Device for electric diagnostics of condition of hard tissues of tooth

FIELD: medicine; dentistry.

SUBSTANCE: device for electric diagnostics of condition of hard tissues of tooth has measurement unit, active and passive electrodes. Active electrode has holder made of isolation material. There is tip at the end of electrode. The tip is made of current-conducting material. There is contact element on the tip; the contact element is made in form capillary tube. Elastic tube is fastened to holder. One end of the tube is open and the other one is closed. Closed end of the tube is connected with non-working end of capillary tube. Passive electrode is made in form of contact area. Tip has vertical hole and horizontal hole disposed in perpendicular to the tip; the horizontal hole is provided with thread. Removable capillary tube in mounted inside vertical hole; the capillary tube is capable of moving along the hole. Non-working end of capillary tube is connected with elastic tube by connecting coupling. Rest screw is mounted inside threaded hole. Closed end of elastic tube is made in form of elastic bottle placed inside rigid cylindrical case provided with lateral slot along its middle part. Elastic clamp is put onto case. Protecting case is disposed between bottle and case at its top part. Removable dozer in form of plate being congruent to case is mounted onto case. There is vertical protrusion at one end of dozer. The protrusion goes into slot of case for interaction with protecting case. The other end of plate of dozer is inserted into elastic casing. Silver contact area of passive electrode is disposed onto elastic substrate. Removable dozer has vertical protrusion which height can differ.

EFFECT: improved precision of measurement.

1 dwg

 

The invention relates to medicine, namely to dentistry, in particular for electric diagnostics status of hard tooth tissues. The proposed device can be used to detect early stages of disease in teeth with incomplete mineralization of the enamel, the determination of the resistance of tooth enamel to caries, the definition of remineralization efficacy of dental drugs, the localization of cavities and to prevent the development of secondary caries, the definition of the process of mineralization, the definition of the stages of tooth abrasion.

Despite numerous studies, some aspects of the problem of diagnosis of caries, including recurrent (occurring in more deep superficial tissues of the tooth border-tooth) and non-carious lesions are not allowed to date. Existing methods of diagnosis of caries are not without some disadvantages: they do not provide an accurate assessment or even subjective. Some methods require sophisticated equipment and therefore cannot be used for mass screening.

A device for diagnosing the stage of caries, including an ohmmeter, an active electrode in the form of the probe (sharp boron or the probe at an angle), the passive electrode in the form of a metallic pen or lead the cuff which is attached to the brush survey, which has been created. The active electrode is applied to the tested point of the tooth. Ioannovich "Diseases of the teeth and the mucous membranes of the oral cavity in children", Moscow, - Medicine, - 1971, - s-171.

The disadvantages of the device

1. A large contact surface of the probe. The readings are directly proportional to the contact area between the active electrode with the test surfaces. Since last may differ greatly from each other by the degree of roughness of the active surface of the electrode will contact each time with a different size areas of the tooth, which can cause errors in the results.

2. A large distance between the electrodes. The accuracy of the study is low because of the large influence of the impedance of the tissue.

3. If the analyzed tooth surface is a recess that is smaller than the diameter of the active surface of the tip electrode, then the electrode is not installed electrical contact with the surface, and therefore the results do not reflect the true process.

A known design for measuring the conductivity of the hard tissues of the tooth Mbusa, Nadala, Calagenda "Caries treatment and prevention with the use of vacuum-electrophoresis", Chisinau, - Changes of Moldoveneasca" - 1975 - s-121. For the diagnosis of caries change electr the conductivity of hard tooth tissues used appliance, consisting of a galvanometer with a current source, a passive electrode of a metal plate, which is in the hand of the patient, the active electrode is applied to the area of the tooth and consists of a dental probe, insulated by a layer of rubber.

Disadvantages of analogue

Great is the influence of the impedance of the tissue at the measurement accuracy.

The design of the active electrode is not possible to determine the conductivity of the electric current of the bottom and walls of fissures of teeth.

The readings are directly proportional to the contact area between the active electrode with the test surfaces. Since last may differ greatly from each other by the degree of roughness of the active surface of the electrode will contact each time with a different size areas of the tooth, which can cause errors in the results.

If the analyzed tooth surface is a recess that is smaller than the diameter of the active surface of the electrode tip, then using the known electrodes is not installed electrical contact with the surface, and therefore the results do not reflect the true process.

If investigated smooth surface of the tooth, the size of which is less than the diameter of the active surface of the tip electrode, the electrode captures part of the behavior of the displacement, not a member of the research object.

The closest is a device for electric diagnostics status of hard tissues of a tooth, consisting of active and passive electrodes attached to the measuring unit described in thesis. Kida. the honey. Sciences. Ivanova, "Diagnosis and prognostic assessment Electrometry of hard tissues of teeth with caries", Omsk. 1984, pp. 52-62.

Using the device measures the electrical conductivity of the tissues of the tooth, and its value is judged on the condition of the tissues of the teeth. Active electrode contains a holder of insulating material at the working end of which is removable tip with the contact element. It is equipped with a flexible tube, closed at one end. The contact element is made of conductive material in the form of a capillary tube, and the flexible tube from the open end is connected with a non-working end of the capillary tube and fixed on the holder.

The passive electrode is made in the form koltseobrazno curved contact plates fixed on the elastic rod whose length corresponds to the length of the vestibule of the oral cavity. The passive electrode was placed in one and the same in each patient place - in the middle of the transition fold lower jaw. Elastic rod is securely pressed contact strip to this particular part of the SL is sistas membranes of the oral cavity.

In the capillary tube of the active electrode was typed with the electrolyte solution (10% solution of calcium chloride). Capillary tube working end, was placed on the tooth surface, the electrical circuit of the device was closed and was measured current, which judged the state of the tissues of the tooth.

The disadvantages of the prototype, resulting from structural features:

1. Inaccurate dosing of the electrolyte in the active electrode as the electrolyte randomly comes on the investigated surface of a tooth or is squeezed out by pressing the elastic tube with your finger, which reduces the accuracy of the measurements.

2. The passive electrode is placed in the vestibule of the mouth, i.e. to the mucous membrane in the projection of several teeth. Great is the influence of the impedance of the tissue and its fluctuations in the measurements.

The present invention is to create a design that provides a more precise measurement of the conductivity of the hard tissues of the tooth.

This object is achieved by a device for electric diagnostics of the condition of the hard tissues of the tooth containing the measuring unit, the active and passive electrodes. The active electrode consists of a holder made of insulating material at the working end of which is tipped with a contact element of conductive material in the form of capillary tubes is I. The holder is also attached elastic tube, closed at one end and open at the other end, to which it is connected with a non-working end of the capillary tube. The tip has a vertical hole and the branching perpendicular to the horizontal hole with thread. In the vertical hole of the removable capillary tube having the ability to move along it. The non-working end of the capillary tube is attached to an elastic tube coupling. In the hole with thread set the locking screw. The closed end of the elastic tube made in the form of an elastic cylinder, placed in a rigid cylindrical body with a transverse slot in the middle. In the case worn elastic clamp. Between the cylinder and the casing in the upper part of the protective casing. The enclosure is fitted with a removable dispenser in the form of a plate, congruent body having at one end a vertical flange which enters the slot opening interoperable with protective cover. The other end plate of the dispenser is inserted into the elastic clamp. In passive electrode pad made of silver and placed on an elastic substrate. Removable dispensers are distinguished from each other by the height of the vertical ledge.

Conform to the technical solution of the criterion of "novelty" confirms what I have signs, missing from the prototype.

The tip has a vertical bore in which is fitted with removable capillary tube having the ability to move along it. This allows you to change the length of extension of the capillary tube and makes it more convenient access to various surfaces of a tooth.

- Horizontal hole with thread is for setting the fixing screw and allows you to make the capillary tube is removable. Due to the clamping screw provides better contact of the capillary tube with an electrical circuit.

Non - working end of the capillary tube is attached to an elastic tube coupling, which results in the replacement of the capillary tube.

The closed end of the elastic tube made in the form of an elastic cylinder, placed in a rigid cylindrical body with a transverse slot in the middle. Pressure on the bladder provides a supply of electrolyte in the capillary tube.

Between an elastic cylinder and a rigid body in the upper part of the protective casing to prevent perforation and uniform distribution of pressure on the entire area of the flexible container.

- In the case worn elastic clip for fixing the dispenser.

- On case comes with a removable dispenser in the form of a plate, congruent to the housing and having at one end a vertical ledge, to the categories included in the slot opening, interoperable with protective cover.

- The other end of the dispenser is inserted into the elastic fastener attached to the housing. Replacement of dispensers with different height of the protrusion provides the obtaining of different measured amount of electrolyte.

In the passive electrode pad made of silver on the elastic substrate, which provides better contact, allows you to place the substrate on the gums closer to the tooth, which allows to reduce the influence of the impedance of the tissue and to increase the accuracy of the measurements.

The significance of differences of the claimed device for this purpose is confirmed by the absence in the patent and scientific literature, information about similar devices that have the same set of features.

The proposed design reduces the distance between the electrodes, which reduces the influence of the impedance of the tissue, allows precise dosing of the electrolyte, to change the length of the capillary tube that provides the best access to different parts of the tooth and improves the accuracy of the measurements.

The device shown in the drawing.

The device consists of a measuring unit 1, active 2 passive 3 electrodes. The active electrode 2 consists of a holder 4 made of insulating material on the working end of which is a lug 5 with contact the m element of conductive material in the form of a capillary tube 6. The holder 4 is fixed, the flexible tube 7, closed at one end and open at the other end, to which it is connected with a non-working end of the capillary tube 6. The passive electrode 3 made in the form of contact pads 8. Tip 5 has a vertical hole 9 and the branching perpendicular to the horizontal hole with a thread 10. In the vertical hole 9 is fitted with removable capillary tube 6, having the ability to move along it, allowing you to adjust the height protruding from the tip 5 of the working part of the capillary tube 6. The non-working end of the capillary tube 6 is attached to an elastic tube 7 a coupling 11, which allows to change the capillaries for processing. In the hole with the thread 10 is the locking screw 12. The closed end of the flexible tube 7 is made in the form of an elastic cylinder 13, placed in a rigid cylindrical body 14 with a transverse slot 15 in the middle and put it flexible collar 16. Between an elastic cylinder 13 and the housing 14 in the upper part of the protective cover 17. The housing 14 is fitted with a removable dispenser 18 in the form of a plate, congruent body having at one end a vertical projection 19, which enters the slot 15 of the housing 14 with the possibility of interaction with the protective cover 17. The other end of the dispenser 18 is inserted into the elastic clamp 16. In passive e is ectrode 3 pad 8 is made of silver and placed on the flexible substrate 20.

Each removable dispenser 18 has a vertical protrusion 19 different heights, allowing you to dial in the capillary 6 different amount of electrolyte and get drop a measured amount.

A device for electric diagnostics status of hard tooth tissues is carried out as follows.

Analyzed the tooth is thoroughly cleaned of food debris and plaque. The prepared tooth is isolated from saliva with cotton swabs, dried for 30 with the air stream areas of the tooth. The passive electrode mounted on the marginal portion of the gums in the area of projection of the top 1/3 of the root of the investigated tooth contact area 8 - to the gum. The flexible substrate is made from a thin plastic transparent framework that adheres to the surface of the gums and provides reliable retention pads of silver. The magnitude of the elastic substrate depends on the height of the alveolar ridge and the depth of the threshold of the mouth (there is a wide choice of sizes)that allows you to place it as close as possible to the point of contact of the active electrode. Pad 9 is made of silver and has a size of 5×5 mm

The accuracy depends on the reliability of contact between the test tooth surface and the surface of the active electrode. Depending on the measurement location select the size of the speaker is speaking parts of the capillary 6 active electrode 2. The capillary 6 is inserted outside end into the hole 9 and the clutch 11, set the amount protruding from the tip 5 of the working part of the capillary 6, since the elastic tube can be moved up or down and tighten the locking screw 12. The internal diameter of the capillary tube from 0.5 to 1.5 mm, which allows to approach the object of study (the smaller diameter for deep fissure; a larger one for the Vestibulo-oral surfaces of the teeth). The inner diameter of the capillary tube does not affect the magnitude of the dose of the electrolyte. Press the elastic tube 7, the capillary 6 is immersed in the electrolyte solution (10% solution of calcium chloride), an elastic tube 7 is open, it creates a vacuum, causing the electrolyte solution enters the capillary.

The working end of the capillary 6 bring to the studied area of the tooth, click on the dispenser 18. His ledge 19 of the dispenser clicks on the protective cover 17 and the elastic cylinder 13. Microcaps of the electrolyte solution out of the working end of the capillary 6 is applied on the studied area of the tooth. Make the measurement. The measuring unit consists of a sensitive galvanometer with intercept 0,11×10-6And, two fixed and one variable resistance and a current source. A current source battery 3336 l, EDS 4.5V, allowing a variable ohmic resistance is tyuleniy to get on the electrodes DC voltage 3 V Depending on the selected dispenser get the right amount of drops of the electrolyte.

The magnitude of the metered droplets depends on the ledge 19. Size size drops of the electrolyte is important for reliable contact between the surface of the active electrode and a surface of a tooth.

- For the same droplet size when the research Vestibulo-oral surfaces of teeth.

- You need a different amount of electrolyte in the studies of various types of fissures of teeth.

The amount of electrolyte affects the determination of exact figures, our device allows you to change the dosage of the electrolyte solution, depending on the surface.

About the state of the hard tissues of the tooth is judged by the magnitude of electric current conductivity of solid fabrics, which are obtained by the measuring unit 1.

After the measurement, the locking screw 12 out, the capillary 6 is disconnected from the coupling 11 and removed from tip 5.

For the next measurement, replace the capillary 6 and the dispenser 18.

The method is based on the fact that due to the increased organic matter content increases the conductivity, which allows to judge the state of the hard tooth tissues under different physiological (mineralization and age starosti enamel) and pathological (caries and pathological erase the TB).

The device allows you to easily replace the capillary one-time use, to adjust the height of the working end of the capillary and to lead him to various parts of the tooth that was not previously available, to get a metered drop of the electrolyte, which increases the accuracy of the research.

The location of the passive electrode at a close distance with respect to the active electrode gives a more accurate measurement, since minimized the influence of the impedance of body tissues.

Device for electric diagnostics of the condition of the hard tissues of the tooth containing the measuring unit, the active and passive electrodes are designed with the ability to connect to the measuring unit, and an active electrode consists of a holder made of insulating material at the working end of which is tipped with a contact element of conductive material in the form of a capillary tube, the holder is also attached elastic tube, closed at one end and open at the other end, to which it is connected with a non-working end of the capillary tube, the passive electrode made in the form of contact pads, wherein the tip has a vertical hole and the branching perpendicularly horizontal hole threaded vertical hole mounted capillary tube made the traveler removable and capable of movement along the hole, the non-working end of the capillary tube is attached to an elastic tube coupler into the hole with thread set the locking screw, the closed end of the elastic tube made in the form of an elastic cylinder, placed in a rigid cylindrical body with a transverse slot in the middle, on the body wear elastic clamp, between the cylinder and the casing in the upper part is a protective casing, the casing is fitted with a removable dispenser in the form of a plate having at one end a vertical flange which enters the slot opening with the opportunity to interact with a protective casing, the other end plate of the dispenser is inserted into the elastic band, in a passive electrode pad made of silver and placed on an elastic substrate.



 

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