected to a peak detector pulses with a memory attached its output to the first input of paramnesias, the output of which is connected with the control input of the adjustable threshold device, and a second input connected to the output of the program-temporary device.

2. Device for measuring the moisture content of bulk materials according to claim 1, characterized in that the duration of tithe rectangular pulse generator pulse and a length l of the connecting cable with respect to time tdthe maximum delay in the primary measuring Converter is determined from the condition

where ky- ratio shortening of the wavelength in the cablek- permittivity dielectric cable);

C is the speed of electromagnetic waves in vacuum (speed of light).

3. Device for measuring the moisture content of bulk materials according to claim 1, characterized in that the third tap of the high-frequency tee attached device for the formation of the reference pulse in the form additionally the th RF cable length, less than or equal to the length of the connecting cable.



 

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EFFECT: improved precision of measurements of mass concentration of water in liquid due to prevented influence of gas separation.

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FIELD: the invention may be used for automated control of humidity of soil, seeds of grain cultures and other granular materials.

SUBSTANCE: the arrangement for measuring humidity of granular materials has a high frequency T-piece connected with its first branch pipe with the input of a stroboscopic reference arrangement, its synchronizing input is switched to the first output of a synchronizer; another branch pipe of the high frequency T-piece is connected to the output of a generator of outgoing impulses, its launching input is switched to the second output of the synchronizer; the third branch pipe of the high frequency T-piece is connected through a connecting cable with a primary measuring transducer. The output of the stroboscopic reference arrangement is attached to a regulated threshold arrangement whose output is switched to the inputs of the first and the second blocks of detecting impulse fronts; the output of the first detecting block is connected with launching inputs of a timer and a program-time arrangement and the output of the second detecting block - with the input of the initial installation of the program-time arrangement and a stopping input of the timer whose output is connected to a calculating arrangement with an indicator; the output of the generator of outgoing impulses is switched to a peak detector of impulses with memory connected with its output to the first input of a multiplier whose output is connected with the controlling input of the regulated threshold arrangement and the second input is switched to the output of the program-time arrangement.

EFFECT: allows automated measurement and control of humidity of granular materials.

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1 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: measuring technique.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises heating the heat-shield structure from one side up to a high temperature, cooling the structure, applying marker dots on the section of the outer surface under study, cutting the axisymmetric specimens of the heat-shield structure, applying marker dots on the side of the specimen at a given distance from the inner surface, cutting the specimen over the planes perpendicular to its longitudinal axis and passing through the marker dots into pieces, subsequent heating of the pieces in the atmosphere of an inert gas, recording the change of weight of the pieces, recording the temperature of the beginning of the decrease of weight of each piece, and judging on the spatial temperature distribution from data obtained.

EFFECT: expanded functional capabilities.

5 dwg

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