Tube drawing apparatus using radial ultrasonic oscillations

FIELD: plastic metal working, possibly manufacture of different types of tubes.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus includes draw plate holder in the form of rod with through cavity for mounting draw plate; source of radial ultrasonic oscillations secured to draw plate holder and embracing draw plate. Apparatus is also provided with second source of radial ultrasonic oscillations secured to outer surface of draw plate holder and with second draw plate mounted in cavity of draw plate holder on the same axis as first draw plate. Length of draw plate holder consists of 0.2 -0.45 of length of longitudinal ultrasound wave inside its material. Draw plate holder includes two mutually joined cone portions. Length of source of ultrasonic oscillations consists of 14 - 40% of draw plate holder length. Both draw plates are mounted in such a way that distance between their centers consists of 0.057 - 0.154 of length of longitudinal ultrasound wave in material of holder. Working surface of each source of ultrasonic oscillations has conicity degree corresponding to conicity of outer surface of draw plate holder and it is normalized by means of given mathematical relation. Invention lowers risk of tube rupture due to stabilized drawing effort at stable mode of drawing that is achieved in the result of providing resonance frequency band of apparatus and lowered number of frequency errors for each source of ultrasonic oscillations.

EFFECT: increased yield of apparatus.

7 cl, 4 dwg, 2 ex

 

The invention relates to the field of metal forming, namely, drawing production, and can be used in the manufacture of pipes of different materials and gages.

A device for drawing tubes with ultrasound, comprising: a source of ultrasonic vibrations, comprising two parallel spaced rod of magnetostrictive transducers and the concentrator of ultrasonic energy in the form of a right truncated cone, the larger base of which is rigidly connected to the radiating end faces of the transducers; volontargatan made in the form of a cylindrical rod, one of the ends of which is rigidly connected with the lower base of the concentrator of ultrasonic energy; rummaging installed in the free end of a cylindrical rod [1].

The main disadvantage of this device is that it is providing the portage oscillation in the direction along the axis of the lug, the energy of ultrasonic oscillations spends more on reducing the contact friction forces between deformable pipe and Molokai, and not on the softening of the material of the deformable tube, which provides maximum deformation. As a result, the process of drawing on this device is drawing ratio of not more than one shall Aoki value of 1,6-and 1,7, therefore, characterised by a large number of passes on the route drawing.

To significantly increase the rate of extraction, bringing its value to one portages to 1.9-2.0 and more, until 2,18, allows the use of radial ultrasonic vibrations, providing portage fluctuations in the direction perpendicular to the axis of the lug. This is because under this variant, the introduction of ultrasonic vibrations almost all ultrasonic energy in the deformation zone is spent on the softening of the material of the deformable tube, and this allows reducing the number of passes on the route, largely to intensify the process of drawing.

A device for drawing pipes radial ultrasonic vibrations, comprising sequentially interconnected rod of magnetostrictive transducer, the hub of ultrasonic energy and volontargatan, to a greater degree which is installed portage [2].

The main disadvantage of this device is that it is, in effect a transformation of one type of ultrasonic vibrations in the other, held in volontariati, namely the conversion of longitudinal ultrasonic vibrations committed magnetostrictive transducer in a radial ultrasonic vibrations, perpetrated what's greater degree of volontariats, permanently loses a significant portion of the ultrasonic energy generated by the Converter.

As a result, the drawing ratio achieved on this device, does not exceed 1,7-1,8 with all the ensuing consequences in terms of the number of passes on the route drawing. With this device, due to the presence of tandem concentrator of ultrasonic energy and volontariats, characterized by great length and diameters, has large dimensions, which in its industrial use require modernization hours lunette truboprofilnogo mill.

Use same as source radial ultrasonic vibrations annular magnetostrictive transducer or distributed magnetostrictive transducer formed by a uniform placement of the circle (on the outer surface of volontariats) multiple converters rod type, allows to reduce the dimensions of the device, to eliminate unproductive losses of ultrasonic energy and to bring the drawing ratio to 2.18 at besprovodnoy drawn steel pipes rummaging through one.

A device for drawing pipes radial ultrasonic vibrations, in which the annular magnetostrictive reobrazovateli rigidly attached to the outer surface of the cylindrical volontariats, in a through axial cavity which is installed portage, located so that its geometric center coincides with the geometric center of the transducer [3].

The main disadvantage of this device is that it is, for example, when besprovodnoy drawn tubes, does not provide a sufficiently high level to output. This is because this unit does not have the range of resonant frequencies (Δf) and the source of ultrasonic vibrations, designed for one and strictly fixed base (f0), i.e. resonance, oscillation frequency, almost always does not operate in a resonant mode. That this unit does not have the range of resonant frequencies is illustrated by the fact that his Converter all plates, of which he composed, performed with the same mean radius, and this determines the existence of one resonant frequency.

When working with this device, namely, the steady-state stage of the process of ultrasonic drawn pipes, constantly occurs an abrupt change efforts drawing since.. acoustic energy from the transducer through volontargatan and rummaging passed deformable tube and along its entire length it apply ultrasonic vibrations having a specific wavelength (λT), at that time the I as the distance between each of the two ends of the pipe and Molokai in their values are constantly changing. Consequently, at its rated frequency (f0), i.e. in a resonant mode, the device only works in the case when the distances from each of the ends of the deformable tube before drawing dies are also multiples of half the length of the ultrasonic wave propagating in the pipe that are very rare. In these times the magnitude of the reduction efforts lug reaches its maximum value. In other cases the device is not in a resonant mode, i.e. at a frequency (fslave), some deviation from the main (f0) frequency (besprovodnoy drawn tubes deviation fslavefrom f0does not exceed, as a rule, 0,4 kHz). In these moments of time, depending on the degree of detuning of the device (i.e. the magnitude of the difference between fslaveand f0), the value of the efforts of the lug may be equal to the effort of drawing a similar tube, but without overlapping fibrous ultrasonic vibrations. This difference in values the efforts of the lug and a sharp transition from their minimum values to maximum and Vice versa, due to the high speed drawing, with large one-time reductions (drawing ratio more than 1.6) often leads to breakage of the pipe, resulting in reduced yield.

It should also be noted that in this device the reason is nsny its mode of operation, that is, the source of ultrasonic vibrations, a negative impact of each of the two ends of the deformable tube that ultimately determines the number of resonance shift device falling on him during the drawing of each pipe.

Technical problem on which the invention is directed, is the increase in output.

The problem is solved by reducing breakage of pipes, which is achieved by stabilization efforts drawing on the steady-state stage of the process, which becomes possible only in the event that the device range of resonant frequencies, and when the number of frequency shift is attributable to the source of ultrasonic vibrations.

The essence of the invention consists in the following. Execution of the external surface of volontariats and the working surface of the source of ultrasonic vibrations with taper ψ provides ultrasonic transducer, therefore, the device as a whole, the range of resonant frequencies (Δ (f) in the range of fminto fmaxneeded for stabilization efforts drawing on the steady-state stage of the process. Equipment device a second source of ultrasonic vibrations and the second Molokai, provided the location of the fiber from one another on a specific be the research institutes and in distinct lengths of volontariats and sources of ultrasonic vibrations, and disclosure of the angle of the taper in toward the center of volontariats, would greatly reduce the number and magnitude of the frequency shift is attributable to one source of ultrasonic vibrations. All this stabilizes the effort drawing on the steady-state stage of the process and can significantly reduce the breakage of pipes, and to increase the yield.

The solution of this problem in the device for drawing pipes radial ultrasonic vibrations, comprising volontargatan in the form of a rod with a through axial cavity, fibrous, installed in the cavity of volontariats, and the source radial ultrasonic vibrations that its working surface is rigidly attached to the outer surface of volontariats and installed so that covers rummaging, is due to the fact that it is further provided with a second radial source of ultrasonic vibrations, attached to the outer surface of volontariats and second Molokai installed in the cavity of volontariats coaxially first portage, and volontargatan made with a length of 0.2-0.45 length of the longitudinal ultrasonic waves in the material and is formed mainly of two truncated and interconnected conical sections, the angle of taper of each of which is of rawlin mainly to the center of volontariats, and the source of ultrasonic vibrations is made with length component 14-40% of the length of volontariats, while drawing dies are set so that the distance between their centers is 0,057-0,154 length of longitudinal ultrasonic waves in the material of volontariats and the working surface of each source of ultrasonic vibrations is made with a taper, the value of which corresponds to the taper of the external surface of the conical section on which it is fixed, and is determined from the expression:

where:

ψ - cone angle (degree);

f0the main resonance frequency of ultrasonic vibrations (Hz);

Δf - band resonance frequency of ultrasonic vibrations (Hz);

L is the distance between the geometric centers of the fiber (cm);

h - the length of the source of ultrasonic vibrations, measured along the axis of the lug (cm);

C is the speed of propagation of ultrasonic waves in the material of volontariats (cm/s);

π=3,14.

The task also contributes and what sources of radial ultrasonic vibrations in the device made in the form of magnetostrictive and/or piezoelectric transducers that have the same and/or different acoustic parameters, and the conical sections of volontariats connected with each other mainly b is larger bases and made of the same and/or different shapes and geometric sizes and have a cross-section in the form of a circle or of a polyhedron.

The invention is illustrated by the following drawings:

figure 1 - shows a longitudinal section of the device in which the source of ultrasonic vibrations is formed of two annular magnetostrictive transducers;

figure 2 - shows a view of the figure 1;

figure 3 - shows a longitudinal section of the device in which the source of ultrasonic vibrations made in the form of two distributed magnetostrictive transducers, each of which is formed of eight core converters;

figure 4 - shows a view B in figure 3.

In the device for drawing pipes (see Fig.1-2) as sources of radial ultrasonic vibrations applied to the transducers 1 and 2 ring-type, plate 3 which is made of magnetostrictive alloy K-65 and glued together. Working surface (in the drawings, the positions are not marked) converters designed with taper ψin consequence of which each plate 3 Converter is the average radius, size slightly different from the average radius of the plate, next to it is located. The transducers 1 and 2 are equipped with excitation windings 4 and is rigidly fixed to its conical working surfaces on volontariati 5, made of titanium alloy VTZ-1 and having a length equal to 0.2-0.45 length of the longitudinal ultrazvukovoy his material.

The outer surface of volontariats 5 made in the form of two conical sections having the shape of a truncated cone and a conjugate between a large reason, the opening angle (the angle of inclination of the generatrix of each of which is directed from the end of volontariats to its centre. The magnitude of the taper of the outer surfaces of volontariats 5 in their values are the same and correspond to the size of the taper of the working surfaces of the transducers 1 and 2, i.e. equal to ψ. In volontariati 5 on its axis is made through the conical cavity 6, which is equipped with drawing dies 7 and 8, respectively, the first and the second during the drawing, through which stretch deformable pipe 9 (for convenience, the invention in the pipe there are three different plot, which hereinafter are referred to as "A", "B" and "C", and the drawings show the positions "A", "B" and "C").

Drawing dies 7 and 8, the outer surface of which is made with a taper equal to the taper of the cavity 6 and, for example, the three degrees, mounted so that their geometric centers coincide with the geometric centers of the transducers 2 and 1. The distance between them, i.e. between the geometric centers of the fiber is 0,057-0,154 length of longitudinal ultrasonic waves in the material of volontariats (λB), equivalent to 0.15-0.45 length of the Iben ultrasonic waves in a deformable material (steel) pipe.

To achieve the maximum possible effect of the proposed use of the device when the manufacturer should comply with the following requirements, which were determined experimentally on the device with radial source of ultrasonic vibrations in the form of an annular transducer when besprovodnoy drawn steel tubes. 18CR10NITI size 6×0,95 mm along the route 20-12-6 mm using a fiber-type T-30.

Equipment device three or more sources of ultrasonic vibrations, as well as three or more roads is not appropriate, because in this case, the benefits, in light of the decision of the task, its value does not exceed the positive effect achieved when the equipment device two sources of ultrasonic vibrations and two portages.

The outer surface of volontariats should be done in the form of two equal truncated cones with opening angle of each of them towards the centre of volontariats. This is because only in this case, at a certain ease of installation of the device is ensured not only the identity of the operating characteristics of the transducers and, consequently, the most favorable conditions for the operation of the device, but also achieved the maximum possible reduction in the number and Majesty which are frequency shift, per Converter.

The length of volontariats defined by technological peculiarities of the process of drawing tubes, usually in ultrasound devices does not exceed or is a multiple of half the length of the longitudinal ultrasonic wave in the material (λB), i.e. does not exceed 0.5λBthat alloy VTZ-1 at a frequency of 19.5 kHz is 132,5 mm As the length of volontariats direct proportion is reflected in the length of the tapering end of the blank pipe, the execution of volontariats this device with a length of more than 0.45λBdid not seem appropriate, while its length is less than 0,2λBit becomes almost impossible placing fiber at a desired distance from one another while providing them with 100% contact of their surfaces with volontargatan, which leads to reduced efficiency in the operation of the device.

The distance between the portages should be (0,057-0,154)λBi.e. the length of the longitudinal ultrasonic waves in the material of volontariats. It is established that the location of the fiber from one another at a distance that is shorter than the 0,057λBor exceeding 0,154λBthat leads to the fact that vibrations from the transducer 1 are in the area "B" pipe 9, and the vibrations from the Converter 2 is in area "B" pipe 9, i.e. result in h is o, each of the converters has a negative impact both ends of the deformable tube, in each of which necessarily includes the section "A". In addition, if the distance between the portages, i.e. the distance between their geometric centers will exceed 0,154λB, it will take large length of the tapering of the ends of the blanks, which ultimately will lead to unnecessary waste of metal. Along with this should be taken into account and the fact that the location of the fiber from one another at a certain distance effect and the length of the source of ultrasonic vibrations, the geometric center of which must coincide with the geometric centre of the runway area, as in this case, virtually all of the ultrasonic energy transmitted from the transducer to the trail. The single degree of compression in the second while drawing the trench shall be not more than 3% of the total degree of compression of the pipe in one pass.

In the course of the experiments, it was found that the source of ultrasonic oscillations in devices operating at frequencies of 16 to 44 kHz, must be made with a length (h), equal 20-60 mm, which is equivalent 14-40% of the length of volontariats (ring transducer length and thickness of the set of plates; for rod probe: length - width plate). When performing vibration source with length less than 14% of the length of volontariats, the device will not have the frequency range, especiauy stabilization efforts drawing on the steady-state stage of the process, i.e. the task is not solved, because Δf in your value will not exceed 0.4 kHz. Performing the same vibration source with a length greater than 40% of the length of volontariats, it is not appropriate for two reasons. First, increasing the length of the vibration source does not improve the efficiency of the device, and secondly, this prevents the fiber location and sources of oscillations, when their geometric centers are the same, i.e. not allow you to place portages from one another on a strictly defined for them the distance and, therefore, does not solve the problem.

The cone angle (ψ) working surfaces of the transducers and the outer surface of the conical sections of volontariats in their values is limited and for devices with the main resonance frequency (f0), is equal to 16 to 44 kHz, is in the range from 2 to 12 degrees, which gives them a range of resonant frequencies (Δ (f) within 1-10% of the main (current) frequency, which is sufficient to reduce breakage of pipes, because the value of the frequency detuning of the ultrasonic drawing pipes with diameter up to 25 mm, does not exceed 0,2-0,4 kHz. If the taper is less than 2 degrees, i.e. when Δf<1% f0the value of the frequency detuning may exceed half of the value range of the resonant frequencies of the device and in get its borders, resulting effort drawing on the steady-state stage of the process will change from time to time and, therefore, breakage of pipes will not be reduced. If the amount of taper in their values will exceed 12 degrees, i.e. when Δf>10% f0then abruptly drops the efficiency of the device and, therefore, decrease productivity, which is not economically feasible.

The angles of taper of the working surfaces of the transducers and the outer surface of volontariats must be equal, otherwise the device will be inherent low efficiency or it will be generally broken from the acoustic point of view.

When equipped with this device ring converters, designed, for example, the main resonance frequency (f0) 19.5 kHz (estimated average radius of the ring 41 mm; the outer diameter of the ring 105 mm; the thickness of the set of plates, i.e. the length of the transducer along the axis of the lug is 40 mm) and, consequently, intended for drawing pipes with a diameter less than 25 mm, the external surface of volontariats and working surfaces converters with a taper at 11 degrees provides the device the range of resonant frequencies (Δ (f) in the range of holds 18.52 to 20,47 kHz.

The principle of the proposed device is based on the use of ultrasonic energy and for plastic deformation of metals. AC voltage of the main resonance frequency (f0), acting with an ultrasonic generator (not shown) on the winding 4 of the converters 1 and 2 are excited in phase, creates a magnetic flux. Under the action of magnetic forces working surfaces of the transducers vibrate, which, by way of volontariats 5 are transferred to the dies 7 and 8. Due to the fact that the resonant frequency of oscillation of the ring plate 3, of which recruited converters 1 and 2, depends on the magnitude of its average radius, and all of the plates in any of the converters have different average radii, each of the converters, and therefore, the entire device as a whole, have ranges of resonant frequencies (Δf), ranging from fminto fmaxi.e. from holds 18.52 to 20,47 kHz, the average of which, i.e. the main resonant frequency f0=a 19.5 kHz, the calculated device.

After excitation of the transducers 1 and 2 in the drawing dies 7 and 8 sets of the processed pipe 9, which is pulling the device drawing mill (not shown) extends first through the first fibrous 7, and then through the second rummaging 8 of smaller diameter. During the drawing of the pipe, in those moments when the distances from both ends of the pipe 9 or the distance from one of its ends to the plate 7 and 8 is not a multiple of the half wavelength, als is renewdata through the pipe, the device operates at a frequency (fslave), some deviation from the main resonance (ƒ0), for example on the frequency of 19.1 kHz, i.e. at a frequency slightly less than f0=to 19.5 kHz. But since this frequency is within the range of resonant frequencies (holds 18.52-20,47 kHz), which has a device, the value of the effort of drawing the pipe on the steady-state stage of the process remains constant, i.e. the process is stable and, therefore, without interruption of the pipes. In the process of drawing the pipe 9, the working frequency of the device (fslave), due to the constant changes of the distance between the pipe end and Molokai, can exceed the basic resonant frequency of, for example, it may be equal to 19.8 kHz. And it might change in some interval, for example from 19.1 to 19.9 kHz, sequentially passing all values in this interval from one end to the other and back.

In the process of drawing pipe in it apply ultrasonic vibrations. Moreover, oscillations, excited Converter 1 are propagated through the pipe 9 only in areas "B" and "A" and do not pass the parcel "B", and vibrations generated by the transducer 2, apply only to areas "a" and "b" pipe and do not go into part "B". This is because drawing dies 7 and 8 are installed from one another at a distance equal to (0,057-0,154)#x003BB; B. Because of the length of the plot "And" in the process of drawing the pipe remains constant, this site does not impact negatively on each of the inverters 1 and 2, i.e. does not lead to the detuning device, because it is for each transducer constant load. The length of the same areas "B" and "C" pipe 9 in the process of drawing is constantly changing, so that each of them is respectively for converters 1 and 2, variations in the load and, therefore, negatively affects the resonant mode of the device.

After the pipe 9 is fully stretched, drawing dies 7 and 8 set the next workpiece and the process of drawing repeated.

Other examples of embodiment of the proposed device (see figure 3 and 4) should be attributed, first and foremost, using as sources the radial ultrasonic vibrations of a rod of magnetostrictive transducers (figure 3 excitation winding on the upper converters not shown)that allows you to create a device for drawing tubes, the diameter of which exceeds 25 mm In this case, the size of the range of resonant frequencies of each of the transducers and devices in General is determined by the difference in the lengths of the rods 10 and 11, and the outer surface of volontariats 5 is in the form of a conical much is the Fig-wort 12.

Volontargatan proposed device, depending on the technological requirements of the process of drawing tubes and structural features truboprofilnogo mill, may be made in the form of two truncated cones, are not equal in length, the angle of the taper and diameter of the mating grounds. It can be equipped with a source of ultrasonic vibrations generated on the basis of two different types of transducers (ring and rod or magnetostrictive and piezoelectric). However, in all these cases, the efficiency of such a device will be somewhat lower than vysokoreaktsionnogo.

Comparative analysis of known and proposed devices for ultrasonic lug tubes shows that the proposed device has a number of significant advantages over the known device. For example, the proposed device has a range of resonant frequencies, allowing to stabilize the effort drawing on the steady-state stage of the process. In its work it has a smaller amount of frequency shift is attributable to one Converter that also stabilizes the effort of drawing. The same stabilization efforts drawing on the steady-state stage of the process ultrasonic bezprovodnogo drawing of steel pipes 18CR10NITI with the use of what Finance fiber type T-30, T-35 allows you to reduce breakage from 0.5 to 0.3% and thereby increase the yield of 3-4%.

Sources of information

1. Severance VP, Klubowicz CENTURIES, Stepanenko V. "Ultrasound and plasticity", Minsk, "Science and technology", 1976, pp.109, 36.

2. Severance BP, Kubovich CENTURIES, Stepanenko V. "Ultrasound and plasticity", Minsk, "Science and technology", 1976, s, RES.

3. Knots A.G. and others "Besprovodnoy drawing pipes with superimposed ultrasound", "Steel", 1979, No. 7, s-335.

1. Device for drawing pipes radial ultrasonic vibrations, comprising volontargatan in the form of a rod with a through axial cavity, fibrous, installed in the cavity of volontariats, and the source radial ultrasonic vibrations that its working surface is rigidly attached to the outer surface of volontariats and installed so that covers rummaging, characterized in that it is further provided with a second radial source of ultrasonic vibrations, attached to the outer surface of volontariats, and the second Molokai installed in the cavity of volontariats coaxially first portage, and volontargatan made with a length of 0.2-0.45 length of the longitudinal ultrasonic waves in the material, and is formed mainly by two interconnected conical sections, and the source of ultrasonic vibrations is made with length component 14-40% of the length of volontariats, with portages mouth is Owlery so, what is the distance between their centers is 0,057-0,154 length of longitudinal ultrasonic waves in the material of volontariats and the working surface of each source of ultrasonic vibrations is made with a taper, the value of which corresponds to the taper of the external surface of the conical section on which it is fixed, and is determined from the expression

where ψ - cone angle, (degree);

Δf - band resonant frequencies of the source of ultrasonic vibrations (Hz);

C is the speed of propagation of ultrasonic waves in the material of volontariats, (cm/s);

L is the distance between the geometric centers of the fiber, (cm);

h - the length of the source of ultrasonic vibrations, measured along the axis of the lug, (cm);

π=3,14;

f0the main resonant frequency of the source of ultrasonic vibrations (Hz).

2. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the radial ultrasonic vibrations made in the form of magnetostrictive and/or piezoelectric transducers.

3. The device according to claim 2, characterized in that the converters are made with the same and/or different acoustic parameters.

4. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the conical sections of volontariats connected with each other mainly b is larger bases.

5. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the conical sections of volontariats made of the same and/or different geometrical dimensions.

6. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the conical sections of volontariats made of the same and/or different shapes of cross-sections.

7. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the conical section of volontariats with cross-section in the form of a circle or of a polyhedron.



 

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