Method of extraction of noble metals

FIELD: extraction of noble metals from materials containing such metals, for example sludge, used catalysts, ores.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method increases degree of extraction of noble metals into alloy at eutectic melting due to increased degree of extraction of micro-dispersed phases (nano-particles) and atoms of noble metals found in dislocations (linear defects) and micro-cracks of crystal lattices of initial materials. To this end, material from which noble metals are to be extracted is mixed with charge of alkaline composition and mixture is subjected to eutectic melting, thus obtaining alloy of these metals. Immediately before melting, mixture is subjected to mechanical activation continued for 0.0833-2 h at maintenance of ratio of delivered mechanical energy power to relative surface of mixture within 0.0133-25 W x kg x m-2. Eutectic melting of mixture is performed at temperature above 500°C. Ratio of mass of charge to mass of material is selected within 0.75-2; used as charge is mixture of sodium tetraborate with sodium carbonate, sodium tetraborate with sodium bicarbonate, sodium tetraborate and sodium carbonate and lead mono-oxide, sodium tetraborate with sodium bicarbonate and lead mono-oxide.

EFFECT: increased degree of extraction of noble metals.

4 cl, 12 ex

 

The invention relates to processes for the recovery of precious metals (BM) of the containing material, which may be the sludge, spent catalysts, ore and the like, as well as the materials from which the technologies currently applied in industry, have been previously allocated to these metals.

The method for extracting gold from pyrite-arsenopyrite concentrates darasunskogo deposits by mechanical activation in a ball mill and subsequent cyanidation. The volume of the mill 1 l, the grinding body - bearing fraction with a diameter of 3-5 mm, weight balls of 1.3 kg of the Mechanoactivation of 100 g of concentrate was carried out in the presence of 0.4 l of water for 3, 10, 15 and 20 minutes Maximum degree of extraction of gold was 94.2 % (Vggallery, Vigolana and others, the activation of the opening of mineral raw materials, Novosibirsk, "Nauka, Siberian publishing firm Russian Academy of Sciences, 1999, p.16, 29-30, tables 5 and 6).

The disadvantage of this method is the low degree of extraction of gold, which, in particular, due to non-optimal time of mechanical activation and power mechanical power (W)applied to a specific surface-activated pyrite-arsenopyrite concentrate (m2/kg).

The method for extracting platinum group metals, including smelting source material based chalcogenides of noblegarden the x metals containing metals of platinum group, in the presence of a carbonaceous reducing agent and additives with the simultaneous use of compounds of sodium and products containing metal alloys based on copper and/or iron. As compounds of sodium used sodium carbonate, sodium sulfite or sodium thiosulfate, followed concentrated recoverable metals in metal, in particular iron phase. Dedicated bottom product was ground and processed as concentrate refining production (EN 2112064, WITH 22 IN 11/02, 1998).

There is also known a method of extracting platinum group metals from concentrates based on sulphides of iron, including the smelting of concentrates, additives, oxidation and cooling of the melt, the separation of the frozen products by their physical properties. As additives used both products based on alumina or clay, sodium carbonate, sodium silicate glass or slag refining production of platinum group metals on the basis of the sodium-calcium silicates under certain ratios (RU 2154117, WITH 22 IN 11/02, 2000).

The disadvantage of each of these methods is that the resulting product is a heavy multi-component alloy, requiring selection of platinum group metals of the large consumption of acid going on RA is the creation of the Foundation in subsequent refining production, as well as its duration and the need to use a large number of different equipment.

The closest in technical essence and the achieved result to the present invention is a method of extracting precious metals from their containing material comprising a mixture of material with a mixture of alkaline composition and eutectic melting (Eutectic melting(eutectic melting) is the technical term for a long time and widely used in Russian and English technical literature, means the local melting of microscopic regions, whose composition corresponds to the eutectic system, in which ratios of components are the same as in the solid and in the liquid (molten) state of the system [Vchain, Biserkov, Allabadi and other Metals and alloys. The Handbook, edited by Upolicies, St. Petersburg, ANO NGOs "Professional"ANO NGO, Peace and Family", 2003, s].) mix with obtaining an alloy of these metals (article: Vguimenu, Whiplashing, Mstislav, Abbatia, Segregation of noble metals, reports of the Academy of Sciences, 2002, vol 384, No. 5, p.1-4, especially C. 3,lines 9-16 in the left column, copy attached). As a material used enriched placer material from Tambukanskogo node of the Upper Amur region containing Ag, Au and Pt. Temperature eutectic melting was lying in the range 550-600°the. In this way, unlike the methods mentioned above-analogues, when the eutectic melting of the source material was carried out segregation fine phases (in particular, nanoparticles with a size of 10-9m) and atoms of noble metals, leading to abnormal crystal growth and increase the degree of extraction of these metals from the material in the alloy of these metals (see lines 3-9 in the left column on page 4 of the article).

The main disadvantage of the prototype method is the low degree of extraction of noble metals, in dislocations (line defects) and microcracks crystal lattices of the original materials in the form of microdispersed phase (nanoparticles) and atoms (see the beginning of the third paragraph in the left column on p.1 of the article).

The technical result for the solution of which the present invention is directed, is to increase the degree of extraction of precious metals due to the increase in eutectic melting the degree of extraction in the alloy microdispersed phase (nanoparticles) and atoms of noble metals, in dislocations (line defects) and microcracks crystal lattices of the original materials.

The technical result is achieved in the method of extracting precious metals from their containing material comprising a mixture of material with a mixture of alkaline composition and the eutectic is Lavinia mixture with obtaining an alloy of these metals. The mixture immediately before the melt is subjected to mechanical activation during 0,0833-2 hours while maintaining a relationship of power input mechanical energy to the specific surface of the mixture in the range 0,0133-25 W × kg × m-2. Eutectic melting of the mixture is carried out at temperatures lying in the range of temperatures, the lower limit of which is 500°C, the mass ratio of charge to mass of material is chosen in the range of 0.75-2, and as the charge is a mixture of sodium tetraborate sodium carbonate, sodium tetraborate with sodium bicarbonate, tetraborate, sodium carbonate, sodium monoxide and lead, tetraborate sodium bicarbonate and lead monoxide.

Distinctive features of the method according to the present invention consist in the fact that the mixture immediately before the melt is subjected to mechanical activation during 0,0833 - 2 hours while maintaining a relationship of power input mechanical energy to the specific surface of the mixture in the range 0,0133-25 W × kg × m-2.

Additional distinguishing features of the method according to the present invention lies in the fact that eutectic melting of the mixture is carried out at temperatures lying in the range 500-1200°C, the mass ratio of charge to mass of material is chosen in the range of 0.75-2, and as the charge is a mixture of sodium tetraborate carbonate is the atrium, the tetraborate sodium bicarbonate, tetraborate, sodium carbonate, sodium monoxide and lead, tetraborate sodium bicarbonate and lead monoxide.

The above technical result is achieved, according to the authors, due to the occurrence of a synergistic effect caused by the following directly one after the other consistent effects on the mixture of mechanical activation with the proposed interval power ratio of mechanical energy to the specific surface of the mixture and its eutectic melting. Mechanical activation, as is well known, leads to the preferential destruction of the crystals of the mixture in the zone of microcracks and dislocations (line defects) in the crystal structure. While in the charge and the material constituting the mixture, appear rich in energy of the valence-unsaturated atoms in addition, the charge as if "driven" in destructible microcracks and dislocations of the material, which, as mentioned above, are microdispersed phase (nanoparticles) and the atoms of noble metals. As it turned out as a result of experiments conducted by the authors, mechanical activation in the proposed interval of process parameters with regard to the process carried out in the proposed method provides the maximum effect. The result of this synergistic effect, first of all, mahanoy the activation is to increase the degree of extraction of precious metals from material in the alloy of these metals at the eutectic melting of the mixture.

The present invention meets the condition of patentability - novelty", as in the prior art failed to find technical solutions, the essential features which would coincide with all the features available in the independent claims of the present invention. The present invention meets the condition of patentability - "inventive step", since the prior art has failed to find technical solutions, the essential features of which was provided by performing the same technical problem on which the present invention is directed.

The invention is illustrated below by examples.

Example 1. The source material in the form of 0.15 kg of concentrate field "may", containing 310 g/t gold, 3700 g/t silver, and the rest of the oxides of silicon, aluminum, calcium, iron, sulfur and other elements, mixed with 0.15 kg of a mixture of alkaline composition [(Na2CO3- sodium carbonate) + (Na2B4O7×10H2O - sodium tetraborate)] in the ratio of the mass: charge to mass of the source material =1:1, placed in a laboratory mill planetary type A-2×150 with the motor power 400 W, the grinding body - balls with a diameter of 3-5 mm from bearing steel SH-15. In this mill the mixture for 5 minutes immediately before the eutectic melt is subjected to mechanical activation while maintaining a relationship of input power mechanical energy N (W) to the specific surface of the activated mixture S (m 2/kg), equal of 0.133 W × kg × m-2. Immediately after the mechanical activation proektirovaniya mixture is loaded into crucibles type TG-5, which are then placed in a preheated furnace to a temperature of +850°C. In a crucible located in the furnace spend eutectic melting of the mixture for 30-40 minutes, after which the crucibles are removed from the furnace, the melt from the crucible is poured into metal moulds. After cooling of the melt in the mold is formed of two phases: an alloy of noble metals, located in the lower part of the mold and the slag located at the top of the mold. The contents of the mold is removed and divided into these two parts, the slag is sent to the dump, and alloy - refinery. The degree of extraction of gold 98,5%, silver - 98,6%.

Example 2. Processing of source material is conducted according to example 1, with the difference that use a different mill, namely vertical vibration type MW-0.6 capacity of each of the two engines 22000 W, the grinding body - balls with a diameter of 20 mm from bearing steel SH-15. Since this mill has a high initial loading of raw materials - 2000 kg, 0.3 kg of the mixture of the concentrate and the mixture alkaline composition of the load to 1999,7 kg of the same material. The mechanical activation is carried out for 120 minutes while maintaining the relationship N:S equal to 25 W × kg × m-2. Degree izvlecheniyu 98,8%, silver 99%.

Example 3. Processing of source material is conducted according to example 1, with the difference that use a different mill, and the mill type MV-0.2 with the power of the motor 11000 W, the grinding body - balls with a diameter of 15 mm from bearing steel SH-15. Since this mill has a high initial loading of raw materials - 100 kg, 0.3 kg of the mixture of the concentrate and the mixture alkaline composition to load 99,7 kg of the same material. The mechanical activation is carried out for 60 minutes while maintaining the relationship N:S, equal to 12 W × kg × m-2. The degree of extraction of gold to 98.6%, silver 98,8%.

Example 4. Processing of source material is conducted according to example 1, with the difference that the mechanical activation is carried out for 4.5 minutes while maintaining the relationship N:S equal 0,0130 W × kg × m-2. The degree of extraction of gold 97,0%, silver 97,2%.

Example 5. Processing of source material is conducted according to example 2, with the difference that the mechanical activation is carried out for 125 minutes while maintaining the relationship N:S is equal to 26 W × kg × m-2. The degree of extraction of gold 98,7%, silver 98,9%.

Example 6. Processing of source material is conducted according to example 3, with the difference that as the source material used concentrate Tambukanskogo node of the Upper Amur region containing gold 110 g/t platinum 360 g/t, silver 1250 g/t, the rest is mine the crystals of cassiterite, wolframite, ilmenite, monazite, copper and other elements. As charge alkaline composition using [(NaHCO3- sodium bicarbonate) + (Na2B4O7×10H2O - sodium tetraborate)]. The degree of extraction of gold to 98.6%, platinum 98.4 per cent., silver 98,5%.

Example 7. Processing of source material is conducted according to example 6, with the difference that as the charge alkaline composition using [(NaHCO3- sodium bicarbonate) + (Na2B4O7×10H2O - sodium tetraborate) + (PbO monoxide lead)]. The degree of extraction of gold 98,7%, platinum 98.6% of the silver 98,8%.

Example 8. Processing of source material is conducted according to example 6, with the difference that as the charge alkaline composition using [(Na2CO3- sodium carbonate) + (Na2B4O7×10H2O - sodium tetraborate) + (PbO monoxide lead)]. The degree of extraction of gold 98,5%, platinum 98,7%, silver 98,9%.

Example 9. Processing of source material is conducted according to example 6, with the difference that the eutectic melting is carried out at a temperature of +500°C. the Degree of extraction of gold of 98.3%platinum 98.1 per cent, of silver to 98.4%.

Example 10. Processing of source material is conducted according to example 6, with the difference that the eutectic melting is carried out at a temperature of 1200°C. the Degree of extraction of gold to 98.6%, platinum 98,8%, silver 99%.

Example 11. Processing of source material provideto example 6, with the difference that the mass ratio of charge to mass of the source material is chosen equal to 2:1. The degree of extraction of gold 98,8%, platinum 98,8%, silver 98,9%.

Example 12. Processing of source material is conducted according to example 6, with the difference that the mass ratio of charge to mass of the source material is chosen equal to 0.75:1. The degree of extraction of gold to 98.6%, platinum 98,4%, silver 98,5%.

From the comparison of the results of the degrees of extraction of precious metals from examples 1-3 with similar results example 4-5 shows the following.

When the period of time of mechanical activation of a mixture of starting material and a mixture of alkaline composition below the lower limit and relationship power input mechanical energy to the specific surface of the activated mixture also NII lower limit in the formula of the invention (example 4), the degree of extraction is significantly reduced, namely to 98.5-99% in examples 1-3 to 97,0-97,2% in example 4, because of the lack of mechanical activation of the mixture. When the period of time of mechanical activation of a mixture of starting material and the mixture is above the upper limit and the ratio of input power mechanical energy to the specific surface of the activated mixture also above the upper limit in the formula of the invention according to example 5, the degree of extraction of precious metals, equal in this case 98,7 reached 98.9%, remains at the same level as in examples 1-3, namely of 98.5-99%. Follow the consequently, to increase the degree of mechanical activation above the upper limits of the process parameters is impractical from the point of view of increasing the efficiency of extraction of precious metals and, in addition, it leads to waste of energy.

1. The method of extracting precious metals from their containing material comprising a mixture of material with a mixture of alkaline composition and the eutectic melting of the mixture to obtain an alloy of these metals, characterized in that the mixture immediately before the melt is subjected to mechanical activation during 0,0833 2 h while maintaining a relationship of power input mechanical energy to the specific surface of the mixture in the range 0,0133-25 W · kg · m-2.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the eutectic melting of the mixture is conducted in the temperature range, the lower limit of which is 500°C.

3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the mass ratio of charge to mass of material is chosen in the range of 0.75 to 2.

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that as the charge is a mixture of sodium tetraborate sodium carbonate, sodium tetraborate with sodium bicarbonate, tetraborate, sodium carbonate, sodium monoxide and lead, tetraborate sodium bicarbonate and lead monoxide.



 

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1 tbl, 1 ex

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FIELD: noble metal metallurgy, in particular method for gold content determination in natural solid organic materials such as divot, state coal, brown coal, and black coal.

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1 tbl, 1 ex

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1 tbl, 5 ex

FIELD: gold mining.

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FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes reduction of silver chloride at heating and holding at heat in flow of gaseous hydrogen, bubbling of gas escaping from reaction chamber through water and obtaining aqueous solution HCl. Reduction is performed from silver chloride formed at refining of noble metals and ground to size of ≤100 mcm and located in reaction chamber at thickness of layer of ≤20 mm at temperature of 450°C±5°C by gaseous hydrogen heated to holding temperature.

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1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: extraction of noble metals from materials containing such metals, for example sludge, used catalysts, ores.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method increases degree of extraction of noble metals into alloy at eutectic melting due to increased degree of extraction of micro-dispersed phases (nano-particles) and atoms of noble metals found in dislocations (linear defects) and micro-cracks of crystal lattices of initial materials. To this end, material from which noble metals are to be extracted is mixed with charge of alkaline composition and mixture is subjected to eutectic melting, thus obtaining alloy of these metals. Immediately before melting, mixture is subjected to mechanical activation continued for 0.0833-2 h at maintenance of ratio of delivered mechanical energy power to relative surface of mixture within 0.0133-25 W x kg x m-2. Eutectic melting of mixture is performed at temperature above 500°C. Ratio of mass of charge to mass of material is selected within 0.75-2; used as charge is mixture of sodium tetraborate with sodium carbonate, sodium tetraborate with sodium bicarbonate, sodium tetraborate and sodium carbonate and lead mono-oxide, sodium tetraborate with sodium bicarbonate and lead mono-oxide.

EFFECT: increased degree of extraction of noble metals.

4 cl, 12 ex

FIELD: nonferrous metallurgy; methods of detection of the noble metals in the mineral raw materials.

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EFFECT: the invention ensures an increased trustworthiness to the results of the testing crucible melt analysis.

3 ex

FIELD: noble metal metallurgy, in particular recovery of non-ferrous, noble metal and alloys thereof from debris of electronic devices and components.

SUBSTANCE: claimed method includes disintegration of radio-electronic debris, vibrating treatment with separation of heavy fraction containing noble metals, metal separation and recovery, wherein radio-electronic debris is sorted, and metal components are separated, remaining debris part is treated with separation of heavy fraction. Said fraction after separation is mixed with preliminary separated metal components and mixture is subjected to oxidative melting with feeding of air blowing in amount of 1.15-0.25 nm3 per 1 kg of mixture. Further obtained alloy is electrolitically refined in copper sulfate solution and noble metals are recovered from formed slurry. Method of present invention makes it possible to isolate 98.2 % of gold, 96.9 % of silver and 98.2 % of platinum.

EFFECT: method of increased noble metal yield.

2 dwg, 6 ex

FIELD: metallurgy of noble metals.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes selection of analytical weighted portions from ordinary samples of ore, analysis of weighted portions, forming and analysis of group sample before estimation of mass of weighted portion, estimation of mass of weighted portion, selection of weighted portion from sample at size of grain of 1-0.04 mm and final grinding of weighted portion to 0.2-0.04 mm. During analysis of weighted portions, approximate magnitude of content of gold Co.s. in ordinary samples is determined, group sample is formed from ordinary samples at minimum content of gold, analytical weighted portions are taken from group sample and content of gold Ci is determined, average content of gold in group sample Cg.s. is calculated, minimum mass of analytical weighted portion for group sample Mg.s.(g) is set at ratio Пi=2(Ci-Cg.s.)/(Ci+Cg.s.)≤Дg.s., where Пi is relative discrepancy between content of gold in i-analytical weighted portion and average content of gold in group sample; Дg.s. is permissible relative discrepancy between results of determination of content of gold in group sample during laboratory monitoring; then estimation of mass is performed for ordinary samples Mo.s. by the following formula: Mo.s.= (Mg.s.g.s./(Co.s.o.s.), where Дo.s. is permissible discrepancy between results of determination of content of gold in ordinary sample during laboratory monitoring.

EFFECT: enhanced rapidness and reliability; low cost of assay.

1 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex

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