Device for cooling of fuel-injection nozzle of combustion chamber and fuel-injection nozzle having such a device (modifications)

FIELD: fuel systems.

SUBSTANCE: the fuel-injection nozzle for a turbo-machine combustion chamber outfitted with two fuel-injection nozzle units has the first fuel-supply tube, connected to which is an annular nozzle end for injection of primary fuel into the combustion chamber, the second fuel-supply tube that envelops the mentioned first tube, and connected to which is a cylindrical extension piece for injection of secondary fuel into this combustion chamber. The extension piece has an annular groove, whose diameter exceeds the diameter of the mentioned second fuel supply tube and runs over its entire length. The third tube is provided that envelop the second tube, an connected to which is a tubular separating component introduced in the mentioned annular groove of the cylindrical extension piece in such a way that two annular cavities are formed, in which the cooling agent can circulate up to the end of the fuel-injection nozzle within 360 degrees in the whole cross-section of the mentioned cavities.

EFFECT: provided protection of the fuel systems, prevented clogging of the fuel-injection nozzles with coke due to effective cooling without considerable variations of the nozzle overall dimensions.

8 cl, 3 dwg

 

The technical field to which the invention relates.

The present invention relates to the field of fuel injection in the turbomachine, and in particular to the cooling of the main fuel nozzles in the combustion chamber of such turbomachines, equipped with two sets of fuel injectors.

The level of technology

In combustion chambers with two sets of fuel injectors the fuel injectors that provide start-up and phase of small gas turbojet or turboprop engine (measured) called "trigger nozzles), and the fuel injectors that operate in phases cruising flight, " "main, or workers)). To trigger the injectors, the fuel is fed continuously, while the main fuel injectors the fuel is supplied, only starting from a certain minimum mode (which typically ranges from 10 to 30% of the nominal mode). In addition, during some modes of operation can operate only half of them, and the other half may be temporarily removed from operation.

During phases of small gas and especially during these modes of inactivity of the main fuel injectors must be cooled in a main fuel injector, and in particular their sprayers or end part, which take place in the combustion chamber, in order to avoid coking.

To resolve this problem was proposed various designs of fuel injectors. Thus, in patent application France No. 2721694 by the applicant of this application disclosed the main fuel injector with a local cooling by the flow of the fuel supplied to the main fuel nozzle. This fuel is fed through the Central channel to the end of the fuel injector and returns to the ring coaxial to the channel.

From U.S. patent No. 6003781 known main fuel injector, equipped with an independent cooling system, with a cooling agent (cooling fluid) is served before the end of the fuel injector on top of the supply channel and returns to the bottom of the reverse channel.

These known prior art devices have one common big drawback consisting in that the cooling of the end portion of the fuel injector is only a localized manner, i.e. the whole area remain entirely without cooling. As a result, in certain conditions, in particular at elevated temperatures, for example about 900°With this end part of the fuel injector is cooled insufficiently, and accordingly the process of coke formation is not prevented.

The invention

The problem to which the present invention is directed, bookmark the differences in the creation of the cooling system, which allows to avoid the formation of coke at high temperature in these main fuel injectors. Thus, the object of the invention is the overall security of the fuel systems in these fuel injectors. Another object of the invention is to carry out this system in a simple way and without significant changes occupied by the nozzles constructive space. Another object of the invention is performing a cooling system with maximum effectiveness against heat generated by the fuel.

In accordance with the invention the solution of this problem is achieved by the creation of the cooling unit fuel injector designed for the combustion chamber of the turbomachine and containing means to supply primary fuel containing the first fuel supply tube, to which is attached a ring to allow the tip of the first nozzle orifices for injection of the primary fuel in the specified combustion chamber, and means to supply secondary fuel, which includes a second fuel injection tube which surrounds the specified first tube and to which is attached a cylindrical nozzle surrounding specified to allow the tip and containing a second nozzle outlet openings of secondary fuels in the specified combustion chamber. Specified the nozzle further comprises an annular groove, which has a diameter greater than the diameter of the specified second fuel injection tube, and passes through its entire length beyond these first nozzle holes. The device according to the invention includes means for feeding a cooling agent comprising a third tube which surrounds the specified second fuel injection tube and is attached to the tubular dividing element entered in the specified annular groove of the specified cylindrical nozzle to form two annular spaces, in which a cooling agent can circulate until the end of the fuel injector within 360°.

Thanks to this special design, uniform cooling is provided to the end nozzle of the handpiece main fuel injector, that is, to the place of the most high temperature, and the integral way (360°i.e. throughout the cross section of these cavities), and not locally, as was the case in known devices of the prior art.

In the optimal example of the first and second fuel tube and the third tube coaxial and ring to allow the tip attached to the said first fuel injection tube with a cylindrical connecting part.

The invention also provides for the creation of an alternative device is TBA cooling specifically designed for cooling the main fuel nozzles in the combustion chamber of a turbomachine equipped with two units of the fuel injectors. In this embodiment, the cooling device includes ring terminal supplied with the first nozzle hole for injection of the primary fuel into the combustion chamber, communicating at its end opposite the camera, with the first fuel supply tube and the nozzle, which surrounds the specified ring terminal and provided with a second nozzle hole for injection of the secondary fuel into the combustion chamber, communicating at its end opposite the chamber, the second fuel injection pipe.

Distinctive features of this variant of the cooling device lies in the fact that this nozzle includes an annular groove, passing through the depth of the outside of the first nozzle holes and which includes a tubular dividing element with the formation of the one and the other side of this element, first and second coaxial annular spaces, while the passage of the cooling agent between the two annular spaces are provided through the connecting holes formed in the separation element on the level of its lower end, which rests on the bottom of the groove.

When this tubular dividing element SW is named upper end is connected (preferably by soldering) with the third tube, surrounding these first and second fuel tubes with education, on the one hand, with the first fuel injection tube of the first annular channel for the passage of the cooling agent from the source of this agent through said first annular channel to the specified nozzle, and education, on the other hand, with the outer wall of the fuel injectors of the second annular channel for the backward pass of the cooling agent through the second annular channel to the source agent.

The invention relates also to the fuel injector to the combustion chamber of a turbomachine, containing the described cooling device in any of the above embodiments.

List of figures

An example implementation of the present invention and its advantages will be described in more detail below with reference to the accompanying drawings, on which:

figure 1 depicts in schematic form the cooling system of the fuel injectors of the turbomachine,

figure 2 depicts in enlarged view in section of the main fuel injector according to the invention,

figure 3 depicts a view in section in the plane III-III in figure 2, the nozzle of the fuel injector of figure 2.

Information confirming the possibility of carrying out the invention

Figure 1 in schematic form showing the cooling system of the fuel injectors is equipped with two types of injectors, Kolchev the th combustion chamber of the turbomachine.

To facilitate understanding of the cooling system is illustrated with two fuel injectors (although in practice it may cover, for example, 16 starting and 32 of the main fuel injectors). The cooling system is powered by an independent source 10 supply of the cooling agent (such as oil, water or any other fluid medium). The cooling agent initially passes through the trigger)) fuel injector 12, which enables the launch of the turbomachine and in idling conditions (low power). Next, the cooling flow is supplied in parallel (according to the principle of even number and odd number) through two so-called "basic" fuel injector 14, 16, which operate in the cruise (and in the high power mode), and then returns to the source 10, closing thus the cooling circuit. Of course, the system in the standard version also contains a feed pump cooling agent, filters, and various hydraulic regulators flow of the cooling agent.

The design of the launcher and main fuel injectors aeromechanical type are identical in relation to the fuel supply system and regulate its flow. The fuel supply system includes two systems: the primary system 120, 140 to ensure low costs and secondary system 122, 142 to provide high is the OSTs. A relief valve 124, 144 provides the impossibility of the return flow from the fuel injector to a source 18 of the fuel supply and metering valve 126, 146 regulates the flow in the secondary system to ensure efficient operation in terms of the messages the primary and secondary systems. In addition, each system is in its final part provided with a swirler 128, 130; 148, 150, which is due to its geometry provides spraying (zavarivanje) fuel.

In the starting of the fuel injectors 12 cooling system is limited by the fact that surrounds the metering valve 126. In contrast, the main fuel injectors 14, 16 cooling system goes down to the nozzle of the spray from these nozzles before again rising to the dosing valve 146, which she also surrounds. As practice shows, there is the problem of coking main fuel nozzles 12, which may be exposed to high temperatures due to the lack of circulation of fuel during certain phases of operation. With regard to spray starting fuel injectors, their temperature does not exceed the threshold coking (150° (C) due to the continuous circulation of the cooling agent in all operating phases. Therefore, cooling spray starting fuel injectors is not required.

Figure 2 shows more detail on passing the traveler into the chamber 20 of the combustion end part, or the main fuel atomizer nozzles 14, 16 in accordance with the invention. For clarity in these drawings, the fuel injector shown in greatly enlarged scale. Almost spray the fuel injector has a diameter of about 10-15 mm

In this end portion of the fuel injector contains a ring to allow the tip 152 with the longitudinal axis 154 corresponding to the Central axis of the fuel injector. Ring to allow the tip 152 is installed in the inner groove 156 of the cylindrical nozzle 158 is fixed by soldering to the end of the outer wall 160 of the fuel injector. The nozzle includes an annular groove 162 that surrounds the inner groove 156 and goes in depth on the end of the annular nozzle tip 152, from which it is separated by a cylindrical sleeve 164. The upper end of the cylindrical sleeve 164 is also strengthened by soldering on the Central cylindrical part 166a of the connecting part 166. In this cylindrical part 166 is made blind (blind) axial groove 168 extending from the Central part 166a in the lower portion 166b. The open end of the groove 168 to the cylindrical part 166 is attached by soldering the first toplivopodayuschaya tube 170. The tube 170 is designed to supply the primary fuel from the main body of the fuel nozzle 172 to which it is attached to its ve is hnim end. The housing is mounted on the casing of the turbomachine in a known manner, so that it is fixed on the drawing is not presented.

The lower portion 166b cylindrical part 166. having a smaller diameter in comparison with the Central part 166a, set with a partial fence and attached by soldering in an internal groove 174 of the annular nozzle tip 152. The upper part is cylindrical part 166, which has a larger diameter (the thickness of the sleeve 164) compared with the Central part 166a, attached by soldering to the end of the second fuel supply tube 176 which is located coaxially of the first fuel injection tube 170 and has a larger diameter. Second toplivopodayuschaya tube 176 is designed to supply secondary fuel from the main body of the fuel injector 172, the output of which it is also attached. Second toplivopodayuschaya tube 176 extends into the internal annular cavity 178, which is made in the upper part s parts 166 and reported at least one longitudinal bore 180 for circulation of secondary fuels in part 166.

In the connecting part 166, near its back end 166b also made at least one pass-through cross hole 182, intended for messages of its Central groove 168 with an internal groove 174 of the annular nozzle tip 152. In addition, on the free lower end will connect the school details 166 machined tangential channels (forming the primary swirl 184), designed for zavarivanje primary fuel. The fuel goes from the first fuel injection tube 170 and sequentially passes through the axial groove 168, the inner groove 174 and the transverse holes 182. Similarly the ring to allow the tip 152 at its outer wall, which is in contact with the inner groove 156 of the cylindrical nozzle 158, equipped with a helical or tangential grooves forming the secondary swirl 186). Spiral flutes are designed to zavarivanje secondary fuel, which extends from the second fuel supply tube 176 and sequentially passes through the annular cavity 178, longitudinal holes 180 and the inner groove 156. At its free end which is not connected with the connecting part 166, the circuit to allow the tip 152 contains the first coplowe hole 188, equipped with a primary discharge cone, for injection of the primary fuel coming out of the screw channels 184. For the secondary fuel coming out of the screw grooves 186, provided that the internal groove 156 of the cylindrical nozzle 158 surrounding the ring to allow the tip 152, ends with the second nozzle hole 190 with secondary exhaust cone concentric with the first.

In addition to these funds flow from the fuel injector and primary and secondary fuels, toplin the I nozzle contains a special means of supply of the cooling agent, which allow a General cooling of the nozzle with a maximum heat dissipation. For this purpose the tubular dividing element 192 is introduced in an annular groove 162 of the cylindrical nozzle 158 in such a way that on both sides of this element is formed of first and second coaxial annular zone 194 and 196, which can circulate under the pressure of the cooling agent. The passage of the cooling agent between the two zones is provided through the connecting holes 198, which are made in this item at the level of its lower end. This lower end rests on the bottom of the grooves 162 and passes below the level of the first nozzle holes 188, thereby providing cooling of the entire sprayer, until the very end of the fuel injector.

The upper end of the separating element 192 is attached by soldering to the third tube 200, which is located coaxially aligned first and second fuel injection tubes 170, 176, has a slightly larger diameter and is also connected to the outlet of the housing of the fuel injector 172. Thus, the tube 200 forms a first annular channel 202 around the second fuel supply tube 176 to enter the cooling agent and the second annular channel 204 between this tube 200 and the outer wall 160 of the fuel injector to return the cooling agent to the source 10 after passage in one direction and the reverse is the entire length of the fuel injector along the circular channels 194, 196. This design ensures the passage of the cooling agent in one direction and then back along the length of the tubes feeding the primary and secondary fuels with the full environment of these fuel injection tube channel cooling, allows the maximum amount of heat, in contrast to known devices, which often contain lead channel on one side of the fuel nozzle and the discharge channel from the other side.

Thus, in the described construction the cooling system is fully integrated into the nozzle of the fuel injector, which highly contributes to its miniaturization. Built-in cooling system operates throughout the circumference and reliably ensures the operation of the fuel injector in any conditions, even in the most difficult conditions at very high temperatures. Very high efficiency of the cooling system according to the invention was confirmed by experimental validation.

1. The cooling device of the fuel injector (14, 16), designed for camera (20) of the turbomachine combustion and containing means to supply primary fuel, which includes the first fuel injection tube (170), to which is attached a ring to allow the tip (152) with the first nozzle orifices (188) for injection of the primary fuel in the specified combustion chamber, and means to supply secondary t is Pliva, includes a second fuel injection tube (176), which surrounds the specified first tube and to which is attached a cylindrical bore (158), environment specified to allow the tip and containing the second nozzle hole (190) for injection of the secondary fuel in the specified combustion chamber, and this nozzle further comprises an annular groove (162), which has a diameter greater than the diameter of the specified second fuel injection tube and passes through its entire length beyond these first nozzle holes, characterized in that it includes means for feeding a cooling agent comprising a third tube (200), which surrounds the specified second fuel injection tube and is attached to the tubular dividing element (192)entered in the specified annular groove of the specified cylindrical nozzle to form two annular spaces (194. 196), in which a cooling agent can circulate until the end of the fuel injector within 360°.

2. The cooling device according to claim 1, characterized in that the said first and second fuel tubes and the said third tube coaxial.

3. The cooling device according to claim 1, characterized in that said ring to allow the tip attached to the said first fuel injection tube with cylindrical with digitalnoy details (166).

4. Fuel injector to the combustion chamber of a turbomachine, containing the cooling device, disclosed in any one of claims 1 to 3.

5. The cooling device main fuel nozzles (14, 16), designed to include two blocks of the fuel nozzle chamber (20) of the turbomachine combustion, and this contains an annular nozzle tip (152)with the first nozzle hole (188) for injection of the primary fuel in the specified combustion chamber, communicating at its end opposite the chamber, the first fuel injection tube (170), and a nozzle that surrounds the specified ring terminal and provided with a second nozzle hole (190) for injection of the secondary fuel in the specified combustion chamber, communicating at its end opposite the camera, from the second fuel injection tube (176), characterized in that the nozzle includes an annular groove (162), passing through the depth of the outside of the first nozzle holes and which includes a tubular dividing element (192) with the formation of one and the other side of this element, first and second coaxial annular spaces (194, 196), with the passage of the cooling agent between the two annular spaces are provided through the connecting holes (198), completed within the specified separation element at the level of the e its lower end, which rests on the bottom of the groove (162)specified tubular dividing element with its upper end connected to the third tube (200)surrounding these first and second fuel tubes with education on the one hand with the specified first fuel injection tube of the first annular channel (202) for passage of the cooling agent from the source (10) of the specified agent through said first annular channel to the specified nozzle, and education on the other hand with the outer wall (160) fuel injector of the second annular channel (204) for the backward pass of the cooling agent through the second annular channel to the source agent.

6. The cooling device according to claim 5, characterized in that the said first and second fuel tubes and the said third tube coaxial.

7. The cooling device according to claim 5, characterized in that the tubular dividing element is attached by soldering to the said third tube (200), which is connected at its input with the body of the fuel injector (172).

8. Fuel injector for equipped with two units of the fuel injectors of the combustion chamber of a turbomachine, containing the cooling device, disclosed in any of pp.5-7.



 

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