Method for controlling data burst streams in the course of their transmission

FIELD: electrical communications.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method for controlling data streams in asynchronous burst-switched digital data transfer networks, including systems for controlling traffic through centers of burst switching, as well as for implementing various means for controlling burst data processing in switches and routers involves reduction in repeated transfers of data bursts caused by memory overflow by adapting time intervals of respective data burst transfer acknowledgement at the same time minimizing limits on priority traffic transfer. Provision is made for reducing probability of retransmission of data bursts between adjacent switching centers.

EFFECT: enhanced capacity of switching centers for switching bursts under transient traffic conditions at minimal limitation of priority bursts.

5 cl, 7 dwg, 3 appl

 

The invention relates to telecommunications, and in particular to methods of flow control in data networks asynchronous transfer discrete data with packet-switched networks, in particular to systems traffic management (Traffic load created by the flow of calls, messages, and signals to the means of communication [the Federal law "On communications". - The Russian newspaper 10.07.2003. No. 135]), which passes through the centers of packet switching. The method can be used in switches and routers that packets of data with the aim of improving their performance (Performance - intensity timely serviced packet flow [Zakharov G.P. research Methods data networks. - M.: Radio and communication, 1982. - 208 S., Il. on page 22,25]).

The claimed technical solution expands the Arsenal of tools for similar purposes.

There is a method of flow control when transmitting data packets for U.S. patent No. 5311513, "Method for preventing overload in a packet-based network" CL H 04 L 12/56, Saul. The known method includes the following steps. Preliminary determination of statistical parameters for processing streams of packets, receiving packets of data from source, assigning each packet of the flow, the statistical parameters which coincide with a predefined, high-priority processing, if artisticheskie parameters of the packet stream are outside these bounds, the packet is assigned the lowest priority, storing packets in memory, processing them according to priority and send to the recipient, if the memory is full, incoming packets are erased.

The disadvantage of this method is the low productivity of the switching devices of the data network overload, due to a sharp increase in the time spent by the packet in memory and switching devices, as well as the possibility of blocking (Lock - failure data on any network segment due to the full employment of resources [Protocols information and computer networks: a Handbook /Saanichton, Chabelo, Avernian and others; Ed. by Iaison, Apollosa. - M.: Radio and communication, 1990.-504 S.: ill, str]) at high intensity of traffic, in addition, packets of the same message can receive a different priority processing, it reduces the probability-time characteristics of the transmission of messages in the packet switching and complicates the procedure of ordering and assembling packets of the same message at the destination, the user of communication services is deprived of the opportunity to set the priority of the message.

Also there is a method of flow control when transmitting data packets according to the Japan patent No. 6-164625 CL H 04 L 12/48, G 06 F 13/00 "Method and device is to control the rate of flow of packets" Saul, 1994. The known method includes the following steps: pre-setting processing options packets, private for each thread receiving data packets from the source, the comparison period of the packets with the established period T, on the comparison of the write packet into memory or erasing, the packet transmission to the recipient.

The disadvantage of this method is the low performance of the switching devices of the data network when the pulsing traffic that due to the large number of erased packets with different parameters pulsating traffic and a priori specified period T handle it, furthermore, it should be noted the absence of a procedure of separation and priority processing of incoming packets based on their urgency category.

The closest to the technical nature of the claimed is a method of flow control when transmitting data packets according to the patent of Russian Federation №2183912, "Method for managing packet flows of digital information", IPC H 04 L 12/56, Appl. 09.02.2001. Prototype method is that the pre-set processing options packages that are common to all data flow: the control time interval Tpintop Rtopand the bottom Pbottomthe fill factor memory is I. At the same time set the processing options of the packages, specific for the i-th stream, where i=1,2,3...N, N is the total number of threads: intensity of service packages μivalid delay time of packets TDEPthe size of the allocated memory InvidiTDEP.

Accept data packets of different flows, intended for further transmission in this direction. Memorize them, to produce a package that has the minimum virtual transmission time TWirthand pass it. Then in real time for each flow is measured allocated amount of memory Insunas the sum of all the packets of this flow, in the moment of time in memory. Compare the size of the memory occupied by the packets of the i-th stream, Insunwith allocated memory InvidIncrease the amount of memory allocated for packets of the i-th stream whenthe value ofindicator which is defined as the smallest of the values calculated by the formula

Reduce the amount of allocated memory atby an amount determined by the formulaRemove packages, outside allocated to threads of the volume is Amati, the memory footprint of remote packages must be not less than

In comparison with analogues prototype method can improve the performance of packet switching due to differential treatment of packets of each flow that is needed to improve the probability-time characteristics of the message.

The disadvantage of the prototype is relatively low productivity centers of packet switching, which is implemented this way in a changing traffic. This is because with the increase of the traffic load increases the number of retransmissions of packets caused by the removal of the memory centers of packet switching, outside of the allotted memory, consequently, increases the residence time of the packets in the network and reduces the probability of timely delivery to the recipient. Increase memory centers of packet switching leads to lower probability-time characteristics of the transmission of messages.

The purpose of the claimed technical solution is to develop a method of flow control when transmitting data packets, allowing to improve the performance of switching centers (CC) in the conditions of non-stationary traffic, by reducing the number of retransmissions n the ket data, caused by memory overflow, by adjusting the time intervals of transmission of confirmation of receipt of the respective data packets while minimizing restrictions on the transfer of high priority traffic.

This objective is achieved in that in the known method of flow control when transmitting data packets, namely, that pre-N≥1 flows of data packets set the parameters of their processing, accept data packets identified as belonging to one of the threads, passed into the memory of the k-th port of the switching center, remember, process and transmit to the sender a confirmation of the reception of the next packet, simultaneously from a number of previously processed packets emit packets for further transmission and transfer them to the recipient, as a pre-set parameters specify the size of memory as the discrete the value of memory ΔB∂ and a function of the coefficient of confirmation delay, RT). Additionally, during the reception of data packets measured time tmwhere m=0,1,2,..., for which the current value of memory InTinvolved in all received data packets flows will change by the amount Δ∂. In addition, measure the average in the time interval tmthe arrival rate λi(tm/sub> packets of the i-th stream of the communication channel, where i=1,2,3...N and the average intensity of their transfer μi(tm) to the recipient. For measured values λi(tmand μi(tm) calculate an average in the time interval tmfill rate memory Rmithe packets of each flow. At the current memory valuetconsumption of all received data packets flows, calculate the current value of the function coefficient confirmation delay, Rm(BT). The transmission of the acknowledgment packet in the next time interval t(m+1)delay on time Δt(m+1)i. Moreover, the delay time Δt(m+1)isend confirmation of the receipt of the next data packet for the i-th flow is calculated after measuring the parameters InTthat λmiand μmiin the time interval tmaccording to the formula

As a function of the coefficient of confirmation delay, RTselect linear or exponential, or trigonometric functions, and discrete memory value Δ∂ choose basedwhere M≥(2·N).

The average speed of the memory is full, the packets of the i-th stream in time interval tmcalculated according to the formula Rmii(tm)-μit m).

A new set of essential features in the proposed method provides better performance centers of packet switching in the conditions of non-stationary traffic with minimal restriction priority flows by reducing the likelihood of re-transmissions of packets between neighboring Central Committee.

The analysis of the level of data technology has allowed to establish that the analogues, characterized by a set of characteristics is identical for all features of the claimed technical solution is available, which indicates compliance of the claimed method the condition of patentability "novelty".

Search results known solutions in this and related areas of technology with the purpose of revealing of signs consistent with a non-prototype signs of the requested object, showed that they do not follow explicitly from the prior art. The prior art also revealed no known effect provided the essential features of the claimed invention transformations on the achievement of the technical result. Therefore, the claimed invention meets the condition of patentability "inventive step".

The claimed method is illustrated by drawings:

figure 1 - block diagram of the algorithm that implements the method of flow control;

figure 2 - graph of the dependence of the periods of the and receipt of packets from the transmission time of confirmation;

figure 3 is a graph of the period of receipt of packages when changing the delay time of confirmation.

4 is a diagram showing changes in the intensity of traffic and the memory status of the Central Committee at its unlimited amount;

5 is a diagram showing changes in the intensity of traffic and the memory status of the Central Committee for managing flows in accordance with the method stated in the prototype;

6 is a diagram showing changes in the intensity of traffic and the memory status of the Central Committee for managing flows in accordance with the claimed method;

7 is a graph of the probability of timely processing of packets in the Central Committee from the intensity of their treatment under different methods of flow control.

The claimed method is implemented as follows. It is known that when designing networks PD make a number of assumptions about the nature of traffic and the parameters of the switching devices. It is usually assumed exponential distribution of the intensity of the proceeds of the packages and their services. In the calculations of the individual network elements use the known formulas of theory of mass service, based on the stationarity of the flow parameters. However, in practice these values in separate periods of time and on a separate switching centers may differ significantly from estimated and lead to overloads.

Known methods of local control is of the flows (see, for example, V.M. Vishnevsky "Theoretical foundations of computer networks design" Moscow: the Technosphere, 2003, str-287; Vgolf, Nagelfar "Computer network. Principles, technologies and protocols" SPb.: Peter, 2003, str-644), according to which is limited to either the total number of packets in the memory of the switching center or the amount of memory allocated to different classes of packets, include the steps inherent in the above-described analogs.

The size of memory allocated for each class of packets is determined from the condition of adequacy for storing the queue average message length. However, to determine the exact value of the memory size is quite difficult because it varies depending on the network load. In the case of filling the allocated memory at the k-th outgoing direction of further packets in the memory is blocked. In the input devices of the switching center, receiving packages in the address of this trend is the blurring of the packages. This generates a retransmission packet, which significantly reduces the network performance due to inefficient use of bandwidth.

Preventing overload can be performed using the global control flow, which is based on the mechanisms handshake and concept window (see, for example, Saanichton, SAB the crystals, Avernian and other Protocols information and computer networks: a Handbook Ed. by I.A. Mizin, A.P. Kuleshov - M.: Radio and communication, 1990, str-207). These methods allow to reduce the load on the network as a whole, however, does not prevent the ability to lock the memory of the individual switching centers. In addition, they provide the transfer of packets of connection and presence service information transmitted between input and output nodes. Therefore, these methods require additional consumption of network resources.

Thus, when solving the problem of flow control in the switching center there is a necessity to determine the current settings of the incoming load, intensity of service packages to the CC, the degree of filling memory and decision on the admission of packets in the memory of the Central Committee.

The solution to this problem and sent the claimed method, a block diagram of the algorithm which is presented in figure 1.

Pre-set processing options packages that are common to all streams: the amount of memory You∂kallocated to the k-th port of the switching center, the discrete value of memory Δ∂ and a function of the coefficient of confirmation delay, RT). The volume of the discrete values of the memory is defined by the expressionwhere M is the value of frequency d is cratizatio M memory is determined in accordance with the Nyquist theorem, VA according to the formula M≥2·N, where N≥1 the number of streams of data packets processed by the Central Committee in the k-th transmission direction. Selecting a value M determines the sensitivity of the system flow control of data packets to the change of their intensity. Change the value of a function of the coefficient of confirmation delay, RTwill allow you to adjust the delay time of the acknowledgment packet. Then take packages N threads. When receiving a packet to identify them as belonging to one of the streams and transmit the memory of the k-th port of the switching center displacement of the As for further processing.

Measure the time Δtmduring which the change occurred occupied memory size ΔB∂ and the current value of the memory occupied by the packets of all flows Int. Calculate the average on the interval Δtmthe intensity of service packages μi(tm)belonging to different flows, which may depend on the category of urgency packages and flow requirements to the quality of service and the average arrival rate of packets λi(tm). Calculate the speed Rmithe memory of the k-th port of the packets of the i-th stream in the time interval of Δtm. The procedure for calculating the fill rate of the buffer Rmithe packets of the i-th flow is given in Annex 1.

In the proposed method, the intensity of the i-th incoming flow λ miis depending on the speed of the memory Rmi. the packets of this flow and the state of the buffer BT:

where Pm(InT) function coefficient acknowledgement delay. The influence function of the coefficient of confirmation delay, Rm(BT) on the arrival rate of packets λi(tm) is proved in Appendix 2.

The arrival rate of packets of the i-th thread λmichange due to a change in transmission time of confirmation of the receipt of the next packet of this flow on the amount Δt(m+1)i(2, 3). Graph 2- the average time between receipts of packets in the time interval tmand- average estimated time between receipts of packets of this flow to the next stage of the iteration. The transmission delay time of confirmation Δt(m+1)ithe fact of receiving the packets of the i-th flow is calculated by the formula:

The derivation of the formula 2 are presented in Appendix 3.

After a time delay the acknowledgement Δt(m+1)itransmit a confirmation to the sender about the reception of the next packet.

The coefficient function acknowledgement delay that determines the dependence of RTfrom the extent and cover of the of the memory of the Central Committee, should be decreasing with the decrease in free memory and such that

The scope of the function values is in the range 0≤RT)≤1, and the scope of the definitions of the functions 0<T<You∂. As a function of the coefficient of confirmation delay, RTselect linearexponentialor trigonometricfunction, whereis constant, the choice of which depends on the desired steepness of the graph of the function.

The choice of the function P(InT) can be determined by the nature of the traffic on the network, processing and transmission of data packets through the channels and paths.

Thus, the change time of the confirmation by the value of Δtmicalculated by the formula 2, leads to adaptation periodthe packets of the i-th stream (figure 3) in accordance with the amount of memory filled with packets of all flows W and the speed of its completion packets of the i-th flow Rmito prevent the possibility of blocking the memory of the Central Committee and to differentiate the intensity of the revenues of the Central Committee of the packages according to their requirements on quality of service in data networks. This provides increased production is titelliste centers of packet switching.

The possibility of achieving the claimed effect was verified by mathematical modeling of traffic and processing in the Central Committee and explain graphs figure 4-7, based on the results of the simulation.

When non-stationary nature of the traffic arrival rate of packets at the Central Committee has the property of self-similarity and has a certain period of Tcn(see, for example, Gorodetsky YA, zaborowski B.C. Fractal processes in computer networks. / SPb.: Publishing house of St. Petersburg state technical University, 2000, p.101 on p.48-57). In the graphs, figure 4 presents one of the possible options for changing the intensity of the packets λSP(t) and the intensity of their treatment μcn(t) in the CC (figure 4, graph "a"), as well as the filling process and freeing memory of the CC (figure 4, graph b) on the same period of self-similarity Tcn. Because of the need to perform probabilistic and temporal requirements for the transmission of data packets or for technical reasons, the memory of the Central Committee has a limited amount As in these conditions the change of the current amount of memory BThas the form presented in figure 5, schedule "b". After filling the memory coming to the CC packets washed, but the sender transmits them again until, until you receive confirmation of acceptance. Graph 5 graph "a"shows the change in intensity of the packets λon(t) limited is on memory in the Central Committee for the management of flows of packets, described in the prototype.

Graphs 6 shows the change in the intensity of the packets λpack(t) and the filling process and freeing memory BTwhen using the inventive method of flow control packets.

It is known (see, for example, Zakharov G.P. research Methods data networks. M.: Radio and communication, 1982.-208 C., Il. on page 22, 25)that the performance of the Central Committee is directly proportional to the probability of timely processing of packets Q at the switching center. Graphs 7 shows the dependence of the probability of timely processing of packets in the Central Committee from the intensity of their treatment with various amounts of allocated memory As, where Qon- the probability of timely packet processing in the Central Committee for the management of flows of packets, described in the prototype, Qpack- the probability of timely processing of packets when using the inventive method of flow control packets. The likelihood of timely processing of packets in the flow management in accordance with the claimed method is significantly increased, especially at low intensity of packet processing in the Central Committee.

Thus, of the essence of the claimed method can be seen that it provides better performance centers of packet switching by reducing the number of retransmissions of paketo the data by adjusting the time intervals of transmission of confirmation of receipt of the respective data packets while minimizing restrictions on the transfer of high priority traffic. This is achieved by formulating an objective - development of a method of flow control when transmitting data packets, providing increased performance center of packet switching while minimizing restrictions on the transfer of high priority traffic.

Appendix 1

The calculation speed buffer the packets of the i-th stream

It is known (see, for example, Lclark the queueing Theory", translated from English. Ira; amended Veeneman - M.: mechanical engineering, 1979, p.31-34)that the total intensity of the incoming flow is equal toand the total intensity of the processed streamwhere postmiand popmi -the number of requests received and processed the packets of the i-th flow, respectively, in the time interval tm.

Fill rate memory Rmpackets of all flows is determined by the formula:and discrete memory ΔB∂filled with packages for time tmthere is a difference between all the received and processed by the packet in this time interval ΔB∂(tm)=nnocmm-popmthen:

Speed Rmithe memory of K-th port of the packets of the i-th stream in the time interval of Δtmaccordingly equal to the difference between the interest is the intensity of the packets of this flow and the intensity of their processing:

RmiI(t)m-μ(tm).

Annex 2

The influence function of the ratio of delayed Acknowledgements

on the arrival rate of packets

The total intensity of packet processing μ(tm) is determined by the memory and cannot be higher than its maximum value defined by the bandwidth of the communication channel:

The intensity of service packages μmibelonging to different flows may depend on the category of urgency packages and flow requirements to service quality, and in General

The total arrival rate of packets N threads is determined by the formula (see Appendix 1)from the above formula it follows that flows, the intensity of the processing in which the switching center above, will have a lower fill rate memory with equal intensity packets at the input of the Central Committee.

Determination of dependence of the speed of the memory Rmfrom memoryTfilled with packets of all flowswill lead to different changes in the intensity of the packets of the i-th thread λi(tmin the Central Committee, that is how, the higher the speed the memory is full, the packets of the i-th flow Rmithe stronger is limited to this thread, with the arrival rate of packets of the i-th thread λi(tm) is determined by the expression:

Thus, the arrival rate of packets of the i-th thread λ(tmwill be depending on the intensity of processing packets of this flow μi(tmin the Central Committee and the state buffer. In addition, when establishing such dependence the probability of overload switching center is significantly reduced.

Annex 3

The calculation of the delay time of the transmission confirmation

It is known (see, for example, Lclark "queueing Theory", translated from English. Ira; amended Veeneman - M.: Mashinostroenie, 1979. p.27-30)that the average time between revenues packagesthe CC is defined asand the average handling timein the Central Committeeand the average waiting time of packets in memoryThe Central Committee in the time interval of Δt=tm-t(m-1)defined as

Average timebetween the proceeds of the packets of the i-th flow range by changing the delay time proof the Oia of the receipt of the next packet on the value of . (figure 2). The average on the interval tmtimebetween the packets of the i-th flow is defined as. The waiting time of packets in memorywhere Δt(m+1)i- the change in waiting time of packets of the i-th stream in the memory of the Central Committee at the next interval of time t(m+1). To change the mean timebetween the proceeds packages change the delay time of confirmation Δtithat is calculated by the formula:

After a number of transformations, this expression takes the form:

1. The method of flow control when transmitting data packets, namely, that pre-N>1 flows of data packets set the parameters of their processing, accept data packets identified as belonging to one of the threads, passed into the memory of the k-th port of the switching center, remember, process and transmit to the sender a confirmation of the reception of the next packet, simultaneously from a number of previously processed packets emit packets for further transmission and transfer them to the recipient, wherein the quality parameters for processing streams of data set the size of the allocated memory You∂ discrete value memory Δ In∂ and the coefficient function acknowledgement delay R(In), optional when receiving data packets measured time tmwhere m=0,1,2,..., for which the current value of memory InTinvolved in all received data packets flows will change by the amount Δ∂the average in the time interval tmthe intensity of inflow λi(tmpackets of the i-th stream, where, i=1,2,3...N, from the communication channel and the average intensity of their transfer μi(tm) to the recipient, on the measured values λi(tmand μi(tm) calculate an average in the time interval tmfill rate memory RSAP. the packets of the i-th stream, and the current value of the memory watt consumption of all received data packets flows, calculate the current value of the function coefficient confirmation delay, Rm(InT), the transmission of the acknowledgment packet in the next time interval tmdelay on time Δt(m+1)iand time delay Δt(m+1)nsend confirmation of the receipt of the next data packet for the i-th flow is calculated after measuring the parameters InTthat λi(tm), μi(tmand calculate the fill rate memory Rmiin the time interval tm.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the time for which eriki confirmation of the reception of the next data packet is calculated by the formula

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that as a function of the coefficient of acknowledgement delay P () select linear, or exponential, or trigonometric function.

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the discrete value of memory Δ∂ choose from a condition

where M≥(2· (N) the maximum allowed processing threads.

5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the speed of the memory is full, the packets of the i-th stream is calculated according to the formula R=λi(tm)-μi(tm).



 

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EFFECT: enhanced output power and commercial efficiency.

1 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: wireless electrical communications.

SUBSTANCE: in order to enhance quality of coherent demodulation in system use is made of subchannels which are not subchannels for pilot signals. To this end, corrected data received over main channel are used to obtain better estimate of pilot-signal channel which is then used for demodulating data channel.

EFFECT: enhanced precision of estimating phase and amplitude noise inherent to transfer channel.

55 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: adaptive antennas for satellite communication systems.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes suppression of single noise when single compensation channel is available or more than single noise in case there is respective number of compensation channels with signals received over side lobes of main-antenna directivity pattern in satellite communication system. Signals received are numbered and expanded into quadrature components in analog-to-digital converters, this being followed by quadrature processing. Signal readout delay is introduced in compensator channels while weighting coefficient is being computed using adaptive algorithm in digital processor. The latter functions to compute optimal weighting coefficients using sample correlation matrix access. Time required for computing according to adaptive algorithm and for operations related to data input in digital processor and weighting coefficient output from digital processor is shorter than delay time introduced, that is, it meets on-line computation requirement.

EFFECT: ability of on-line noise suppression during zero-length transient process.

1 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering, possible use in communication systems with phase-manipulated signals for transferring data along radio-channel.

SUBSTANCE: transmitting device, containing generator of phase-manipulated signals 1, power amplifier 4 and transmitting antenna 7, additionally has serially connected subtracter 2, and quantizer for three levels 3, serially connected current indicator and synchronization device 6, output of which is connected to transmission antenna 7, while second output of current indicator 5 is connected to subtracting input of subtracter 2, while output of generator of phase-manipulated signals 1 is connected to adding input of subtracter 2, and also, output of quantizer 3 is connected to input of power amplifier 4, output of which is connected to input of current indicator 5, while power amplifier is made the key element.

EFFECT: increased efficiency, realization of required transferred signals capacity without decrease of quality of antenna or synchronization circuits during operation of dev with high quality, electrically short antennas.

9 dwg

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