Method of suppression or reduction of icing by means of water-activated exothermic anti-icing compounds and sets for making such compounds

FIELD: suppression or reduction of icing on surfaces by means of antiicing compounds.

SUBSTANCE: proposed anti-icing compounds contain succinic acid and/or succinic anhydride and neutralizing base, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide or ammonium hydroxide in particular. When mixed with water anti-icing compounds form succinates in the course of reaction which causes fast liberation of heat sufficient for melting ice on surface. According to other versions, anti-icing compounds contain glycol which inhibits repeated icing on cleaned surface. Specification gives description of sets of compounds for melting snow and ice.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of melting snow and ice on aircraft and territories of their operation.

29 cl, 11 dwg, 7 tbl, 2 ex

 

The present invention relates to deicing compositions intended for the removal of ice from the surface and containing succinic acid and/or succinic anhydride and a neutralizing base, in particular sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide or ammonium hydroxide, the deicing compositions when mixed with water form a salt of succinic acid in the reaction, which quickly release heat sufficient to melt the ice on the surface, and salts of succinic acids act as anti-icer and depressant freezing point. In particular embodiments of the de-icing compositions also include glycol, which inhibits the re-formation of ice on the cleaned from the surface. Deicing compositions are suitable and effective for use in airports, where there are problems with corrosion of aircraft alloys and concrete runways.

Chemical protection against icing regularly use during the winter season for the safety of traffic on road routes, as well as in residential and commercial areas, including areas for Parking, walkways, driveways, etc. Airports and airbases also use a combination of mechanical devices and anti-icing chemicals to ensure the safety of the flight is in the winter months.

Regular dry salt is a deicing chemical, which is most widely used on the roads. It is effective, low cost, reliability and ease of storage and use. It is used annually in the amount of about 10 million tons (Committee on the Comparative Costs of Rock Salt and CMA for Highway Deicing, Washington, D.C., (1991)). The main disadvantage of dry salt is associated with the costly damage caused to the road infrastructure, vehicles and the environment. Damage to structures, involves the destruction of concrete and corrosion of steel, resulting in high maintenance costs. The burning of leaves, soil compaction and water pollution are examples of the harmful effects of the applied sodium chloride on the environment.

Problems associated with the use of chloride salts on the roads as a de-icing chemicals, has led to the use of less harmful chemicals, namely acetate calcium and magnesium (calcium magnesium acetate, CMA) (Miller, Ways to Help Bridges and Deicers Coexist: CMA Cuts Corrosion on Zilwaukee Bridge, Better Roads, (February 1993); Strawn, CMA has Role to Play in Critical Applications Kuennen, Ed., Roads & Bridges, (March 1993)). Calcium acetate and magnesium inhibits the destruction of concrete and corrosion. The defroster has little effect on the environment. However, the drawback of its use is the high cost, which is 925 USD per ton, which is 20 times higher than the regular dry salt. In addition, it is not a very effective anti-icer.

ICEBAN - new development Natural Solutions Corporation (100 Volvo Parkway 200, Chesapeake, Virginia 23320). ICEBAN - natural concentrated liquid residue, which is obtained from by-products formed during the production of cheese, alcohol or wet corn milling (U.S. patent 5709812, 5709813 and 5635101, Janke et al.). It is not corrosive and has good cleaning properties. However, the most notable drawback ICEBAN as anti-icer is that it is produced in liquid form. The equipment that you currently use for scatter defrosters, designed for solid formulations. The transition to the liquid de-icers requires alteration of the equipment that causes a significant investment, but also entails costs for storage tanks material. Additional difficulties can create the viscosity of the liquid at low temperatures.

European patent EP 82890136.5, Kaes, offers a mixture of dicarboxylic acids consisting of (30-35% by weight) of adipic acid (40-50% by weight) of glutaric acid and 20% to 25% by weight) of succinic acid, in the form of potassium salt as an anti-icer, suitable for use in airports. Although Dunn is the first composition in liquid form has acceptable cleaning properties, it causes corrosion of metals and therefore does not meet the standard requirements for aircraft metals. Its corrosive effect on the treated magnesium dichromate aircraft alloy, the most susceptible to corrosion, four times higher than that yantarnokislogo potassium. In addition, this product is not tested on a large scale.

De-icing chemicals described above, penetrate into the ice or melt it in their tendency to the formation of aqueous solutions, which have a lower freezing point. To enhance this process in U.S. patent 4692259, Roman, U.S. patent 4400285, Gancy, and U.S. patent 4425251, Gancy, the proposed formulations that produce heat upon contact with water. They describe chemical de-icers double action, which melted the ice, using the heat of an exothermic reaction between the agent and water, and use the effect of reducing the freezing temperature of the resulting solution.

U.S. patent 4692259, Roman, in a preferred embodiment, the implementation is de-icing composition, which uses the heat of reaction of magnesium with water and lowering the temperature of the frost formed under the action of chloride salts.

In U.S. patent 4400285 and 4425251, Gancy, the exothermic effect of the interaction between calcium oxide and water is combined with the effect of snizeni the freezing temperature under the action of acetate salts with the aim of obtaining defrosters double action.

The objective of these inventions is to obtain compositions, providing a rapid exothermic reaction and long-term effect of reducing the freezing point of that act, complementing each other, giving the defrosters excellent function of melting ice. However, the invention 4692259, Roman, contains a salt of hydrochloric acid. Corrosion of metal and concrete destruction caused by chlorides, convincingly confirmed by documents (Miller, Ways to Help Bridges and Deicers Coexist: CMA Cuts Corrosion on Zilwaukee Bridge, Better Roads, (February 1993); Strawn, CMA has Role to Play in Critical Applications Kuennen, Ed., Roads & Bridges, (March 1993)). In the presence of sufficient moisture and oxygen chlorine ions accelerate the corrosion process, increasing the conductivity of solutions. In addition, chlorides, in particular the chlorides of calcium and magnesium, increase the contact time of the metal-moisture, thus contributing to the corrosion process. However, there is clear evidence of cumulative and long-term impact of chloride on the environment (Strawn, CMA has Role to Play in Critical Applications Kuennen, Ed., Roads & Bridges, (March 1993)). Salt fog and salt solutions cause damage to roadside vegetation. The effluent salt solutions cause the seal and the high salinity of the soil, which reduces fertility and permeability, leads to loss of vegetation and subsequent soil erosion. In California and new York had adopted the emergency measures to reduce the impact of dry salt on the forest reserve Tahoe and Park Adirondack respectively. Therefore, any defroster, normal or double action, will not be able to take a place in the market, if he will not provide for minimization of structural failure due to corrosion and minimize damage to flora and fauna.

The compositions dual action described in U.S. patent 4425251, Gancy, and in U.S. patent 5334323, Schrimpf et al., contain acetate salt. It is shown that acetate salts are a safer alternative to chlorides. The defrosters on acetate base, in particular CMA, do not cause corrosion of steel and aluminum and have a small impact or no impact on the environment. However, acetate salts are too expensive for General use on roads and unsuitable for use in airports, air bases and aircraft.

Currently for anti-icing aircraft de-icing fluid is applied on the basis of propylene glycol. These fluids are sprayed on the surface of the aircraft to ensure separation of the formed ice. It is also suggested that propylene glycol prevents the formation of ice. Many patents describe compositions and methods for this application, in particular the U.S. patent 4191348, Holwerda, U.S. patent 4254821, Matsuda et at., U.S. patent 4573802, Kerrigan et al., U.S. patent 4826107, Thornton-Trump, U.S. patent 5096145, Philips et at., U.S. patent 5244168, Williams and U.S. patent 584548, Amako et al. In General, the propylene glycol is not considered an effective anti-icer. It belongs to the defrosters that prevent the formation of ice. Many inventors propose ways of pre-heated anti-icing fluids containing glycol to enhance their de-icing action. These methods use heat source and the heat exchanger in a variety of configurations to provide the heat before applying anti-icer. They are not suitable for rapid implementation, despite the costs associated with the use of an external heat source.

Removal of snow and ice at airports and air bases, planes chemical anti-icing is not widely implemented due to the lack of chemical de-icing agent that meets the requirements of the standards for aviation metals.

The defrosters for airports and air bases must meet strict criteria. These criteria are set to protect the special alloys used in aviation for critical structural assemblies. In this regard, there remains a need in the chemical defroster, which enables the effective removal of ice and meets the requirements of the standards for defrosters, intended for aviation those who nicks and territories, where it is placed.

The present invention provides anti-icing formulations designed to remove ice and containing succinic acid and/or succinic anhydride and a neutralizing base, in particular sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide, with de-icing compositions when mixed with water form a salt of succinic acid in the reaction, which quickly emit enough heat to melt the ice on the surface, and salts of succinic acids act as anti-icer and depressant freezing point. In particular embodiments of the de-icing compositions also include glycol, which inhibits the re-formation of ice on the cleaned from the surface. Deicing compositions are suitable and effective for use in airports, where there are problems with corrosion of aircraft alloys and concrete runways.

Thus, the present invention provides a method of inhibiting or reducing icing or coating the snow surface, which comprises (a) blending as reagents connection succinic acids and bases in aqueous solution with obtaining salts of succinic acid at pH 4 to 11 as a de-icing composition, the reactants are heated solution, and (b) applying heated is of astora on the specified surface for rapid melting of ice and snow.

The present invention also provides a method of obtaining a heated solution for the application of heat to the surface to melt the ice or snow, which comprises (a) blending as reagents pre-metered connections succinic acids and bases in aqueous solution with obtaining salts of succinic acid at pH from about 4 to 11, and (b) applying the heated solution for the application of heat to the surface to melt the ice and snow.

In the next version of the method of the compounds are in a dry pellet form and contains at least one container for use in the operation (a).

In particular embodiments of the above methods, the compound of succinic acid is chosen from the group comprising succinic acid anhydride, succinic acid and their mixture. The preferred base is selected from the group including alkali metal hydroxide, alkali earth metal hydroxide, an organic base, and mixtures thereof. In another preferred embodiment, the implementation of a base selected from the group including sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, ammonium hydroxide and mixtures thereof. In the next version of the implementation of anti-icing organic compound and a polyhydric alcohol mixed with the solution, which is applied to the operation (b). Mnogotomnyi preferably chosen from the group include ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, propylene glycol and dipropyleneglycol-propylene glycol. More preferably, the glycol is a glycol.

In addition, the present invention provides a kit for receiving the heated solution which contains (a) at least one container with a pre-measured quantities of compounds that come in an exothermic reaction with the formation of salts of succinic acid at pH from about 4 to 11 by adding a predetermined amount of water, with the formation of the heated solution, these compounds represent a combination of succinic acid and a base; and (b) instructions to set for mixing these compounds with water to form a heated solution.

Further, the present invention provides a kit for sale in the form of separate blocks, intended to receive the heated solution, which contains a pre-measured amount of connections that come in an exothermic reaction, forming a salt of succinic acid at pH from about 4 to 11 by adding a predetermined amount of water to receive the heated solution, these compounds represent a combination of succinic acid and base. This set is particularly useful as razor what that means and use for hot wraps under medical treatment in warmers for hands, heaters for seats and food warmers.

In another implementation, the set contains an additional container with water, designed to add to the components.

In the next version of the implementation of the reactive components contain in separate containers, which are sold in the form of separate blocks.

In the following implementation set between containers set partitions, which are open for mixing the components.

In the following implementation of a set of connections are in dry granular form.

In a preferred variant of realization of the connection of succinic acid is chosen from the group comprising succinic acid anhydride, succinic acid and mixtures thereof. In another preferred embodiment, the implementation of a base selected from the group including alkali metal hydroxide, alkali earth metal hydroxide, an organic base, and mixtures thereof.

In the following preferred implementation base selected from the group including sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, ammonium hydroxide and mixtures thereof. In the following implementation of a set of specified set also includes de-icing organic compound and a polyhydric alcohol. Polyhydric alcohol is preferably a glycol selected from the group which, include ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, propylene glycol and dipropyleneglycol-propylene glycol. More preferably, the glycol is a glycol.

Thus, the present invention is the creation of the heated deicing compositions which are effective for melting ice on the surface and conform to the standards for defrosters, intended for use to protect against icing of aircraft and the territory where they operate.

Another objective of the present invention is to provide a heated deicing compositions which are effective for melting ice on the surface and have a minimum corrosive towards metal alloys and concrete.

The next task of the present invention are heated deicing compositions which are effective for melting ice on the surface and inhibit the re-formation of ice on the specified surface.

These and other objectives of the present invention are solved by using the preferred options of the implementation described with reference to the accompanying figures, which represent:

Figure 1 - dependence of temperature on time when education yantarnokislogo potassium in the aquatic environment. The curves on Figo is 1: (a) esotericist potassium hydroxide in water, (b) - esotericist potassium hydroxide and succinic acid in water and (s) - esotericist potassium hydroxide and succinic anhydride in water.

Figure 2 - dependence of temperature on time when education yantarnokislogo potassium in an aqueous medium containing propylene glycol. The curves in figure 2: (s) - esotericist potassium hydroxide and succinic anhydride in water, (d) - esotericist potassium hydroxide and succinic acid in an aqueous solution of propylene glycol (40:40:20 by weight) and (e) - esotericist potassium hydroxide and succinic anhydride in aqueous solution of propylene glycol (33,3:33,3:33,3 by weight).

Figure 3 - dependence of temperature on time when education yantarnokislogo sodium in the aquatic environment. The curves in figure 3: (f) - esotericist sodium hydroxide in water, (g) - esotericist sodium hydroxide and succinic acid in water and (h) - esotericist sodium hydroxide and succinic anhydride in water.

Figure 4 - dependence of temperature on time when education yantarnokislogo sodium in an aqueous medium containing propylene glycol. The curves in figure 4: (i) esotericist sodium hydroxide and succinic anhydride in aqueous solution of propylene glycol (40:40:20 by weight) and (j) - esotericist sodium hydroxide and succinic acid anhydride in an aqueous solution of propylene glycol (33,3:33,3:33,3 by weight).

F. the Gura 5 - the dependence of temperature on the time when education yantarnokislogo of ammonia in the aquatic environment. The curves in figure 5: (k) - esotericist ammonium hydroxide and succinic acid in water and (l) - esotericist ammonium hydroxide and succinic anhydride in water.

Figure 6 - the corrosion rate of magnesium alloy processed by dichromate in aqueous de-icing solutions containing 3% by weight of the anti-icer. On the figure 6: Y - corrosion rate in mg/cm2(a) the corrosion rate for potassium formate, (b) the corrosion rate for sodium formate, (s) - corrosion rate for potassium acetate, (d) corrosion rate for the mixture of dicarboxylic acids according to EP 82890136.5, (e) - corrosion rate for yantarnokislogo potassium, (f) - corrosion rate for the mixture yantarnokislogo potassium and propylene glycol 50:50 (by weight) and (g) corrosion rate for the mixture yantarnokislogo potassium and yantarnokislogo magnesium 95:5 (by weight).

Figure 7 - steel corrosion rate 1430 with cadmium plating, low embrittlement, water de-icing solutions containing 50% by weight of the anti-icer at 35°C. figure 7: Y - corrosion rate in mg/cm2(a) the corrosion rate for potassium formate, (b) the corrosion rate for sodium formate, (s) - corrosion rate for potassium acetate, (d) corrosion rate for sodium acetate, (e) - corrosion rate for amber is cislago potassium, (f) the corrosion rate for the mixture yantarnokislogo potassium and propylene glycol 50:50 (by weight) and (g) is the mass loss rate permitted by AMS 1435 A.

Figure 8 - influence of water defrosters on the concrete. Measured cumulative mass in grams concrete, exfoliated after 50 cycles of freezing and thawing. Figure 8: Y - axis mass of loose concrete in grams, (a) is the mass of delamination caused by potassium formate, (b) is the mass of delamination caused by potassium acetate, (C) is the mass of delamination caused by sodium chloride, (d) - weight of delamination caused alternately potassium, (e) is the mass of the delamination caused by the mixture yantarnokislogo potassium and propylene glycol 50:50 (by weight) and (f) is the mass of delamination caused deionized, distilled water.

Figure 9 - the dependence of the mass of melted ice under the action of naturally hot water yantarnokislogo potassium in the presence of propylene glycol at -20, -15, -10 and -5°C. figure 9: Y is the mass of melted ice in grams per gram of the anti-icer; (a) melting of ice 50%by weight aqueous solution yantarnokislogo potassium at these temperatures, (b) melting of ice 50%by weight solution of a mixture of 3:2 by weight water yantarnokislogo potassium under specified temperature and (C) the melting of ice 50%by weight aqueous solution of propylene glycol in the above mentioned temperature the rounds.

Figure 10 is set to receive the heated anti-icing composition according to the present invention, in which the connection of succinic acid and base are in different containers.

Figure 11 - device 100 is heated to generate heat, containing the first compartment 110 with a dry mixture of compound 112 succinic acid and base 114, which is separated fragile partition 120 (shaded) from the second compartment 116 containing water 118.

All patents, patent applications, government publications, government regulations and literary sources cited in this description are listed in their entirety by reference. In the event of a conflict, the priority is the present description, including the definition.

The present invention provides an exothermic chemical deicing compositions of the double action and manner of use of the exothermic chemical deicing compositions (1) airports, air bases and civil/military aircraft, (2) for civil/military ships and auxiliary structures, and (3) on-road highways, driveways in residential and industrial areas, sidewalks and pedestrian roads. The invention provides chemical compounds that contain succinic acid or succinic anhydride and a neutralizing base, and possibly sootvetstvuyushie corrosion inhibitors and propylene glycol. In the exothermic chemical deicing compositions according to the invention in contact with water, chemical reactions occur with evolution of heat. Such chemical reactions include dilution, neutralization and hydration. As examples, the reaction produces a large amount of heat, while the heat release occurs almost instantly. Both these phenomena are useful for effective defrosters double action.

A remarkable feature of the present invention is that the end products of the reactions are extremely effective defrosters and depressant freezing point, as shown in U.S. patent 6287480, Berglund et al., which ceded total assigns. In U.S. patent 6287480 shown the possibility of using salts of succinic acid, in particular yantarnokislogo potassium, sodium and ammonium, as de-icing chemicals. Salt of succinic acid provide a direct cost reduction of 40% compared with calcium acetate and magnesium (MCA). In the aquatic environment salts of succinic acid become a depressant freezing point, even more enhancing protection from icing. In addition, the higher characteristics salts of succinic acid compared to the ARS to get additional savings for the et reduction of indirect costs by reducing the number and frequency of application of the defrosters. Salts of succinic acid does not cause corrosion and are environmentally friendly. Therefore, it is assumed that the defrosters on the basis of salts of succinic acid will reduce maintenance costs of road infrastructure and make cleaner roadside environment.

In U.S. patent 6287480 it is also shown that protection against icing airports and airbases is an extremely promising market for defrosters on the basis yantarnokislogo potassium. The defrosters for airports and air bases must meet strict criteria. These criteria are set to protect the special alloys used in aviation for critical structural assemblies. U.S. patent 6287480 also showed that alternately potassium allows to obtain compositions that meet even higher requirements than required by the standards for aviation metals.

Currently the plan test in the airports defroster, known as CF7, based on potassium acetate, production Cryotech Deicing Technology, Fort Madison, Iowa. Therefore, in U.S. patent 6287480 compares yantarnokislogo potassium with CF7. U.S. patent 6287480 showed that alternately potassium is corrosive, 75% less than CF7, and 80% lower than potassium acetate, which is the main components is the fact CF7. The present invention further enhances the usefulness of salts of succinic acid as defrosters thanks to the fact that the mixture of compounds of succinic acid with a base in aqueous solution allocates a large amount of heat during the formation of salts of succinic acid, which provide an effective fight against icing surface.

According to the present invention, the dissolution of the Foundation, in particular potassium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide, in water and the simultaneous addition of succinic acid causes the flow of two exothermic reactions, namely the dissolution of the base and neutralize the acid. A unique feature of this invention lies in the fact that the replacement of succinic acid succinic anhydride leads to the emergence of a powerful source of heat, namely hydration succinic anhydride for the formation of succinic acid. This change, of course, does not change the final product, which comes into contact with the icy surface.

Thus, compounds that form amber salt according to the present invention, provide an exothermic chemical deicing compositions which effectively remove ice from the surface and effectively prevent the re-formation of ice on the specified surface. Ekster the systematic chemical deicing compositions contain a compound of succinic acid, preferably the connection of succinic acid selected from the group comprising succinic acid, succinic anhydride and mixtures thereof, and a base, preferably a base selected from the group comprising sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, ammonium hydroxide and mixtures thereof. In particular embodiments of the exothermic chemical deicing compositions also include corrosion inhibitors, thickeners, and compounds that inhibit the formation of ice on the surface, repeated freezing water formed from melted ice, or re-formation of ice on the surface, from which the ice was removed. Thanks to the warmth which produce an exothermic chemical deicing compositions, and sustainability components of these compositions, the melting of ice on the surface can be provided with a small negative impact on the environment.

The present invention also includes a variety of devices for applying the exothermic chemical deicing compositions on the ice covering the surface, with the purpose of melting the specified ice. For specialists in this area it is obvious that the known device for applying de-icing fluids on the surface of the aircraft and other surfaces can be adapted for the application of exothermic x the chemical deicing compositions according to the present invention. For example, a device for applying de-icing fluids on the surface of the aircraft described in U.S. patent 5845848, Amako et al., in U.S. patent 4826107, Thornton-Trump, in U.S. patent 4573802, Kerrigan et al., in U.S. patent 4191348, Holwerda, or in U.S. patent 5096145, Philips et al., can be adapted for the application of the exothermic chemical deicing compositions according to the present invention. In the above devices are used heaters for heating de-icing solutions. However, when using an exothermic chemical deicing compositions according to the present invention instead of the well-known de-icing solutions heaters become unnecessary.

In one of the ways of applying the exothermic chemical deicing compositions according to the present invention on the ice, on the surface, aqueous solutions of the components in these exothermic chemical deicing compositions, namely compounds of succinic acid and base, store separately. For the application of anti-icer aqueous solutions are mixed to obtain emit heat water blend, put on ice, placed on some surface. In particular embodiments of aqueous solutions optionally mixed with water prior to application or during application.

In another JV is the property of causing an exothermic chemical deicing compositions according to the present invention on the ice, on the surface, these components of the exothermic chemical deicing compositions, namely the connection of succinic acid and base, store separately, however, one of these components is stored in the form of an aqueous solution, and the other is the dry form. For example, the connection of succinic acid can be stored in the form of an aqueous solution, and the base is a dry form. For the application of anti-icer aqueous solution is mixed with the dry form, to obtain emit heat water mixture, which is applied to the ice on the surface, with the purpose of melting the specified ice. Mixing is carried out in the tank, and then put the water mixture, produce heat, ice, located on the surface. In particular embodiments of the dry form is mixed with water to obtain an aqueous solution, which is then mixed with the first aqueous solution. Because the heat is almost instantaneous, in alternative implementations aqueous solution and a dry form or in aqueous solution in which is dissolved a dry form, simultaneously mixed and put on ice on the surface. This can be done with a tool that mixes an aqueous solution and a dry form or in aqueous solution, which is dissolved dry form, during their deposition on the ice, placed on some surface. CCA is s embodiments of components are additionally mixed with water prior to application or during application.

The following method of applying the exothermic chemical deicing compositions according to the present invention on the ice, on the surface, these components of the exothermic chemical deicing compositions, namely the connection of succinic acid and base, stored in the form of a dry mixture, preferably in the form of powder or granules. The dry mixture preferably also contains a connection, absorbing moisture, such as cornstarch or silica gel, which binds moisture and prevents the formation of succinic salts in the dry mixture during storage. For the application of anti-icer dry mixture is mixed with water to obtain emit heat water blend, put on ice, placed on some surface, with the purpose of melting the specified ice. The mixing produced in the tank, and then emit the warmth of the water mixture is applied onto the ice on the surface. Because the heat is almost instantaneous, in an alternative embodiment, the dry mixture is simultaneously mixed with water and put on ice on the surface. In particular embodiments of the dry mixture is obtained in the form of powder or granules, which also contains a salt of succinic acid. This salt of succinic acid begins to melt the ice. The resultant water causes the t reaction between succinic acid and base, which release heat. Under the action of the released heat increases the melting of ice and produces more water, which promotes the reaction between the compound of succinic acid and base, increasing the number of escaping warmth. Thus, within a short period of time is provided by the melting of ice at the surface.

The present invention also includes an exothermic chemical deicing compositions comprising one or more polyhydric alcohols. Polyhydric alcohols are particularly effectively prevent repeated freezing or re-formation of ice on the surface, after it was melted. Examples of polyhydric alcohols include alkalophile and dialkylamino, in particular ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, propylene glycol and dipropyleneglycol. Thus, the exothermic chemical deicing compositions comprising a compound of succinic acid, in particular succinic acid and/or succinic anhydride, the base, in particular potassium hydroxide or sodium, and at least one polyhydric alcohol, when applied to the surface is particularly effective as agents for cleaning ice and protect from subsequent icing specified surface. Compositions containing amber anger is d, the potassium hydroxide and propylene glycol, are particularly effective for cleaning the surface of the ice and prevent ice formation on this surface, re-freezing of melted ice or re-formation of ice on the surface after melting.

Due to their viscosity polyols are often used in anti-icing composition in an amount sufficient to thicken the de-icing composition to give him the viscosity of the bonding of the anti-icing composition to the surface.

However, polyhydric alcohols are toxic. Therefore, in those cases where it is desirable to have an environmentally friendly de-icing composition, linked to a surface, the preferred non-toxic thickener. Non-toxic thickening agents include hydrophilic heteropolysaccharide colloids described in particular in U.S. patent 5772912, Lockyer ef al.

Thus, the exothermic chemical deicing compositions also include options for implementation containing compound succinic acids, in particular succinic acid and/or succinic anhydride, the base, in particular potassium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, ammonium hydroxide or their mixture, and a certain amount of polyhydric alcohol to give the composition a viscosity sufficient for adhesion of the composition to the surface. D is I an environmentally friendly options for the implementation of the exothermic chemical deicing compositions contain a compound of succinic acid, in particular succinic acid and/or succinic anhydride, the base, in particular potassium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, ammonium hydroxide or a mixture thereof, and a sufficient number of hydrophilic heteropolysaccharide colloid, giving the composition a sufficient viscosity to provide traction.

Thus, the exothermic chemical deicing compositions according to the present invention, which contain one or more polyhydric alcohols, possess anti-icing properties and due to viscosity, which give the composition of the polyhydric alcohols, the compounds effectively interlock with the surface on which they are applied. It increases the activity of the anti-icing composition on the surface, which is especially useful for anti-icing and prevent the formation of ice on not horizontal surfaces, in particular on wind glasses, on the surfaces of aircraft and road surfaces.

Exothermic chemical deicing compositions can also contain an effective amount of at least one corrosion inhibitor selected from the group comprising polymeric salt of an alkali metal, for example polymenakou sodium salt, and alternately magnesium, polyaspartate alkali metal, such as polyaspartate sodium, and alternately mA the deposits, and polymenakou salt of an alkali metal, for example polymenakou sodium salt, and alternately magnesium. The effectiveness of the above corrosion inhibitors are described in U.S. patent 6287480, Berglund et al., which shows that the corrosion inhibitors enhance the anti-icing capability of de-icing compounds. As shown in figure 6, the product of the exothermic chemical deicing composition containing 3% by weight solution of 95:5 (by weight) mixture of succinic acid and yantarnokislogo magnesium with potassium hydroxide in water, did not cause corrosion of magnesium alloys processed by dichromate, at that time known as the defrosters caused significant corrosion, and exothermic chemical deicing compositions caused minimal corrosion. Thus, the components of the exothermic chemical deicing compositions according to the present invention causes the least amount of corrosion of metals and concrete, however, the addition of corrosion inhibitors makes these exothermic chemical deicing compositions are particularly useful for application to the road surface, and metals, which are components of structures of bridges, aircraft, metal ladders, vehicles, etc.

In General exothermic chemical deicing compositions according to the ACLs of the present invention after mixing contain from about 1.5 to 36% of the compound of succinic acid and from 1.5 to 34.5% of the base in water. Preferably the connection of succinic acid is approximately 30.5%of the base is approximately 28.8 per cent, while the rest of the ode. If the compositions contain a polyhydric alcohol, in particular propylene glycol, the content of polyhydric alcohol is from about 0% to 25%, preferably about 25%, and the rest is water. The water may optionally contain corrosion inhibitors and surfactants.

Exothermic chemical deicing compositions according to the present invention can be arranged as a set. Figure 10 shows one of the options for implementing such a set. The figure 10 shows the block 12 containing the first container 14 and the second container 16, as well as instructions for use of the kit 10. In one implementation options of the container 14 contains a compound 20 of succinic acid (in dry form or in the form of an aqueous solution), and the container 16 comprises a base 22 (in dry form or in the form of an aqueous solution). The set may contain third container (not shown) for storing water or aqueous solution of a polyhydric alcohol or for mixing compound 20 of succinic acid and base 22. It is assumed that this set is not limited to the shown implementation option. So, for example, possible embodiments, in which the containers are separated by a fragile wall, which is similar to the one shown in agrawala device in figure 11 and which is destroyed for mixing aqueous solutions of the compounds of succinic acid and base, to get the exothermic chemical deicing composition. In other embodiments of one container contains a dry mixture of the compounds of succinic acid and base, preferably dry mixture also includes connection, absorbing moisture, such as cornstarch or silica gel, and the other container contains water or an aqueous solution of a polyhydric alcohol.

In addition to the exothermic chemical deicing compositions of the present invention provides kits for sale in the form of blocks, which provide the heated solution and used as heating devices, including devices for hot wraps under medical treatment, hand warmers, heaters for seats and heaters food, but not limited to them. Such devices have a conceptual prototypes, see for example, U.S. patent 5334323, Schrimpf. In the General case, the heating device comprises two compartments separated by a collapsing wall. One compartment contains a dry connection succinic acids, in particular succinic acid and/or succinic anhydride, mixed with a dry base, in particular sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide, preferably dry mixture also contains a connection, absorbing moisture, such as cornstarch or silica gel), and the other compartment contains in the U. At the right moment the partition destroy that causes contact between the dry mixture and water, which then react to form a solution with the desired temperature.

In an alternative embodiment, one compartment contains an aqueous solution of compounds of succinic acid, in particular succinic acid or succinic anhydride, and the other compartment contains an aqueous solution of a base, in particular sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide, or dry basis. At the right moment the partition destroy that causes contact between the aqueous solution of the compound of succinic acid and an aqueous solution of the base, which then react to form a solution with the desired temperature.

In another alternative embodiment, one compartment contains a dry connection succinic acids, in particular succinic acid or succinic anhydride, and the other compartment contains an aqueous solution of a base, in particular sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide. At the right moment the partition destroy that causes contact between the dry connection of succinic acid and an aqueous solution of the base, which then react to form a solution with the desired temperature.

In one implementation options of the temperature of the solution after mixing compound succinic acids and bases definition what is the connection of succinic acid and a base or molar concentration of both components. In addition, to mitigate ekzotermicheskie reactions you can use propylene glycol. Thus, by adjusting the molar concentration of acid and basic components or the ratio of acid and basic components, and the number of propilenglikola get heaters that provide certain temperature. Using succinic anhydride or a mixture of succinic anhydride and succinic acid, you can get a heater that will maintain a higher temperature for a longer time than when using one of succinic acid.

The figure 11 shows a variant of the heating device, where the heating device 100 contains a first compartment 110, which is a mixture of dry compound 112 succinic acid and dry base 114, separated from the second compartment 116 containing water 118.

The first compartment 110 is separated from the second compartment 116 fragile wall 120. In the General case, the heating device 100 is flexible. It is made from a thermoplastic polymer, while the compartments form a solid wall 122 and fragile partition 120. Shown in the figure, the heating device can be adapted for any of the above variants of realization.

Thermoplastic polymers used in heating devices, well what swesty specialists in this field. Polymers can be natural or synthetic. Sometimes, instead of the term "thermoplastic polymer" is used the term "thermoplastic resin"means those materials. The opposite of thermoplastic polymers are thermosetting polymers that decompose, but not soften when heated. However, there are many hybrids and mixed polymers, which are equivalent to apply for the purposes of the present invention. Examples of polymers that can be used for the manufacture of heating devices include polyalkylbenzene polymers (polyethylene, polypropylene and polybutylene), terephthalate polymers (polyethylene terephthalate) and polyolefins, in particular vinyl resins, such as vinyl acetate, vinyl chloride and styrene.

Below are examples that contribute to a better understanding of the present invention.

EXAMPLE 1

This example shows that the exothermic chemical deicing compositions according to the present invention emit large amounts of heat, with the specified warmth stands out almost instantly after mixing yantarnokislogo and the main components of the compositions.

All experiments in this example were carried out in a closed cover beaker, which was placed on a magnetic mixer. Temperaturemodifier using a thermocouple, immersed in the glass. In accordance with task experience applied the following procedure. In a glass poured a measured amount of each of the following components: (a) water, (b) water and propylene glycol, and (C) in the case of experiments carried out with ammonium hydroxide as a base for neutralization, 30% by weight aqueous solution of ammonium hydroxide.

Then, depending on the tasks of experience in the mixed solution in the beaker was added a measured amount of each of the following components: (a) the dry basis, (b) a dry mixture of succinic acid and base, (b) a dry mixture of succinic anhydride and base, and (d) succinic acid or succinic anhydride in the case of experiments carried out with ammonium hydroxide as a base for neutralization. The temperature of the mixed solution was controlled within 10 minutes. The components for each are shown below.

Used the following stoichiometric amount of acid, anhydride and base, calculated based on the concentration of the desired solution of the compound of succinic acid: (a) an equivalent amount of base required to neutralize the acid in (11.5 g of potassium hydroxide and 20 g of water), (b) 50% by weight aqueous solution yantarnokislogo potassium (12,2 succinic acid, and 11.5 g of potassium hydroxide and 16.3 g of water), (b) 50% by weight aqueous solution yantarnokislogo potassium (10.3 g Yantar the CSOs anhydride, of 11.5 g of potassium hydroxide and 18.1 g of water), (g) alternately potassium : water : propylene glycol (40:40:20 by weight) (10.3 g of succinic anhydride, and 11.5 g of potassium hydroxide, of 18.1 g of water and 10 g of propylene glycol), (d) alternately potassium : water : propylene glycol (33,3:33,3:33,3 by weight) (10.3 g of succinic anhydride, and 11.5 g of potassium hydroxide, of 18.1 g of water and 20 g of propylene glycol), (e) an equivalent amount of sodium hydroxide required to neutralize the acid (9,9 g of sodium hydroxide and 20 g of water), (W) 50% by weight aqueous solution yantarnokislogo sodium (14.6 g of succinic acid, 9,9 g of sodium hydroxide and 15.6 g of water), (C) 50% by weight aqueous solution yantarnokislogo sodium (12.3 g of succinic anhydride, of 9.9 g of sodium hydroxide and 17.8 g of water) (and) alternately sodium : water : propylene glycol (40:50:10 by weight) (14.6 g of succinic acid, 9,9 g of sodium hydroxide, 20.6 g of water and 5 g of propylene glycol), (K) alternately sodium : water : propylene glycol (40:50:10 by weight) (12.3 g of succinic anhydride, of 9.9 g of sodium hydroxide, and 22.8 g of water and 5 g of propylene glycol), (l) 43,3% by weight aqueous solution yantarnokislogo ammonium (15.5 g of succinic acid and 30.7 g of 30% by weight aqueous solution of ammonium hydroxide) and (m) to 45.6% by weight aqueous solution yantarnokislogo ammonium (13,2 g yantarnokislogo anhydride and 30.7 g of 30% by weight aqueous solution of ammonium hydroxide).

The following data show exceptional cumulative esotericist solution is Iya Foundation, neutralization of acids and hydration anhydride exothermic chemical deicing compositions according to the present invention. Esotericist education yantarnokislogo potassium in the aquatic environment is presented in figure 1. thermal profile of the dissolution of potassium hydroxide in water (a) was used as the base. Esotericist neutralization of succinic acid (b), and cumulative esotericist simultaneous hydration of succinic anhydride and succinic acid neutralization (C) caused an almost immediate increase in the temperature of the resulting solution yantarnokislogo potassium to its boiling point. The approximate temperature gradient was 7.2°C/second. Additional allocation of heat due to hydration of succinic anhydride were not observed explicitly, since only the neutralization of succinic acid by potassium hydroxide quickly raised the temperature of the solution to its boiling point. However, the cooling part of thermal profile in the experience (s) with succinic anhydride indicates the presence of an additional source of heat in case of replacement of succinic acid succinic anhydride. The temperature profile for the succinic anhydride was significantly higher than for succinic acid. However, the potential of this method for rapid selection of warmth to protect from freezing or Bodog the Eva is obvious.

In cases when you want to provide more precise control of heat released as a result of these reactions, such regulation can be provided by adding a solution of propylene glycol.

The data presented in figure 2 show that esotericist can be reduced by diluting the solution with propylene glycol. In this series of experiments the concentration of formed yantarnokislogo potassium was reduced by successive dilution with propylene glycol. The figure 2 shows the exothermic curves of education yantarnokislogo potassium in aqueous solution of propylene glycol. Obviously, diluted with propylene glycol reduces the exothermic properties of these three reactions. Approximate gradients for ectotherm in experiments (C), (a) and (e) was 7.2°C/second, 1,9°C/sec and 1.5°C/sec, respectively. Thus, it is possible to regulate the heat output in accordance with the requirements of a particular application.

Similar results were obtained when education yantarnokislogo sodium in water and in aqueous medium in the presence of propylene glycol. The results of the education yantarnokislogo sodium in the aquatic environment is presented in the figure. 3. thermal profile of the dissolution of sodium hydroxide in water (f) was used as the base. This data shows a clear advantage is nternal acid compared with other carboxylic acids - acetic acid (Miller, Ways to Help Bridges and Deicers Coexist: CMA Cuts Corrosion on Zilwaukee Bridge, Better Roads, (February 1993); Strawn, CMA has Role to Play in Critical Applications Kuennen, Ed., Roads & Bridges, (March 1993)), adipic and glutaric (EP 82890136.5, Kaes), which are used or proposed to be used for anti-icing. The uniqueness of succinic acid is that it can easily replace anhydride, which creates an additional source of heat due to hydration of anhydrite. Neutralization of succinic acid with sodium hydroxide with the formation of yantarnokislogo sodium in water (g) for approximately four minutes raises the temperature of the resulting solution yantarnokislogo sodium to its boiling point. The introduction of an additional source of heat by substitution of succinic acid (g), succinic anhydride (h) almost instantly raises the temperature of the solution to its boiling point. This remarkable property allows a high degree to regulate the heat in a variety of applications for anti-icing and heating. The desired regulation could be enforced through an appropriate mixture of succinic acid and succinic anhydride. Solubility yantarnokislogo sodium in water is less than 50% by weight at ambient conditions, and the solutions yantarnokislogo sodium crystallize upon cooling. However, this does not effect Napoletana yantarnokislogo sodium, because it is readily soluble at high temperatures, which provide consumption and, therefore, full use of the ingredients.

As in the case of solutions yantarnokislogo potassium, additional regulation can be achieved by using aquatic environment with propylene glycol by neutralizing acid. The figure 4 presents exothermic curves of education yantarnokislogo sodium in water with propylene glycol. Due to the rapid formation of heat from the hydration of anhydrite (j) solution yantarnokislogo sodium was heated to the boiling point almost instantly. On the other hand, when the neutralization of succinic acid with sodium hydroxide in aqueous medium (i) required about 5.5 minutes to raise the temperature of the same solution to its boiling point. In this series of experiments was observed that approximately 0.5 g of sodium hydroxide remained unspent at the boiling point. This can easily be corrected by a small decrease in the ratio between the connection of succinic acid and water solution to obtain yantarnokislogo sodium, to ensure full use of the ingredients. The use of lower concentrations to regulate the allocation of warmth is also an effective alternative. However, particularly in the case of obtaining defrosters, this lov is d can be counterproductive. The present invention is to obtain defrosters double action, which use the heat for rapid penetration into the ice and its melt, and the concentration which reduces the freezing temperature for long-term protection from freezing. The use of lower concentrations may reduce long-term anti-icing properties.

In other experiments investigated the formation yantarnokislogo ammonium. Because ammonium hydroxide is supplied in the form of an aqueous solution, as sources of warmth you can only use the neutralization of acids and hydration of anhydrite. The obtained data are presented in figure 5. The results show that, compared with the amount of heat released during neutralization of succinic acid with ammonium hydroxide (k), a significant amount of additional heat is released in the hydration of succinic anhydride with ammonium hydroxide (I).

EXAMPLE 2

This example shows that products containing salts of succinic acid, exothermic chemical deicing compositions according to the present invention (water alternately potassium and a mixture of water yantarnokislogo potassium with propylene glycol) meet the technical requirements of SAE AMS 1435 And approved by the Federal aviation administration the population (Federal Aviation Administration, The FAA).

For use in aeronautical engineering or related fields deicing composition must meet the requirements of AMS 1435 A. When testing the exothermic chemical deicing compositions according to the present invention in accordance with the requirements of the AMS 1435 And the characteristics and safety of the exothermic chemical deicing compositions according to the present invention were also compared characteristics and safety defrosters on acetate and formiate basis, currently in use at airports. AMS 1435 And includes separate tests according to the standards of the American society for testing and materials (American Society for Testing Materials, ASTM), listed in table 1.

Tests 1, 8 and 9 did not. They can be performed in a certified laboratory. Test 13 was trivial and did not run for methodological reasons. The test requires 15 preliminary storage for at least 12 months.

Specific gravity (ASTM D 891)

AMS 1435 And recommends the use of ASTM D 891 for determination of the specific gravity defrosters for aircraft wings.

There are two ways to determine the specific mass - aromaticheski way and based method. Aromaticheski way one is camping less accurate however, it is often satisfactory for use in many cases, unless the sample is too viscous to provide a free floating the hydrometer. Aromaticheski method is considered satisfactory for measurement determination of the specific gravity of products containing salts of succinic acid, exothermic chemical deicing compositions according to the present invention. The measurements were made in accordance with the Protocol of ASTM D 891 at 20°using hydrometer Ertico, programmirovanie in the range from 1.0 to 2.0 with a multiplier of 0.01. The results are presented in table 2 (ddH2O - deionized distilled water).

Table 2
Sample (Concentration of succinic acid : propylene glycol : ddH2O)Specific gravity
ddH2O1,00
20:30:00 mass1,12
25:25:00 mass1,15
30:20:00 mass1,18

pH (ASTM E 70)

The pH of the solution containing salt of succinic acid products of the exothermic chemical deicing compositions according to the present invention conform to the requirements of AMS 1435 And when measured according to the Protocol of ASTM E 70, recommended the WMD AMS 1435 A.

AMS 1435 And recommends the use of ASTM E 70 for measuring pH defrosters for aircraft wings. This method uses a glass electrode. pH containing salt of succinic acid products of the exothermic chemical deicing compositions comprising propylene glycol was determined by using pH meter and temperature Corning 313 with a resolution of 0.01. According to the requirements of AMS 1435 And pH should be in the range of 7.0 to 11.5 with tolerance ±0.5 in.

The data presented in table 3, show that contains a salt of succinic acid products of the exothermic chemical deicing compositions according to the present invention meet this requirement.

Table 3
Sample pH (Concentration of succinic acid : propylene glycol : ddH2O)pH
ddH2O6,60
20:30:00 mass9,68
25:25:00 mass10,08
30:20:00 mass10,12

The freezing point (ASTM D 1177)

The freezing point of salt containing succinic acid products of the exothermic chemical deicing compositions according to the present invention satisfy the requirements of the AMS 1435 And to the freezing point and when is the Express purpose of using the Protocol of ASTM D 1177, recommended AMS 1435 A.

According to AMS 1435 And the freezing point of de-icing fluids, diluted in a ratio of 1:1 by weight deionized and distilled water should be below -14,5°C. the Results of measurement of the freezing point containing salt of succinic acid products of the exothermic chemical deicing compositions according to the present invention are presented in table 4.

Table 4 shows the freezing point of salt containing succinic acid products of the exothermic chemical deicing compositions in comparison with the freezing point of the defrosters on acetate and formiate basis, currently in use at airports. The freezing point of salt containing succinic acid products of the exothermic chemical deicing compositions higher than defrosters on acetate and formiate basis, however they are within the limits established AMS 1435 A. moreover, as shown below, although the freezing point containing salt of succinic acid products of the exothermic chemical deicing compositions higher than defrosters used at the present time, the exothermic chemical deicing compositions cause much less corrosive and, therefore, are safer than a known defrosters.

Table 4
DefrosterThe freezing point (°)
The potassium formate-50,8
Potassium acetate-51,8
Alternately potassium-26,8
Alternately potassium: propylene glycol (1:1)-34,5

Corrosion of the layered structure (ASTM F 1110)

The effects of corrosion containing salt of succinic acid products of the exothermic chemical deicing compositions according to the present invention on aluminum, which is plakirovannyy or anodized surface, lies within the limits of AMS 1435 And, when measured according to the Protocol of ASTM F1110 recommended AMS A.

ASTM F1110 describes comparative climatic test corrosive liquid defrosters on structural aluminum used in aircraft. In this test, a piece of filter paper Whatman GFA glass impregnated to saturation with an aqueous solution of anti-icer and was placed between two aluminum samples. The obtained layered structure was then placed in an oven with forced air circulation for 8 hours at 37±2,8°With (100±5°F), and then in a humidity chamber at 37±1° (10± 2°F) and a relative humidity of 95 to 100%. This constituted one cycle. This cycle was repeated seven times for seven days. The test results were evaluated by comparing the appearance of the facial surfaces of the aluminum samples. For the numerical classification of the test results used relative rating system corrosion points. This rating system eliminates the need for measurement of mass loss. Relative rating system contains the following corrosion points: (0) - no visible corrosion, (1) is a very weak corrosion or discoloration (up to 5% corroded surface), (2) - visible corrosion (from 5 to 10% corroded surface), (3) moderate corrosion (from 10 to 25% correlated surface) and (4) extensive or pitting (25% or more of the corroded surface).

The results of the corrosion tests were not unambiguous. Difficult to describe the state of the monitored surface as discoloration or corrosion. Nevertheless containing salt of succinic acid products of the exothermic chemical deicing compositions according to the present invention caused minimal discoloration of the surface as clad and anodized aluminum without cladding coating. While containing with is whether succinic acid products of the exothermic chemical deicing compositions according to the present invention did not cause discoloration, the formate and acetate caused extensive discoloration of the surface. However, it is impossible to assert that this discoloration was due to corrosion.

Corrosion at full immersion (ASTM F 483)

The effects of corrosion containing salt of succinic acid products of the exothermic chemical deicing compositions according to the present invention aviation alloys lies in the limits of AMS 1435 And, when measured according to the Protocol of ASTM F 483 recommended AMS 1435 A.

Many aviation metal alloys are subjected to a corrosion test with full immersion (ASTM F 483). This test is carried out on aircraft alloys, in particular on anodized aluminum alloy AMS 4037, aluminum alloy AMS 4041, aluminum alloy AMS 4049, magnesium alloy AMS 4376 treated with dichromate, titanium alloy, AMS 4911 and carbon steel AMS 5045. As shown in the U.S. patent 6287480, Berglund et al., alternately potassium meets the requirements of the standards. Caused by corrosion is less than the maximum permissible value for aluminium and magnesium alloys and alloy steel.

Among the aircraft alloys magnesium alloy AMS 4376 treated with dichromate, the most susceptible to corrosion caused by defrosters. Therefore, the corrosion rate of magnesium alloy AMS 4376 treated with dichromate, under the action containing the x salt of succinic acid products of the exothermic chemical deicing compositions according to the present invention was compared to the rate of corrosion under the action of several known defrosters on acetate or formiate basis.

The formate and acetate are used as obedinitelej for runways at airports, particularly in Europe. So, for example, patent EP 82890136.5, Kaes, indicates that the mixture of dicarboxylic acids containing from 30 to 35% by weight of adipic acid, from 40 to 45% by weight of glutaric acid and from 20 to 25% by weight of succinic acid in the form of potassium salt suitable for use in airports as an anti-icer. Therefore, the mixture yantarnokislogo potassium according to the present invention was compared with the defrosters on the basis of formate and acetate, as well as with de-icing compositions on the basis of the dicarboxylic acids according to EP 82890136.5. The test of full immersion consisted of immersing the magnesium alloy in 3% by weight aqueous solution of the anti-icer for 24 hours.

As shown in figure 6, containing salts of succinic acid products of the exothermic chemical deicing compositions according to the present invention (e, f and g) represent the least corrosive de-icers. Corrosion activity in yantarnokislogo potassium 92% less than the defrosters on formiates basis (a and b), 83% less than the defroster on acetate-based (C) and 75% less than the anti-icer based on dicarboxylic acids (d). The presence of propylene glycol (SMEs:50 by weight alternately potassium : propylene glycol) has no effect on corrosivity yantarnokislogo potassium (f). It was unexpectedly found that the presence yantarnokislogo magnesium (a mixture of 95:5 by weight alternately potassium : alternately magnesium) completely prevents the occurrence of corrosion of the magnesium alloy (g). The results definitely show that contains a salt of succinic acid products of the exothermic chemical deicing compositions according to the present invention is much less corrosive and, therefore, are much safer than a known defrosters used for anti-icing the wings of the aircraft and runways at airports.

Effects containing salt of succinic acid products of the exothermic chemical deicing compositions according to the present invention on other aircraft alloys are presented in table 5, where it is shown that contains alternately potassium products of the exothermic chemical deicing compositions according to the present invention cause corrosion within the acceptable range for all aluminum and titanium alloys and stainless steel.

Table 5

The test results corrosion with full immersion
Control samplesEdit the imposition of mass (mg/cm 2/24 hours)
ValidObserved
Anodized aluminum alloy AMS 40370,30,02
Aluminum alloy AMS 40410,30,01
Aluminum alloy AMS 40490,30,01
Aluminum alloy AMS 49110,1<0,01
Carbon steel AMS 50450,80,43

Exposure to cadmium plating, low embrittlement (ASTM F 1111)

Adverse effects containing salt of succinic acid products of the exothermic chemical deicing compositions according to the present invention on samples with cadmium plating, low embrittlement, is within the limits established AMS 1435 And, when measured according to the Protocol of ASTM F 1111 recommended AMS 1435 A. In accordance with the recommendations of the Protocol ASTM F 1111 changing the mass of the test specimen, which is made of 4130 steel with cadmium plating, low okhrupchivaniem, should not exceed 0.3 mg/cm224 hours.

As shown in figure 7, all de-icing compositions (both known and contains alternately potassium products of the exothermic chemical deicing compositions according to this is the overarching invention) give results within the acceptable range (g). However, there is a significant difference in the impact on the test surface mixtures containing alternately potassium (e and f), and known defrosters. In particular, alternately potassium (e) and a mixture of 50:50 by weight alternately potassium : propylene glycol (f) had no significant effect on the surface of the steel with cadmium plating, while the defrosters on formiate and acetate-based (a, b, C and d) caused up to 30 distinct separate corrosion pitting on the steel surface with cadmium plated.

Impact on transparent plastic (ASTM F 484)

The formation of hairline cracks under the action containing salt of succinic acid products of the exothermic chemical deicing compositions according to the present invention is within the limits established AMS 1435 And when measured according to the Protocol of ASTM F 484, recommended AMS 1435 A. In accordance with the specified Protocol measure the voltage of education hairline cracks acrylic plastics in contact with liquid or semi-liquid compounds.

Experienced education hairline cracks under the action of known defrosters and containing salts of succinic acid products of the exothermic chemical deicing compositions according to the present invention at three acrylic plastic (MIL-P-5425 MIL-P-8184 and IL-P-25690), which was created by the bending stress (tension of the outer fibers amounted to 314,46 kg/cm2(4500 psi)). No known defrosters or containing salt of succinic acid products of the exothermic chemical deicing compositions according to the present invention does not have a noticeable effect on acrylic plastics when creating a voltage at the bend.

The impact on the painted surface (ASTM F 502)

Adverse effects containing salt of succinic acid products of the exothermic chemical deicing compositions according to the present invention on the painted surface of the aircraft is within the limits established AMS 1435 And, when measured according to the Protocol of ASTM F 502 recommended AMS 1435 A.

Experienced adverse effects containing salt of succinic acid products of the exothermic chemical deicing compositions according to the present invention on the painted surface of the aircraft. During the test, half of the painted panels were subjected to anti-icer, and then in the open and closed from the defroster portions of the panel held one stroke pencils of varying hardness.

The objective of the tests was to determine the hardness of the pencil, causing destruction of the paint, to the which operated defroster, compared to paint, closed from the defroster. The hardness of the pencils in ascending order were 6B, 5B, 4B, 3B, B, HB, F, N, 2N, 4N and 6N. The results are presented in table 6, where it is shown that contains a salt of succinic acid products of the exothermic chemical deicing compositions according to the present invention had no effect on the painted surface of the aircraft, while formatnya acetate and the defrosters were induced softening of the ink corresponding to the same degree of hardness of the pencil.

HB
Table 6

The impact of deicing solutions on the painted surfaces of airplanes
An aqueous solution of the anti-icerThe hardness of the pencil before destruction
Closed surfaceOpen surface
Alternately potassium:propylene glycol (1:1 by weight)FF
Alternately potassiumFF
Potassium acetateFHB
The potassium formateFHB
Formate sodiumFHB
Sodium acetate (20 mass%)F

Effect on unpainted surfaces (ASTM F 485)

Adverse effects containing salt of succinic acid products of the exothermic chemical deicing compositions according to the present invention on an unpainted surface of the aircraft is within the limits established AMS 1435 And, when measured according to the Protocol of ASTM F 485 recommended AMS 1435 A.

Experienced adverse effects containing salt of succinic acid products of the exothermic chemical deicing compositions according to the present invention on an unpainted surface of the aircraft. During the test panels made of titanium 6A14V corresponding to MIL-T-9046, and aluminum 7075-T6, alclad, the appropriate Federal specifications QQ-A-250/13, briefly immersed in a mixture containing alternately potassium, or known in the defrosters.

Finally, the panels were subjected to drying at elevated temperature and visually controlled precipitate or coloration. The results presented in table 7 show that neither containing salt of succinic acid products of the exothermic chemical deicing compositions according to the present invention, any known defrosters not have a significant effect on unpainted surfaces of the aircraft.

Table 7

The impact of deicing solutions on unpainted surfaces of airplanes
An aqueous solution of the anti-icer (50 mass%)Aluminum 7075-T6Titanium 614V
Alternately potassium:propylene glycol (1:1 by weight)Without colorWithout color
Alternately potassiumWithout colorWithout color
Potassium acetateWithout colorWithout color
The potassium formateWithout colorColor
Formate sodiumWithout colorColor
Sodium acetate (20 mass%)Without colorWithout color

The resistance to delamination of the concrete runway (With ASTM 672)

The magnitude of the resistance to delamination of the concrete runway under the action containing salt of succinic acid products of the exothermic chemical deicing compositions according to the present invention is within the limits established AMS 1435 And, when the application of the Protocol With ASTM 672 recommended AMS 1435 A.

The amount of exfoliation of concrete caused containing salt of succinic acid products esotericism the x chemical deicing compositions according to the present invention, compared with the magnitude of the damage, caused by a known defrosters, using With ASTM 672. The figure 8 presents the cumulative mass of loose concrete, measured in grams, after 50 cycles of freezing and thawing. As shown in figure 8, containing salts of succinic acid products of the exothermic chemical deicing compositions according to the present invention caused less flaking than the well-known de-icers. Potassium-formity defroster (a) caused by 11,245% more flaking concrete than alternately potassium (d), and potassium acetate (b) caused to 1.555% more flaking concrete than alternately potassium (d) or a 50:50 mix yantarnokislogo potassium and propylene glycol (e).

Although soluble salts of formic and acetic acid is used for anti-icing airfield, caused by the flaking of the concrete is significantly higher than in the case of sodium chloride (C), which is considered unsafe for this application. Exfoliation of concrete under the action containing salts of succinic acid products of the exothermic chemical deicing compositions (d) and (e) according to the present invention is equivalent to the exfoliation, which causes deionized water (f).

Operation (advanced determination Protocol SHRP H-205.1

The functioning of the exothermic chemical deicing compositions according to the present invention meets the performance requirements established AMS 1435 And, when measured according to the Protocol SHRP H-205.1, "Handbook of Test Methods for Evaluating Chemical Deicers", SHRP-H/WP-90, Strategic Highway Research Program, National Science Councel, Wachington, D.. (the"Handbook for test methods for evaluating chemical defrosters", SHRP-H/WP-90, Strategic program highway research, the national scientific Council, Washington, D.C. (1992).

According to AMS 1435 anti-icing fluid should remove accumulated frozen precipitation, frost and ice from the taxiways and runways of airports, with acceptance criteria and test methods shall be agreed upon by buyer and seller. Therefore, the authors took advantage of the provisions of the Protocol SHRP H-205.1 of the Reference manual for test methods for evaluating chemical defrosters, according to which the ability of anti-icer to melt the ice is determined by the mass of melted ice contained in a certain volume, per gram of the solid anti-icer. Authors conducted a test is an improvement of the method according to the Protocol SHRP H-205.1. This test included the following: (1) poured 20 g of distilled deionized water is a Petri dish size 88× 13 mm and froze to ice plate at a given temperature: -5°C, -10°C, -15°and -20°With; (2) lined the horizontal position of the ice plate with aluminum blades, in order to ensure uniformity of the front melting and re-freezing; (3) kept a sample of the salt by weight of 61.7 g in solid form in a refrigerator at 4-5°C; (4) were placed 10 g of water defroster on frozen ice plate; (5) have determined the mass of melted ice by subtracting the mass of added water anti-icer from the total mass of the solution after the expiration of a predefined time: 2, 5, 10 minutes and so on until complete melting of the ice; and (6) has played two tests for each of the de-icing composition.

Exothermic chemical deicing compositions according to the present invention using the advantage of ekzotermicheskie number of heat-emitting chemical reactions that occur during the formation of water yantarnokislogo potassium in the composition of the high-performance defrosters double acting according to the present invention. As shown in figure 1, esotericist (b) neutralization of succinic acid and cumulative esotericist (C) simultaneous hydration of succinic anhydride and succinic acid neutralization almost instantly raise the temperature of the of Brazauskas solution yantarnokislogo potassium to its boiling point (108-110° C), the temperature gradient was approximately 7,2°C/second. Profile (a) heat of dissolution of potassium hydroxide in water is given as a reference. Additional heat release in the hydration of the succinic anhydride is not defined, because the neutralization of succinic acid by potassium hydroxide rapidly raises the temperature of the solution to its boiling point. However, the cooled portion temperature profile indicates the presence of an additional source of heat, when succinic acid substituted succinic anhydride as eye-catching warmth was significantly higher in the case of succinic anhydride, than in the case of succinic acid. As shown in figure 1, defrosters with alternately potassium according to the present invention provide a rapid heat for de-icing.

Conducted power measurement of the melting ice alternately potassium, which is formed by mixing succinic acid, potassium hydroxide, water and propylene glycol. Propylene glycol is introduced in order to give alternately the defrosters ability to prevent re-icing. Thus, aqueous solutions containing alternately potassium, obtained by mixing potassium hydroxide, succinic acid and water with propylene glycol or without him. Received hot (105-108&#HWS) aqueous solutions were placed on frozen ice plate for measuring the deposition rate of ice water solutions. The deposition rate of ice water yantarnokislogo potassium, containing propylene glycol, compared with a capacity of propylene glycol, which currently is the main anti-icer for aircraft wings.

As shown in figure 9, 50% by weight aqueous solution yantarnokislogo potassium (a) and 50% aqueous solution of a mixture of 3:2 by weight yantarnokislogo potassium and propylene glycol (b) had a significantly large capacity ice melting than 50% aqueous solution of propylene glycol (C) in the temperature range from -20 to -5°C. the Results show that alternately mixture with propylene glycol or without propylene glycol are the means for the rapid removal of frost and ice accumulated on the wings of the aircraft. An important advantage is that the exothermic chemical deicing compositions according to the present invention substantially reduce the amount of propylene glycol used for anti-icing of aircraft wings. The use of propylene glycol is subject to more rigorous supervision of the Department of environmental protection, USA. In addition, the exothermic chemical deicing compositions according to the present invention using a natural source of heat in contrast to electric heating, which is used for propylene glycol prior to its application. This de is AET exothermic chemical deicing compositions according to the present invention is more economical compared to propylene glycol.

As shown above, safety and compatibility of the exothermic chemical deicing compositions according to the present invention meets the requirements of AMS 1435 A. in Addition, it is shown that the exothermic chemical deicing compositions according to the present invention are significantly safer for aircraft wings and ground application than the defrosters on formiate and acetate-based, currently in use at airports around the world.

The invention is described with reference to illustrative embodiments, however, it should be understood that they do not limit the invention. For specialists in this field who reviewed this description, the obvious additional modifications and options for implementation within a coverage area of the invention. Therefore, the present invention is limited only by the attached claims.

1. The method of suppressing or reducing icing or education of snow on the surface, including:

(a) blending as reagents succinic acid and/or succinic anhydride and base in aqueous solution at pH 4 to 11 to give the salt of succinic acid as an anti-icing composition, the reactants are heated solution; and

(b) applying a load, the addition of the solution on the surface to suppress or reduce ice or snow formation.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the compounds are in a dry pellet form and contains at least one container for use in the operation (a).

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that as one of the reagents is used as a compound selected from the group comprising succinic anhydride, succinic acid and mixtures thereof.

4. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the substrate is selected from the group including alkali metal hydroxide, alkali earth metal hydroxide, an organic base, and mixtures thereof.

5. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the substrate is selected from the group including sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, ammonium hydroxide and mixtures thereof.

6. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the solution applied to the operation (b), optionally mixed with de-icing organic compound polyhydric alcohol.

7. The method according to claim 6, wherein the polyhydric alcohol is a glycol chosen from the group comprising ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, propylene glycol and dipropyleneglycol-propylene glycol.

8. The method according to claim 6, characterized in that the glycol is a glycol.

9. The set, designed for receiving the heated solution for melting snow and ice, including:

(a) at least one pin is iner, containing as reagents pre-measured amount of succinic acid and/or succinic anhydride and a pre-measured amount of the base, which come in an exothermic reaction to generate the salt of succinic acid at pH from about 4 to 11 by adding a predetermined amount of water to receive the heated solution,

(b) instructions for mixing these components with getting heated solution.

10. The kit according to claim 9, characterized in that it contains an additional container of water for mixing with the components of the set.

11. The set of claim 10, characterized in that compounds that react are contained in separate containers, which are sold in the form of separate blocks.

12. The set of claim 10, characterized in that between containers installed partition, which opens for mixing the contents of containers.

13. The kit according to claim 9, characterized in that the compounds are in dry, granular form.

14. Set in one of PP, 10, 11, 12 or 13, characterized in that as one of the reagents is used as a compound selected from the group comprising succinic anhydride, succinic acid and mixtures thereof.

15. Set in one of PP, 10, 11, 12 or 13, characterized in that the substrate is chosen from the group comprising the alkaline hydroxide IU is Alla, the alkali earth metal hydroxide, an organic base, and mixtures thereof.

16. Set in one of PP, 10, 11, 12 or 13, characterized in that the substrate is selected from the group including sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, ammonium hydroxide and mixtures thereof.

17. Set in one of PP, 10, 11, 12 or 13, characterized in that it contains anti-icing organic compound and a polyhydric alcohol.

18. Set on 17, wherein the polyhydric alcohol is a glycol chosen from the group comprising ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, propylene glycol and dipropyleneglycol-propylene glycol.

19. Set on 17, characterized in that the glycol is a glycol.

20. Set for sale, intended for receiving the heated solution for melting snow and ice, in the form of a separate container containing a pre-measured amount of succinic acid and/or succinic anhydride and a pre-measured amount of the base, which come in an exothermic reaction to generate the salt of succinic acid at pH from about 4 to 11 by adding a predetermined amount of water to receive the heated solution.

21. Set according to claim 20, characterized in that is used to receive the heated solution, which is then used to remove or slimming the icing on the surface.

22. The method of obtaining the heated solution for the application of heat to the surface with the achievement of melting ice or snow, including:

(a)blending as reagents succinic acid and/or succinic anhydride and bases in aqueous solution at pH values from about 4 to 11 to give the salt of succinic acid; and

(b) applying the heated solution in such a way as to apply heat to the surface to achieve the melting of ice or snow.

23. The method according to item 22, wherein the compounds are in dry, granular form and contains at least one container for use in the operation (a).

24. The method according to item 22, wherein one of the reagents is used as a compound selected from the group comprising succinic anhydride, succinic acid and mixtures thereof.

25. The method according to item 22 or 23, characterized in that the substrate is selected from the group including alkali metal hydroxide, alkali earth metal hydroxide, an organic base, and mixtures thereof.

26. The method according to item 22 or 23, characterized in that the substrate is selected from the group including sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, ammonium hydroxide and mixtures thereof.

27. The method according to item 22 or 23, characterized in that the de-icing organic compound and a polyhydric alcohol mixed with solution, h is worn on the operation (b).

28. The method according to item 27, wherein the polyhydric alcohol is a glycol chosen from the group comprising ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, propylene glycol and dipropyleneglycol-propylene glycol.

29. The method according to item 27, wherein the glycol is a glycol.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: preventive means against freezing and sticking of loose materials to walls of mining and transport equipment; prevention of dusting on interim roads, open-cut mining; protection of rolling stock against freezing and blowing-off of loose materials, coal and peat for example.

SUBSTANCE: preventive means is made in form of mixture of solvent and thickening additive of oil nature. Used as solvent are distillation residues of coke and by-product process and/or by-products of production of butadiene, isoprene, isobutylene, ethylene both independently and in mixture with distillation residues of production process of polymers, pyrolysis residues, benzene, styrene and distillation residues of production of butanol, isobutanol, 2-ethyl hexanol acid and 2-ethyl hexanol. Solvent may additionally contain gas oils of thermal and catalytic cracking and gas oils of coking process. Used as thickening additives are mineral and synthetic oils of all kinds, mixture of used oils, oil sludge, oil residues and oil fuel. Components of thickening additive and solvent are used at any combination. Novelty of invention is use of wastes of various processes of oil and petroleum chemistry products.

EFFECT: extended field of application; cut costs; enhanced ecological safety.

5 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl, 17 ex

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14 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: Composition of an anti-icing water solution for roads surface treatment.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to production of composition of an anti-icing water solution for roads surface treatment against a winter slipperiness (snow rolling-ups, a glaze ice, black ice) n the roads and streets in cities and settlements. The composition contains, in mass %: 20-27 calcium chloride, 5-30 ethyl alcohol, 0.3-5 corrosion inhibitors (borax or sodium nitrite or their mixture), the rest - water. The technical result is - an increase of effectiveness of the composition application, an increase of friction coefficient due to a decrease of the ice density, a raise of the composition ice melting capacity.

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1 cl, 1 ex, 2 tbl

FIELD: domestic chemistry.

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EFFECT: valuable properties of composition.

3 cl, 1 tbl, 10 ex

FIELD: road-transport industry.

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FIELD: special reagents.

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EFFECT: improved and valuable properties of reagent.

2 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: chemical industry.

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EFFECT: improved and valuable properties of preparation.

FIELD: road servicing industry.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with the road servicing industry, in particular with the methods of extirpation of ice covering on motorways, bridges, flyovers, and also aerodromes. The method of the roadway covering slipperiness prevention provides for application of a roadway ice covering suppressing reactant based on acetate, in the capacity of which use a solution with pH=7-9.5, containing components in the following ratio (in mass %): magnesium acetate 13-17, potassium acetate 8-16, potassium hydrocarbonate 5-8, potassium carbonate 2-6, water-insoluble impurities 0-6, water - the rest. The roadway ice covering suppressing reactant may additionally contain a fired limestone in amount of 3-5 mass % in terms of calcium oxide. The method of production a roadway ice cover suppressing reactant for a roadway covering slipperiness prevention provides for mixing of a component containing a magnesium compound, iced acetic acid and water, in the capacity of the component containing the magnesium compound is used brucite, the stirring is exercised in two stages: first they continuously agitate brucite with water and a part of iced acetic acid in a stoichiometric ratio at the temperature of 50-70°C within 50-80 minutes, then, not terminating mixing at the same temperature in the produced mix with pH=5-6 add the rest of ice acetic acid and then add potash in amount exceeding by 0.1 - 6 % the stoichiometric ratio and continue agitation till production of the roadway ice cover suppressing reactant - a solution with pH = 7-9.5 with the above indicated composition. The used roadway ice cover suppressing reactant has composition mentioned above. The technical result consists in - maintenance of the low temperature at the reactant usage, ensuring the passing ice covered roadways motor vehicles metal corrosion protection and at use as the airfield runways coatings - the corrosion protection of metals used in aircraft designs as well. The roadway coating treated with the reactant has a high coefficient of adhesion, that reduces the accident rate on the roadways.

EFFECT: the invention ensures, that the roadway coating treated with the reactant decreases the accident rate on the roadways.

6 cl, 2 tbl, 4 ex

The invention relates to the chemical industry, namely to the development of anti-icing compositions intended for the removal of snow and ice formations from the road surface during the winter the automotive and urban roads and sidewalks

The invention relates to road maintenance production, in particular to methods of combating ice slick on the roads, bridges, overpasses, and airfields

FIELD: road servicing industry.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with the road servicing industry, in particular with the methods of extirpation of ice covering on motorways, bridges, flyovers, and also aerodromes. The method of the roadway covering slipperiness prevention provides for application of a roadway ice covering suppressing reactant based on acetate, in the capacity of which use a solution with pH=7-9.5, containing components in the following ratio (in mass %): magnesium acetate 13-17, potassium acetate 8-16, potassium hydrocarbonate 5-8, potassium carbonate 2-6, water-insoluble impurities 0-6, water - the rest. The roadway ice covering suppressing reactant may additionally contain a fired limestone in amount of 3-5 mass % in terms of calcium oxide. The method of production a roadway ice cover suppressing reactant for a roadway covering slipperiness prevention provides for mixing of a component containing a magnesium compound, iced acetic acid and water, in the capacity of the component containing the magnesium compound is used brucite, the stirring is exercised in two stages: first they continuously agitate brucite with water and a part of iced acetic acid in a stoichiometric ratio at the temperature of 50-70°C within 50-80 minutes, then, not terminating mixing at the same temperature in the produced mix with pH=5-6 add the rest of ice acetic acid and then add potash in amount exceeding by 0.1 - 6 % the stoichiometric ratio and continue agitation till production of the roadway ice cover suppressing reactant - a solution with pH = 7-9.5 with the above indicated composition. The used roadway ice cover suppressing reactant has composition mentioned above. The technical result consists in - maintenance of the low temperature at the reactant usage, ensuring the passing ice covered roadways motor vehicles metal corrosion protection and at use as the airfield runways coatings - the corrosion protection of metals used in aircraft designs as well. The roadway coating treated with the reactant has a high coefficient of adhesion, that reduces the accident rate on the roadways.

EFFECT: the invention ensures, that the roadway coating treated with the reactant decreases the accident rate on the roadways.

6 cl, 2 tbl, 4 ex

FIELD: chemical industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to preparations used for prevention and removal of snow-ice formations in roads. An anti-glaze of ice preparation comprises the following components, wt.-%: calcium chloride, 15-50; sodium chloride, 48.5-83.5; potassium ferricyanide, 0.2-0.5, and sodium dihydrogen phosphate, 0.3-1.0. Anti-glaze of ice preparation in granulated form is resistant against caking, inhibits corrosion of metals and reduces inhibitory effect of chloride on plants.

EFFECT: improved and valuable properties of preparation.

FIELD: special reagents.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to substances for applying on surface to prevent or diminish adhering ice, mist or water on it, for prevention of icing, in particular, to anti-glaze of ice reagents. The composite comprises the following components, wt.-%: calcium chloride, 25-32; urea, 2-7; sodium nitrite, 0.03-1.0, and water, the balance. Invention provides preparing the composite harmless for environment that doesn't show harmful effect on environment, doesn't corrode road coatings, and inhibits corrosion of metals. Agent shows economy and high effectiveness.

EFFECT: improved and valuable properties of reagent.

2 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: road-transport industry.

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EFFECT: higher efficiency, no corrosive effect on metals, effective at temperature above -20°C.

2 cl, 3 tbl, 3 ex, 1 dwg

FIELD: domestic chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agents using against misting and icing windshields in transports, sight glasses in agent of individual protection and can be used in living conditions for prevention showcase glasses icing. The composition comprises the following components, wt.-%: polyoxyethylene glycol ester of synthetic primary higher alcohols of (C12-C14)-fraction as a surface-active substance, 6-25; urea or thiourea, or mixture of urea and thiourea, 1-20; glycerol, 5-25; ethylene glycol, 5-41; dye, 0.0005-0.02, and a solvent, the balance. Propyl alcohol as propanol-1 or propanol-2 can be used as a solvent. The composition elicits an anti-misting and anti-icing properties, provides two-sided protection of sight glasses of transport agents and agents of individual protection in cooling the protecting glass surface up to -40°C, elicits the prolonged protective effect, it doesn't solidify at the environment temperature below -40°C and doesn't require the special technical devices for its applying.

EFFECT: valuable properties of composition.

3 cl, 1 tbl, 10 ex

FIELD: Composition of an anti-icing water solution for roads surface treatment.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to production of composition of an anti-icing water solution for roads surface treatment against a winter slipperiness (snow rolling-ups, a glaze ice, black ice) n the roads and streets in cities and settlements. The composition contains, in mass %: 20-27 calcium chloride, 5-30 ethyl alcohol, 0.3-5 corrosion inhibitors (borax or sodium nitrite or their mixture), the rest - water. The technical result is - an increase of effectiveness of the composition application, an increase of friction coefficient due to a decrease of the ice density, a raise of the composition ice melting capacity.

EFFECT: the invention ensures an increase of effectiveness of the composition application, an increased friction coefficient and a decreased ice density, a raise of the composition ice melting capacity.

1 cl, 1 ex, 2 tbl

FIELD: materials for miscellaneous applications.

SUBSTANCE: grain mixture comprise, in mass %, 15-45% of compressed first salt of alkaline or alkaline-earth metal and 85-55% of the second salt of alkaline or alkaline-earth metal. The first salt is a waterless hygroscopic salt.

EFFECT: reduced cost.

14 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: preventive means against freezing and sticking of loose materials to walls of mining and transport equipment; prevention of dusting on interim roads, open-cut mining; protection of rolling stock against freezing and blowing-off of loose materials, coal and peat for example.

SUBSTANCE: preventive means is made in form of mixture of solvent and thickening additive of oil nature. Used as solvent are distillation residues of coke and by-product process and/or by-products of production of butadiene, isoprene, isobutylene, ethylene both independently and in mixture with distillation residues of production process of polymers, pyrolysis residues, benzene, styrene and distillation residues of production of butanol, isobutanol, 2-ethyl hexanol acid and 2-ethyl hexanol. Solvent may additionally contain gas oils of thermal and catalytic cracking and gas oils of coking process. Used as thickening additives are mineral and synthetic oils of all kinds, mixture of used oils, oil sludge, oil residues and oil fuel. Components of thickening additive and solvent are used at any combination. Novelty of invention is use of wastes of various processes of oil and petroleum chemistry products.

EFFECT: extended field of application; cut costs; enhanced ecological safety.

5 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl, 17 ex

FIELD: suppression or reduction of icing on surfaces by means of antiicing compounds.

SUBSTANCE: proposed anti-icing compounds contain succinic acid and/or succinic anhydride and neutralizing base, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide or ammonium hydroxide in particular. When mixed with water anti-icing compounds form succinates in the course of reaction which causes fast liberation of heat sufficient for melting ice on surface. According to other versions, anti-icing compounds contain glycol which inhibits repeated icing on cleaned surface. Specification gives description of sets of compounds for melting snow and ice.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of melting snow and ice on aircraft and territories of their operation.

29 cl, 11 dwg, 7 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: motor-car industry; other industries; methods of production of the anti-icing reactant.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method of production of the anti-icing reactants for maintenance of roads in winter. The method of production of the anti-icing reactant based on sodium chloride and calcium chloride provides for mixing of the sodium chloride with calcium chloride and their heating and drying. Sodium chloride crystals are coated with the atomized solution of calcium chloride and dried in the "boiling bed" kiln with production of the double-layer granules, the outer layer of which is composed out of calcium chloride. Sodium chloride crystals are coated with calcium chloride in two phases. The forming small particles of calcium chloride are fed into the cyclone, whence the cyclone dust of the calcium chloride is fed into the mixer for intermixing with the wet crystals of sodium chloride. The produced anti-acing reactant has the improved physicochemical thermodynamic properties.

EFFECT: the invention ensures, that the produced anti-acing reactant has the improved physicochemical thermodynamic properties.

3 cl, 1 ex, 2 tbl

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