Method and device for fuel supply to combustion chamber

FIELD: fuel systems.

SUBSTANCE: the device for supply of fuel to the combustion chamber has at least one main nozzle and one preliminary-injection nozzle, pump, the first actuator valve installed in the first pipe-line connected to the preliminary-injection nozzle, the second actuator valve used for control of fuel consumption in the secondary pipe-line connected to the preliminary-injection nozzle through the first actuator valve rated at a lower consumption rate. The first pipe-line is also connected to the main nozzle for control of consumption of fuel supplied to the nozzle by the first actuator valve, provision is made for a direction- selecting valve installed past the first valve, and an intermediate line connecting the first and second lines that are used for fuel supply to the main nozzle and/or to the preliminary-injection nozzle.

EFFECT: provided stable fuel supply to the combustion chamber.

8 cl, 2 dwg

 

The technical field to which the invention relates.

The present invention relates to a method of supplying fuel into the combustion chamber, which has at least one main nozzle and at least one pre-injection nozzle, in which when starting the combustion chamber through a first control valve serves the first amount of fuel.

The present invention relates also to a device for supplying fuel into the combustion chamber, which has at least one main nozzle and at least one pre-injection nozzle containing a fuel tank, a pipe connecting the nozzle with the fuel tank, a pump for feeding the fuel from the tank to the nozzles, and the first control valve (flow controller), which regulates the flow of fuel in the first line connected to the nozzle pre-injection.

The invention relates, in particular, to systems supplying fuel to the combustion chamber of the gas turbine. Typically, the combustion chamber of a gas turbine has a number, for example 5, the main nozzles and one located in the center between the nozzle pre-injection.

When starting a cold engine through the injector pre-injector in the combustion chamber is fed a certain amount of fuel, the ignition of which is formed a flame, p is exceeding the temperature in the combustion chamber to a temperature in which after the supply of fuel to the main nozzles formed a working fire. This implies that the fuel supplied to the combustion chamber through the main nozzle must burn it in vapor form. For the evaporation of the fuel temperature in the combustion chamber should be high enough. Conversely, the fuel supplied into the combustion chamber through the injector pre-injector should burn it in a liquid state in the form of separate drops. When starting the engine through the injector pre-injector in the combustion chamber is fed relatively large amounts of fuel. When working with medium and large loads through the pre-injection nozzle into the combustion chamber it is necessary to apply a small amount of fuel, which, however, should be sufficient to maintain the output of the pre-injection nozzle sustainable flame required for normal operation of the main injectors and the entire combustion chamber.

In a known device for supplying fuel into the combustion chamber, the first flow regulator fuel (pressure regulating valve) is used to control the flow of fuel supplied to the main nozzle, and the nozzle pre-injection. In such a device there is also a pressure regulator, which together with the first regulating valve regulates rashtrapita, supplied to the nozzle pre-injection. This regulation, however, it is difficult to achieve high accuracy of controlling the flow of fuel supplied to the main nozzle and the nozzle pre-injection, which allows, on the one hand, to exclude the possibility of involuntary termination of the combustion process (stop of the combustion chamber), and on the other hand, to provide a low level of emissions, which depends on the content of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and unburned hydrocarbons (HC). The toxicity of exhaust gases and the concentration of CO, NOxand unburned NA primarily due to the combustion in the combustion chamber separate drops of fuel supplied to it through a nozzle pre-injection.

Summary of the invention

The first objective of the present invention is to develop a method of supplying fuel into the combustion chamber, which is in contrast to known methods allowed with higher accuracy to regulate the fuel supplied to the combustion chamber. Proposed in the invention, the method should not only provide the opportunity to decrease in comparison with the known methods of toxicity of exhaust gases, but also more reliably exclude the possibility of involuntary termination of the combustion process (stop the CI combustion at low loads.

This problem is solved by using the proposed invention is the way in which for the operation of the combustion chamber in a specific, non-run mode in the pre-injection nozzle through the second control valve, which is designed to work with significantly less consumption than the first control valve, serves the second amount of fuel, significantly less the first amount supplied to the combustion of the fuel. In other words, to regulate small fuel supplied to the injector pre-injector, use a small valve (second control valve, or control valve), and for the regulation of the large consumption of fuel supplied to the injector pre-injector, use a large valve (first control valve, or control valve). The use of two control valves allows for more accurate compared to currently known systems to regulate the fuel supplied to the injector pre-injector. Proposed in the invention method significantly increases the accuracy of controlling the flow of fuel supplied to the injector pre-injection, when switching from one operating mode to another.

In a preferred embodiment, the first flow regulator is used to supply a first amount of fuel in g is aunuu nozzle in the combustion chamber at medium or high loads. When the combustion chamber at medium or high loads in the pre-injection nozzle through the second flow regulator serves a small amount of fuel. The first flow regulator is used to supply a large amount of fuel in the injector pre-injector under certain conditions of operation of the combustion chamber for supplying fuel to the main burner in the combustion chamber in a different mode. This method of fuel management allows you to create a cheap, efficient and compact device for supplying fuel to the combustion chamber.

In another embodiment, the second flow regulator is used to supply a second small amount of fuel in the injector pre-injector in the combustion chamber with a low load. The combustor operates with low load, when the gas turbine, in particular an exhaust gas heat exchanger, is in hot state when the fuel requirement is substantially less than at the startup of the turbine.

The second objective of the present invention is a developing device for supplying fuel into the combustion chamber, which is in contrast to known devices of the same type would provide more precise control of fuel consumption. Proposed in the invention, the device must not only ensure acivate the possibility of reducing in comparison with the known devices of the same type of toxicity of exhaust gases, but more reliably exclude the possibility of involuntary termination of the combustion process (stop of the combustion chamber) when operating at low loads.

This second set of the invention the task is solved by means of its proposed device for supplying fuel into the combustion chamber, which has a second control valve used for regulating flow of fuel in the second line of the pipeline connected to the pre-injection nozzle, and is designed to work with flow lower flow to which the first control valve.

Brief description of drawings

Below the invention is described in more detail by the example of the preferred variants of its implementation with reference to the accompanying drawings on which is shown:

figure 1 is a preferred embodiment of a device designed to supply fuel into the combustion chamber of a gas turbine, and

figure 2 - one of the possible schedules based fuel supplied to the injector pre-injection and main injection.

Preferred embodiments of the inventions

1 schematically shows performed by the preferred option proposed in the invention, the device (1)intended for feeding fuel into the combustion chamber (not shown) of the gas is urbini. The combustion chamber of a gas turbine represents in this case the combustion chamber with a small output of pollutants and has a plurality of main nozzles and one located in the center between the pre-injection nozzle. Figure 1 is a nozzle pre-injection and main injector shown schematically and indicated by the positions 2 and 3, respectively.

The quantity (flow rate) of the fuel supplied to the injectors 2, 3, depends on what mode you want to run the combustion chamber. When starting a cold engine, and also at low loads in the pre-injection nozzle serves a relatively large amount of fuel in the main fuel injector is not given. Conversely, when medium or heavy load in the pre-injection nozzle is fed a small amount of fuel, and in the main injector serves a large amount of fuel. At medium and high loads working injector pre-injector is used as a safeguard against unintentional termination of the combustion process (the stop of the combustion chamber). Working with different fuel consumption at startup, and when the simultaneous operation of all nozzles of the nozzle pre-injection is required primarily in gas turbines with exhaust gas heat exchangers.

Offered in izopet the NII device includes a fuel tank 4, the pipe 5 connecting the fuel tank with nozzles 2, 3, the pump 6 for supplying fuel from the fuel tank to the injectors and the first control valve 7, which is designed to regulate the flow of fuel in the first line 8 of the piping that connects the fuel tank to the main nozzle 3.

In the proposed invention the device also has a second control valve 9, which is designed to regulate the flow of fuel in the second line 10 of the piping that connects the fuel tank with the nozzle 2 of the preliminary injection. The second control valve 9 is designed for air flow, significantly less flow to which the first control valve. The second control valve 9 should work with a flow rate not exceeding 20%, preferably comprising less than 10%of consumption, which operates the first control valve 7.

The flow nozzle 2 pre-injection can also be controlled using the first control valve 7 connected to the first line 8 of the pipeline. The possibility of regulating the flow of fuel supplied to the injector pre-injector, a first regulating valve 7 is installed for him in the first line of the pipeline by-pass valve 11 (valve direction). Connected to the first regulating valve 7 valve 11 direction the connection is with the nozzle 2 of the preliminary injection intermediate line 12.

The section below describes the flow of fuel from the fuel tank 4 to the nozzles 2, 3 during operation of the gas turbine in three different modes, namely during startup, normal operation (at medium and high loads) and when the low load operation (idling and braking).

When starting the gas turbine, the first control valve 7 is open and the second control valve 9 is closed. Through the open first valve 7 in the first line 8 of the pipeline through the filter 14 from the fuel tank 4 is fed relatively large amounts of fuel. This fuel through the first valve 11 direction, intermediate line 12 and through the second valve 13 direction is supplied to the nozzle 2 of the preliminary injection. In other words, when the engine valve 11 direction directs the flow of incoming fuel in the intermediate line 12.

At medium and high loads of the first and second control valves 7 and 9 are open. The first valve 11 direction directs a relatively large amount of fuel from the first control valve 7 in the main nozzle 3. At the same time a relatively small amount of fuel on the second line 10 through the second valve 13 direction from the second control valve 9 is supplied to the nozzle 2 of the preliminary injection.

At low n is the load of the first control valve 7 is closed, and the second control valve 9 is open. The nozzle 2 pre-injection on the second line 10 through the second control valve 9 and the second valve 13 of direction served a relatively small amount of fuel.

For accurate control valves 7, 9 fuel flow regardless of the pressure at their output (which is determined by the pressure in the combustion chamber and the pressure drop in the nozzles 2, 3) are the valves 15, 16 which maintain a constant differential pressure regulating valves. In the shown embodiment, supporting constant pressure difference across the first control valve 7 valve 15 operates as a bypass valve, and the valve 16, which supports constant differential pressure at the second control valve 9 operates as a throttling valve. If this embodiment, the device only one pump, the valves 15 and 16 must be configured so that all modes with the functions bypass valve 15 supported in going to the control valve line pressure greater than or equal to the inlet pressure of the second control valve 9.

Shown in figure 1 a preferred embodiment of the proposed invention the device includes a relief valve 17, with protecting the system against impermissible pressure increase, and drain valves 18, 19, guides supplied to the injectors of the fuel in the drain line when turning off the combustion chamber.

Figure 2 is a specific example shows graphs of the variation of the fuel supplied to the injector 2 pre-injection and a main nozzle 3. The vertical axis represents the flow rate q of the fuel, and the vertical axis represents time t. The solid curve shows the change with time of the fuel passing through the first control valve 7, and the dotted line is the change in time of the fuel passing through the second control valve 9. Period of time and corresponds to the start of the turbine, and the time period b corresponds to the turbine operation in normal mode. For a smooth transition of the turbine after its launch in normal operation you should change the flow rate supplied to the fuel injector. When starting a turbine nozzle pre-injection through the first control valve 7 serves a relatively large number q1 of fuel, which gradually decreases as the warm turbine. When starting the turbine main nozzles 3 are not working, and the fuel is not supplied. After entering the combustion chamber the air is heated to sufficient for combustion of the fuel temperature, the fuel flow to the main nozzle 3. At the time t1 starts the I passage of the combustion chamber from the run mode to the normal operation mode. At the end of the transition period, the fuel quantity q2 through the first control valve 7 is supplied to the main nozzle 3, and a fuel with a lower flow rate q3 through the second control valve 9 is supplied to the nozzle 2 of the preliminary injection. At the time t2 phase starts with the acceleration of the turbine, during which the amount of fuel supplied to the main nozzle 3, increases sharply to a value of q4, which corresponds to the fuel consumption during turbine operation with heavy load.

As shown in figure 2, the turbine transition from one regime to another occurs when the change in fuel flow and the flow in the combustion chamber of the other, above the second quantity of fuel. Under the first and second quantity supplied to the combustion chamber fuel is understood essentially two change interval fuel consumption at different levels. Within each such interval, such as interval corresponding to the second quantity supplied to the combustion of fuel corresponding to the flow control allows you to always increase the quantity supplied to the combustion chamber fuel to any required level.

The present invention is not limited to the above variants of its implementation and suggests the possibility of its implementation in other ways, while staying within the scope of the claims.

So, e.g. the measures the constancy of the differential pressure regulating flow valves may be provided in another way, for example using two pumps, which allow you to specify the appropriate differential pressure regulating valve regardless of the pressure in the highways connecting them with the main nozzles and nozzle pre-injection.

1. The method of supplying fuel into the combustion chamber, which has at least one main nozzle (3) and at least one nozzle (2) pre-injection, in which when starting the combustion chamber through a first control valve (7) is served first amount of fuel, and when the combustion chamber other than run mode is fed through a second control valve (9), which is designed for a flow rate that is less than the flow through the first control valve (7), the second amount of fuel, which is substantially less than the first number fuel, characterized in that when the combustion chamber at medium or high loads the first amount of fuel is supplied from the first control valve (7) in the main nozzle (3) through the valve (11) - direction.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that when the combustion chamber at medium and high loads in the nozzle (2) pre-injection through the second control valve (9) serves a second, lower, to the number of fuel.

3. The method according to any of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that during operation of the combustion chamber with a low load in the nozzle (2) pre-injection through the second control valve (9) serves a second, lesser amount of fuel.

4. The method according to any of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that the combustion chamber is part of a gas turbine.

5. The device for supplying fuel into the combustion chamber, which has at least one main nozzle (3) and at least one pre-injection nozzle (2)containing a fuel tank (4), pipe (5)connecting the nozzles (2, 3) with the fuel tank, the pump (6) for feeding fuel from the fuel tank to the injectors, the first control valve (7), which regulates the flow of fuel in the first line (8) of piping connected to a nozzle (2) pre-injection, the second control valve (9), which is used to regulate the flow of fuel in the second line (10) of piping connected to a nozzle (2) pre-injection, and is designed for regulation of flow, which is substantially less than the flow through the first control valve (7), characterized in that the first line (8) of the pipeline is also connected to the main nozzle (3) for controlling the flow of fuel supplied to the injector, the first regulating valve (7) and valve (11) the selecting direction, set the first control valve, and an intermediate line (12)connecting the first and second lines (8, 10), which are used to supply fuel to the main nozzle (3) and/or in the nozzle (2) pre-injection.

6. The device according to claim 5, characterized in that the second control valve (9) is designed to regulate the flow rate that does not exceed 20%, preferably less than 10%of consumption, the regulation of which the calculated first control valve (7).

7. Device according to any one of pp.5-6, characterized in that it is intended to supply fuel to the combustion chamber of the gas turbine.

8. The device according to claim 7, wherein the gas turbine comprises a heat exchanger exhaust gas.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: fuel systems.

SUBSTANCE: the fuel-injection nozzle for a turbo-machine combustion chamber outfitted with two fuel-injection nozzle units has the first fuel-supply tube, connected to which is an annular nozzle end for injection of primary fuel into the combustion chamber, the second fuel-supply tube that envelops the mentioned first tube, and connected to which is a cylindrical extension piece for injection of secondary fuel into this combustion chamber. The extension piece has an annular groove, whose diameter exceeds the diameter of the mentioned second fuel supply tube and runs over its entire length. The third tube is provided that envelop the second tube, an connected to which is a tubular separating component introduced in the mentioned annular groove of the cylindrical extension piece in such a way that two annular cavities are formed, in which the cooling agent can circulate up to the end of the fuel-injection nozzle within 360 degrees in the whole cross-section of the mentioned cavities.

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FIELD: mechanical engineering; gas-turbine engines.

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FIELD: fuel systems.

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FIELD: fuel systems.

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EFFECT: enhanced reliability and expanded functional capabilities.

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FIELD: gas-turbine engine engineering.

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EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

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